Port Authority of New York and New Jersey

The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ) is a joint venture between the U.S. states of New York and New Jersey, established in 1921 through an interstate compact authorized by the United States Congress. The Port Authority oversees much of the regional transportation infrastructure, including bridges, tunnels, airports, and seaports, within the geographical jurisdiction of the Port of New York and New Jersey. This 1,500-square-mile (3,900 km2) port district is generally encompassed within a 25-mile (40 km) radius of the Statue of Liberty National Monument.[1] The Port Authority is headquartered at 4 World Trade Center and is a member of the Real Estate Board of New York.[2]

The Port Authority operates the Port Newark–Elizabeth Marine Terminal, which handled the third-largest volume of shipping among all ports in the United States in 2004, and the largest on the Eastern Seaboard.[3] The Port Authority also operates six bi-state crossings: three connecting New Jersey with Manhattan, and three connecting New Jersey with Staten Island. The Port Authority Bus Terminal and the PATH rail system are also run by the Port Authority, as well as LaGuardia Airport, John F. Kennedy International Airport, Newark Liberty International Airport, Teterboro Airport and Stewart International Airport. The agency has its own 1,700-member Port Authority Police Department.[4]

Port Authority of New York and New Jersey
PortAuthorityofNYandNJ logo
Current logo
FormationApril 30, 1921
TypePort district
Headquarters4 World Trade Center, 150 Greenwich Street
Manhattan, New York City, New York, U.S. 10007
Region served
Port of New York and New Jersey
Executive Director
Rick Cotton
PortAuthorityofNYandNJ logo - old
Old logo

History

Holland tunnel toll booth
Tolls collected at the Holland Tunnel and other crossings help fund the Port Authority

The Port of New York and New Jersey comprised the main point of embarkation for U.S. troops and supplies sent to Europe during World War I, via the New York Port of Embarkation. The congestion at the port led experts to realize the need for a port authority to supervise the extremely complex system of bridges, highways, subways, and port facilities in the New York-New Jersey area. The solution was the 1921 creation of the Port Authority under the supervision of the governors of the two states. By issuing its own bonds, it was financially independent of either state; the bonds were paid off from tolls and fees, not from taxes. It became one of the major agencies of the metropolitan area for large-scale projects.[5] Early bond issues were tied to specific projects, but this changed in 1935 when the Authority issued General and Refunding bonds with a claim on its general revenues.[6]

Previous disputes

In the early years of the 20th century, there were disputes between the states of New Jersey and New York over rail freights and boundaries. At the time, rail lines terminated on the New Jersey side of the harbor, while ocean shipping was centered on Manhattan and Brooklyn. Freight had to be shipped across the Hudson River in barges.[7] In 1916, New Jersey launched a lawsuit against New York over issues of rail freight, with the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) issuing an order that the two states work together, subordinating their own interests to the public interest.[8] The Harbor Development Commission, a joint advisory board set-up in 1917, recommended that a bi-state authority be established to oversee efficient economic development of the port district.[9] The Port of New York Authority was established on April 30, 1921,[10] through an interstate compact between the states of New Jersey and New York. This was the first such agency in the United States, created under a provision in the Constitution of the United States permitting interstate compacts.[1][11] The idea for the Port Authority was conceived during the Progressive Era, which aimed at the reduction of political corruption and at increasing the efficiency of government. With the Port Authority at a distance from political pressures, it was able to carry longer-term infrastructure projects irrespective of the election cycles and in a more efficient manner.[12] In 1972 it was renamed the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey to better reflect its status as a partnership between the two states.[10]

Throughout its history, there have been concerns about democratic accountability, or lack thereof at the Port Authority.[12] The Port District is irregularly shaped but comprises a 1,500-square-mile (3,900 km2) area roughly within a 25-mile (40 km) radius of the Statue of Liberty.

Interstate crossings

George Washington Bridge, HAER NY-129-68
George Washington Bridge
PONYA Inland Term 1 jeh
111 Eighth Avenue, formerly the Inland Terminal Number One, in Manhattan (now owned by Google)

At the beginning of the 20th century, there were no road bridge or tunnel crossings between the two states. The initial tunnel crossings were completed privately by the Hudson and Manhattan Railroad in 1908 and 1909 ("Hudson Tubes"), followed by the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1910 ("North River Tunnels"). Under an independent agency, the Holland Tunnel was opened in 1927, with some planning and construction pre-dating the Port Authority. With the rise in automobile traffic, there was demand for more Hudson River crossings. Using its ability to issue bonds and collect revenue, the Port Authority has built and managed major infrastructure projects. Early projects included bridges across the Arthur Kill, which separates Staten Island from New Jersey.[10] The Goethals Bridge, named after chief engineer of the Panama Canal Commission General George Washington Goethals, connected Elizabeth, New Jersey and Howland Hook, Staten Island. At the south end of Arthur Kill, the Outerbridge Crossing was built and named after the Port Authority's first chairman, Eugenius Harvey Outerbridge.[13] Construction of both bridges was completed in 1928. The Bayonne Bridge, opened in 1931, was built across the Kill van Kull, connecting Staten Island with Bayonne, New Jersey.[14]

Construction began in 1927 on the George Washington Bridge, linking the northern part of Manhattan with Fort Lee, New Jersey, with Port Authority chief engineer, Othmar Ammann, overseeing the project.[10] The bridge was completed in October 1931, ahead of schedule and well under the estimated costs. This efficiency exhibited by the Port Authority impressed President Franklin D. Roosevelt, who used this as a model in creating the Tennessee Valley Authority and other such entities.[12]

In 1930, the Holland Tunnel was placed under control of the Port Authority, providing significant toll revenues.[14] During the late 1930s and early 1940s, the Lincoln Tunnel was built, connecting New Jersey and Midtown Manhattan.

In 1962, the bankrupt Hudson & Manhattan Railroad was absorbed by the Port Authority, who reorganized it as Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH) As part of the deal, the Port Authority acquired the rights to build the original World Trade Center on the site of the old Hudson Terminal, one of two terminals in Manhattan for H&M/PATH.

Austin J. Tobin era

Airport expansion

In 1942, Austin J. Tobin became the Executive Director of the Port Authority. In the post-World War II period, the Port Authority expanded its operations to include airports, and marine terminals, with projects including Newark Liberty International Airport and Port Newark-Elizabeth Marine Terminals. Meanwhile, the city-owned La Guardia Field was nearing capacity in 1939, and needed expensive upgrades and expansion. At the time, airports were operated as loss leaders, and the city was having difficulties maintaining the status quo, losing money and unable to undertake needed expansions.[15] The city was looking to hand the airports over to a public authority, possibly to Robert Moses' Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority. After long negotiations with the City of New York, a 50-year lease, commencing on May 31, 1947, went to the Port Authority of New York to rehabilitate, develop, and operate La Guardia Airport (La Guardia Field), John F. Kennedy International Airport (Idlewild Airport), and Floyd Bennett Field.[10][16] The Port Authority transformed the airports into fee-generating facilities, adding stores and restaurants.[15]

World Trade Center

David Rockefeller, president of Chase Manhattan Bank, who envisioned a World Trade Center for lower Manhattan, realizing he needed public funding in order to construct the massive project, approached Tobin. Although many questioned the Port Authority's entry into the real estate market, Tobin saw the project as a way to enhance the agency's power and prestige, and agreed to the project. The Port Authority was the overseer of the World Trade Center, hiring the architect Minoru Yamasaki and engineer Leslie Robertson.

Yamasaki ultimately settled on the idea of twin towers. To meet the Port Authority's requirement to build 10 million square feet (930,000 m2) of office space, the towers would each be 110 stories tall. The size of the project raised ire from the owner of the Empire State Building, which would lose its title of tallest building in the world.[14] Other critics objected to the idea of this much "subsidized" office space going on the open market, competing with the private sector. Others questioned the cost of the project, which in 1966 had risen to $575 million.[14] Final negotiations between The City of New York and the Port Authority centered on tax issues. A final agreement was made that the Port Authority would make annual payments in lieu of taxes, for the 40% of the World Trade Center leased to private tenants. The remaining space was to be occupied by state and federal government agencies. In 1962, the Port Authority signed the United States Customs Service as a tenant, and in 1964 they inked a deal with the State of New York to locate government offices at the World Trade Center.

In August 1968, construction on the World Trade Center's north tower started, with construction on the south tower beginning in January 1969.[17] When the World Trade Center twin towers were completed, the total cost to the Port Authority had reached $900 million.[18] The buildings were dedicated on April 4, 1973, with Tobin, who had retired the year before, absent from the ceremonies.[19]

In 1986, the Port Authority sold rights to the World Trade Center name for $10 to an organization run by an outgoing executive, Guy F. Tozzoli. He in turn made millions of dollars selling the use of the name in up to 28 different states.[20]

After the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, the Port Authority was sued by survivors of the attack for negligence in not making security upgrades to known flaws that could have prevented the attack. The Port Authority was ruled to be negligent.[21]

September 11 attacks

World Trade Center, New York City - aerial view (March 2001)
The PANYNJ had its headquarters in 1 World Trade Center (North Tower) (left)

The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the subsequent collapse of the World Trade Center buildings impacted the Port Authority. With the Port Authority's headquarters located in 1 World Trade Center, it became deprived of a base of operations and sustained a great number of casualties. An estimated 1,400 Port Authority employees worked in the World Trade Center.[22] Eighty-four employees, including 37 Port Authority police officers, its Executive Director, Neil D. Levin, and police superintendent, Fred V. Morrone, died.[23] In rescue efforts following the collapse, two Port Authority police officers, John McLoughlin and Will Jimeno, were pulled out alive after spending nearly 24 hours beneath 30 feet (9.1 m) of rubble.[24][25] Their rescue was later portrayed in the Oliver Stone film World Trade Center.

Fort Lee lane closure scandal

The Fort Lee lane closure scandal was a US political scandal that concerns New Jersey Governor Chris Christie's staff and his Port Authority political appointees conspiring to create a traffic jam in Fort Lee, New Jersey as political retribution, and their attempts to cover up these actions and suppress internal and public disclosures. Dedicated toll lanes for one of the Fort Lee entrances (used by local traffic from Fort Lee and surrounding communities) to the upper level on the George Washington Bridge, which connects to Manhattan, were reduced from three to one from September 9–13, 2013. The toll lane closures caused massive Fort Lee traffic back-ups, which affected public safety due to extensive delays by police and emergency service providers and disrupted schools due to the delayed arrivals of students and teachers. Two Port Authority officials (who were appointed by Christie and would later resign) claimed that reallocating two of the toll lanes from the local Fort Lee entrance to the major highways was due to a traffic study evaluating "traffic safety patterns" at the bridge, but the Executive Director of the Port Authority was unaware of a traffic study.[26][27][28]

As of March 2014, the repercussions and controversy surrounding these actions continue to be under investigation by the Port Authority, federal prosecutors, and a New Jersey legislature committee. The Port Authority's chairman, David Samson, who was appointed by Governor Christie, resigned on March 28, 2014 amid allegations of his involvement in the scandal and other controversies.[29]

Caren Turner scandal

In April 2018, Caren Turner resigned from the Board of Commissioners after an ethics investigation revealed that her attempt to intervene in a traffic stop for her daughter included what the Port Authority described as "profoundly disturbing" conduct. New Jersey police released videotape of her attempting to leverage her position at the Port Authority to intimidate police officers,[30][31] following a routine traffic stop of a vehicle in which her adult daughter was a passenger.[32][33] Her case was referred to New Jersey's Ethics Commission.[34]

Governance

The Port Authority is jointly controlled by the governors of New York and New Jersey, who appoint the members of the agency's Board of Commissioners and retain the right to veto the actions of the Commissioners from his or her own state.[35] Each governor appoints six members to the Board of Commissioners, who are subject to state senate confirmation and serve overlapping six-year terms without pay.[1] An Executive Director is appointed by the Board of Commissioners to deal with day-to-day operations and to execute the Port Authority's policies. Under an informal power-sharing agreement, the Governor of New Jersey chooses the Chairman of the board and the Deputy Executive Director, while the Governor of New York selects the Vice-Chairman and Executive Director.[36][37]

The Port Authority is headquartered at 4 World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan.[38] The agency was headquartered at 1 World Trade Center in the first World Trade Center complex,[39] where it occupied 22,411 square feet (2,082.1 m2) of space.[40] It had been headquartered in the WTC complex beginning in 1973. After the previous headquarters were destroyed in the September 11, 2001 attacks, the Port Authority moved into 225 Park Avenue South in Midtown Manhattan,[41] with employees divided between offices in New York and New Jersey,[42] before returning to the World Trade Center in 2015.[41]

After the September 11 attacks, a Security Committee was established with Commissioner David Mack as Chairman and Commissioner Bruce Blakeman as Vice Chairman to oversee the Port Authority Police Department, infrastructure security and Homeland Security for all Port Authority assets most of which are high terrorist targets.

The current Commissioners are:

New Jersey Commissioners

New York Commissioners

Meetings of the Board of Commissioners are public. Members of the public may address the Board at these meetings, subject to a prior registration process via email.[43] Public records of the Port Authority may be requested via the Office of the Secretary according to an internal Freedom of Information policy which is intended to be consistent with and similar to the state Freedom of Information policies of both New York and New Jersey.[44]

Members of the Board of Commissioners are typically business titans and political power brokers who maintain close relationships with their respective governors. On February 3, 2011, former New Jersey Attorney General David Samson was named the new chairman of the Port Authority by New Jersey Governor Chris Christie.[45] Gov. Christie announced Samson's resignation in March 2016, a casualty of investigations into the "Bridgegate" scandal.[46]

Financially, the Port Authority has no power to tax and does not receive tax money from any local or state governments. Instead, it operates on the revenues it makes from its rents, tolls, fees, and facilities.[47]

Patrick J. Foye became Executive Director on November 1, 2011. Prior to joining the Port Authority, he served as Deputy Secretary for Economic Development for Governor Andrew M. Cuomo.[48] In November 2016, Foye announced he would step down, though stay at the agency for 120 days to transition to new leadership.

List of Executive Directors

  • John E. Ramsey (CEO 1926–1930, general manager 1930–1942)[49]
  • Austin J. Tobin (1942–1972)[49]
  • Matthias Lukens (acting, 1972–1973)[50]
  • A. Gerdes Kuhbach (1973–1977; acting 1973 – August 1974)[50]
  • Peter C. Goldmark, Jr. (1977–1985)[49][51]
  • Patrick J. Falvey (acting, 1985)
  • Stephen Berger (1986–1990)[49]
  • Stanley Brezenoff (1990–1995)[49][52]
  • George Marlin (1995–1997)[49]
  • Robert E. Boyle (1997–2001)
  • Neil D. Levin (March 2001 – September 11, 2001)
  • Ronald H. Shiftan (September 11, 2001 – December 31, 2001)
  • Joseph J. Seymour (2002–2004)
  • Kenneth J. Ringler, Jr.[53] (2004–2006)
  • Anthony Shorris (2006–2008)
  • Christopher O. Ward (2008–2011)
  • Patrick J. Foye (2011–2017)
  • Rick Cotton (2017–present)

Facilities

Usports tonnage
The PANYNJ handles the third largest amount of American shipping, in tonnage, with only Houston and South Louisiana handling more.[3]
Line3174 - Shipping Containers at the terminal at Port Elizabeth, New Jersey - NOAA
Part of the A.P. Moller Container terminal at Port Elizabeth

The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey manages and maintains infrastructure critical to the New York/New Jersey region's trade and transportation network—five of the region's airports, the New York/New Jersey seaport, the PATH rail transit system, six tunnels and bridges between New York and New Jersey, the Port Authority Bus Terminal and George Washington Bridge Bus Station in Manhattan and The World Trade Center site.[54]

Seaports

The Port of New York and New Jersey is the largest port complex on the East Coast of North America. As of 2004, Port Authority seaports handle the third largest amount of shipping of all U.S. ports, as measured in tonnage.[3]

The Port Authority operates the following seaports:[54]

The Port Authority operates the ExpressRail rail services within the seaport area, including dockside trackage and railyards for transloading. It interchanges with Conrail Shared Assets Operations (CRCX) on the Chemical Coast Secondary, Norfolk Southern (NS), CSX Transportation (CSX), and Canadian Pacific (CP).[56][57] From January through October 2014 the system handled 391,596 rail lifts.[58] As of 2014, three ExpressRail systems (Elizabeth, Newark, Staten Island) were in operation with the construction of a fourth at Port Jersey underway.

The Port Authority operates New York New Jersey Rail, LLC (NYNJ), a switching and terminal railroad operating a car float operation across Upper New York Bay between the Greenville Yard in Jersey City and Brooklyn.

Airports

The Port Authority operates the following airports:[54]

Both Kennedy and LaGuardia airports are owned by the City of New York and leased to the Port Authority for operating purposes. Newark Liberty is owned by the cities of Elizabeth and Newark and also leased to the Authority. In 2007, Stewart International Airport, owned by the State of New York, was leased to the Port Authority. The Port Authority officially took over select management functions of the Atlantic City International Airport on July 1, 2013, in conjunction with the South Jersey Transportation Authority, which leases the airport site from the FAA.[59][60]

JFK, LaGuardia, and Newark Liberty as a whole form the largest airport system in the United States, second in the world in terms of passenger traffic, and first in the world by total flight operations, with JFK being the 19th busiest in the world and the 6th busiest in the U.S.

Heliports

The Authority operated the Downtown Manhattan Heliport (Manhattan, New York) until the lease expired in August 2007[61] but continued to operate it until the next leasee took over. The Authority had operated the other heliports in Manhattan but gave up leases for all of them over the years.

Bridges and tunnels

Other facilities managed by the Port Authority include the George Washington Bridge, the Lincoln Tunnel, and the Holland Tunnel, which all connect Manhattan and Northern New Jersey, and the Goethals Bridge, the Bayonne Bridge, and the Outerbridge Crossing, which connect Staten Island and New Jersey.[54]

Bus and rail transit

PATH Kawasaki 5602c
A PATH train bound for the World Trade Center

The Port Authority operates the PATH rapid transit system linking lower and midtown Manhattan with New Jersey, the AirTrain Newark system linking Newark International Airport with NJ Transit and Amtrak via a station on the Northeast Corridor rail line, and the AirTrain JFK system linking JFK with the Howard Beach subway station and the Jamaica subway and Long Island Rail Road stations.[54]

Major bus depots include the Port Authority Bus Terminal at 42nd Street, the George Washington Bridge Bus Station, and the Journal Square Transportation Center in Jersey City.[54]

The PANYNJ is a major stakeholder in the Gateway Program.[62] The program will upgrade the Northeast Corridor by building two new tunnels under the Hudson River paralleling the existing North River Tunnels, as well as connecting infrastructure.[63]

Real estate

The Port Authority also participates in joint development ventures around the region, including the Teleport business park on Staten Island, Bathgate Industrial Park in the Bronx, the Industrial Park at Elizabeth, the Essex County Resource Recovery Facility, Newark Legal Center, Queens West in Long Island City, and the South Waterfront in Hoboken.[54] However, by April 2015, the agency was considering divesting itself of the properties to raise run and return to core mission of supporting transportation infrastructure.[64]

Current and future projects

LowerManhattanSept2013
The newly constructed World Trade Center in 2013.
Oculus World Trade Center - August 18 2016
Inside of the World Trade Center Transportation Hub.

World Trade Center

Major projects by the Port Authority include the One World Trade Center and other construction at the World Trade Center site. Other projects include a new passenger terminal at JFK International Airport, and redevelopment of Newark Liberty International Airport's Terminal B, and replacement of the Goethals Bridge.[65] The Port Authority also has plans to buy 340 new PATH cars and begin major expansion of Stewart International Airport.[65]

As owner of the World Trade Center site, the Port Authority has worked since 2001 on plans for reconstruction of the site, along with Silverstein Properties, and the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation. In 2006, the Port Authority reached a deal with Larry Silverstein, which ceded control of One World Trade Center to the Port Authority.[66] The deal gave Silverstein rights to build three towers along the eastern side of the site, including 150 Greenwich Street, 175 Greenwich Street, and 200 Greenwich Street.[66] Also part of the plans was the World Trade Center Transportation Hub, which opened in March 2016 and replaced the temporary PATH station that opened in November 2003.[67]

Airports

The Port Authority is in the process of building a new terminal at Newark Airport to replace Terminal A, which is expected to be completed by 2022.[68] The new terminal started construction in June 2017 and will open in 2022.[69] The PATH's Newark–World Trade Center train route is planned to be extended from its terminus at Newark Penn Station to a new Newark Liberty International Airport Station. Construction on the PATH extension is planned to start in 2020, with completion projected for 2026.[70][71]

Another Port Authority project involves redeveloping LaGuardia Airport, replacing three existing terminals with a single terminal.[72] Terminal B would be demolished and terminals C and D would be merged.[73][74] Some 2 miles (3.2 km) of additional taxiways are to be built, and transportation around the terminals would be reorganized.[72] As part of the reconstruction, the AirTrain LGA people mover system would be built between the airport and Willets Point, Queens, where there would be connections to the Mets–Willets Point station on the Long Island Rail Road and the Mets–Willets Point station on the New York City Subway.[75] The redevelopment is expected to cost $7.6 billion in total. Construction started in 2016, and the first part of the new terminal is expected to open in 2021, with completion in 2026. The AirTrain would start construction in 2020 and be completed by 2022.[76]

The Port Authority is also planning to redevelop the entirety of John F. Kennedy International Airport, replacing four existing terminals with two new terminals at a cost of $11 billion. Roadway access, as well as train capacity on the AirTrain JFK, would be expanded.[77][78][79] If the plan is approved, construction is expected to begin in 2020. Under the plan, the first gates would open in 2023, and the project would be complete in 2025.[80][81]

Law enforcement

The Port Authority has its own police department. The department currently employs approximately 4,000 police officers and supervisors who have full police status in New York and New Jersey.[82]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c "2002 Annual Report" (PDF). Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ). 2003.
  2. ^ "Visit REBNY". www.rebny.com.
  3. ^ a b c "Tonnage for Selected U.S. Ports in 2004". U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Navigation Data Center. Archived from the original on June 14, 2006. Retrieved October 4, 2006. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  4. ^ "Port Authority Announces Police Promotions". Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ). November 6, 2003. Archived from the original on July 29, 2009. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  5. ^ Thomas C. Cochran, "The City's Business," in "Allan Nevins and John A. Krout, eds. The Greater City New York 1898–1948 (1948)
  6. ^ Fifteenth Annual Report, December 31, 1935 (PDF). Port of New York Authority. 1936. pp. 49–50. Retrieved September 9, 2019.
  7. ^ Rodrigue, Jean Paul (2004). "Chapter 4, Appropriate models of port governance Lessons from the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey". Shipping and Ports in the Twenty-first Century. Routledge.
  8. ^ Darton, Eric (1999). "Chapter 1". Divided We Stand: A Biography of New York's World Trade Center. Basic Books.
  9. ^ Revell, Keith D. (2000). "Cooperation, Capture, and Autonomy: The Interstate Commerce Commission and the Port Authority in the 1920s". Journal of Policy History. 12 (2): 177–214. doi:10.1353/jph.2000.0014.
  10. ^ a b c d e "History of the Port Authority". Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ). Archived from the original on September 29, 2006. Retrieved September 30, 2006.
  11. ^ Broun, Caroline N.; Buenger, Michael L.; McCabe, Michael H.; Masters, Richard L. (2006). The evolving use and the changing role of interstate compacts: a practitioner's guide (Google books preview). Chicago: American Bar Association. p. 368. ISBN 1-59031-643-6. Retrieved September 20, 2011.
  12. ^ a b c Doig, Jameson W. (2001). "Chapter 1". Empire on the Hudson. Columbia University Press.
  13. ^ "E. H. Outerbridge, Port Expert, Dies. Head of Export And Import Firm And Ex-Chairman of Port of New York Authority. Aided Major Harbor. Comprehensive Development Started in His Term Of Office twice. Chamber of Commerce Head". The New York Times. November 11, 1932. p. 19. Retrieved March 9, 2008. Eugenius H. Outerbridge, head of the firm of Harvey Outerbridge and former chairman of the Port of New York Authority, died yesterday in the New York ...
  14. ^ a b c d Gillespie, Angus K. (1999). "Chapter 1". Twin Towers: The Life of New York City's World Trade Center. Rutgers University Press.
  15. ^ a b Lander, Brad (August 2002). "Land Use". Gotham Gazette. Retrieved October 3, 2006.
  16. ^ "NAME OF IDLEWILD TO BE CITY AIRPORT; Cullman Proposes the Change and O'Dwyer Promises His Aid in Making Shift ADDED PRESTIGE OBJECT Port Authority Head Turns Over to Mayor the Releases From 17 Old Contracts". The New York Times. May 30, 1947. p. 23. Retrieved July 18, 2010.
  17. ^ "Timeline: World Trade Center chronology". PBS – American Experience. Retrieved September 30, 2006.
  18. ^ Cudahy, Brian J. (2002), Rails Under the Mighty Hudson (2nd ed.), New York: Fordham University Press, p. 56, ISBN 978-0-82890-257-1, OCLC 911046235
  19. ^ Darton, Eric (1999). "Chapter 6". Divided We Stand: A Biography of New York's World Trade Center. Basic Books.
  20. ^ "NY probes rights sale of World Trade Center name". Associated Press. October 7, 2013.
  21. ^ Hartocollis, Anemona (October 27, 2005). "Port Authority Found Negligent in 1993 Bombing". The New York Times. Retrieved June 9, 2017.
  22. ^ Kifner, John; Waldman, Amy (September 12, 2001). "A DAY OF TERROR: THE VICTIMS; Companies Scrambling to Find Those Who Survived, and Didn't". The New York Times. Retrieved July 18, 2010.
  23. ^ "2002 Annual Report" (PDF). Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 27, 2009. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  24. ^ Murphy, Dean E. (September 12, 2001). "A DAY OF TERROR: THE HOPES; Survivors Are Found In the Rubble". The New York Times. Retrieved July 18, 2010.
  25. ^ Filkins, Dexter (September 13, 2001). "AFTER THE ATTACKS: ALIVE; Entombed for a Day, Then Found". The New York Times. Retrieved July 18, 2010.
  26. ^ Mann, Ted; Haddon, Heather (September 17, 2013). "Bridge Jam's Cause a Mystery". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 10, 2014.
  27. ^ Baxter, Christopher. "UPDATED: Timeline of Port Authority's George Washington Bridge controversy". The Star-Ledger. Archived from the original on January 9, 2014. Retrieved January 11, 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  28. ^ Benen, Steve (December 16, 2013). "A Bridge to Somewhere". MSNBC. Retrieved December 16, 2013.
  29. ^ Santora, Marc (March 28, 2014). "Port Authority Chairman Resigns, Christie Announces". The New York Times. Retrieved March 28, 2014.
  30. ^ "Video shows Port Authority official who abruptly resigned cursing at officers". CBS News. Retrieved April 26, 2018. Turner said. "You may shut the f--- up and not tell me when I may take my kid and her friends, who are PhD students from MIT and Yale.
  31. ^ Ted Sherman (April 25, 2018). "Who is Caren Turner and why did she become the focus of a viral dashcam video?". The Star-Ledger. Retrieved April 26, 2018. She dropped the F-bomb. She belittled police officers. And she flashed her Port Authority commissioner's badge.
  32. ^ Ted Sherman (April 23, 2018). "Port Authority cites 'profoundly disturbing' conduct in resignation of commissioner". NorthJersey.com. Retrieved April 23, 2018.
  33. ^ "Video shows Port Authority commissioner telling cops: 'You may shut the f--- up!'". The Star-Ledger. Retrieved April 26, 2018.
  34. ^ Ted Sherman (April 27, 2018). "New video of Caren Turner at Tenafly police station surfaces. This time she didn't drop names". The Star-Ledger. Retrieved May 3, 2018. The matter was also referred to the state Ethics Commission.
  35. ^ "Governance – Corporate Information – Port Authority of New York and New Jersey". Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ). Retrieved March 29, 2014.
  36. ^ "The Port Authority Loses Its Way". The New York Times. February 17, 2014. Retrieved March 29, 2014.
  37. ^ "Christie probe report urges Port Authority revamp". The Wall Street Journal. Associated Press. March 27, 2014. Archived from the original on March 28, 2014. Retrieved March 29, 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  38. ^ "Contact Us." Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Retrieved on January 5, 2019. "The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey Corporate Offices 4 World Trade Center 150 Greenwich Street New York, NY 10007"
  39. ^ "About." Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. February 7, 2001. Retrieved on January 5, 2019. "Mailing Address: The Port Authority of New York & New Jersey 67 West # 1 World Trade Center New York, NY 10048"
  40. ^ "List of World Trade Center tenants Tower 1." CNN. Retrieved on January 6, 2019. "Tenant Port Authority of New York & New Jersey SF leased 22,411"
  41. ^ a b Dunlap, David W. (March 4, 2015). "With Newfound Modesty, Port Authority Returns to the World Trade Center". The New York Times. Retrieved January 5, 2019. After 14 years near Union Square, the agency's headquarters have returned to a spot at the World Trade Center, where they had been from 1973 until Sept. 11, 2001.[...]the interim board room at 225 Park Avenue South, at East 18th Street.
  42. ^ Lueck, Thomas J. (October 26, 2001). "For Now, Port Authority to Keep Offices Out of Lower Manhattan". The New York Times. Retrieved January 6, 2019.
  43. ^ "Board Information – Public Reporting – Corporate Information – Port Authority of New York & New Jersey". Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ). Archived from the original on July 28, 2012. Retrieved August 8, 2012. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  44. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 27, 2013. Retrieved March 16, 2012. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  45. ^ Namako, Tom (February 4, 2011). "PA Gets New Chairman". New York Post. Retrieved February 4, 2011.
  46. ^ Zernike, Kate (March 28, 2016). "Port Authority Official Is Out Amid Scandal Over Shut Lanes". The New York Times. Retrieved November 26, 2016.
  47. ^ "Governance". Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Archived from the original on July 14, 2008. Retrieved September 28, 2008.
  48. ^ "The Port Authority of New York & New Jersey – Leadership". Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ). Archived from the original on July 16, 2012. Retrieved August 8, 2012. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
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Further reading

  • Ballon, Hilary, Robert Moses and the Modern City: The Transformation of New York (NY: Norton, 2007).
  • Betts, Mary Beth. The New York waterfront: evolution and building culture of the port and harbor. (Ed. Kevin Bone. Monacelli Press, 1997)
  • Doig, Jameson W. Empire on the Hudson: Entrepreneurial vision and political power at the Port of New York Authority (Columbia University Press, 2013)
  • Doig, Jameson W. "Regional conflict in the New York metropolis: the legend of Robert Moses and the power of the Port Authority." Urban Studies 27.2 (1990): 201–232.
  • Doig, Jameson W. "Expertise, Politics, and Technological Change The Search for Mission at the Port of New York Authority." Journal of the American Planning Association 59.1 (1993): 31–44.
  • Jackson, Kenneth T. and Hillary Ballon, eds. Robert Moses and the Modern City: The Transformation of New York (W. W. Norton, 2007)
  • The Special Panel on the Future of the Port Authority for The Governors of New York and New Jersey (December 26, 2014). Keeping the region moving (PDF) (Report). Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ).

External links

Austin J. Tobin

Austin Joseph Tobin (May 25, 1903 – February 8, 1978) was an American businessman who served as the executive director of the Port of New York Authority, the precursor to the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, from 1942 until 1972.Tobin is widely known for authorizing the construction of the original World Trade Center, which was destroyed during the September 11 attacks in 2001.

Downtown Manhattan Heliport

The Downtown Manhattan Heliport (IATA: JRB, ICAO: KJRB, FAA LID: JRB) (Downtown Manhattan/Wall St. Heliport) is a helicopter landing platform at Pier 6 in the East River in Lower Manhattan, New York City, New York.

Essex County Resource Recovery Facility

The Essex County Resource Recovery Facility, also known as Covanta Essex, is a waste-to-energy incineration power station in Essex County, New Jersey, United States. Opened in 1990, it is owned by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ) and operated by Covanta Energy. It is located adjacent to the New Jersey Turnpike between Raymond Boulevard and the Passaic River in Newark.As of 2012, the facility processed 2,800 tons of municipal solid waste per day, its two generators producing approximately 65 megawatts of energy. The facility burns garbage from the 22 municipalities of Essex County and from New York City's Manhattan Community Board Districts 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12.As of January 1, 2013 the PANYNJ gave Covanta control of the facility through 2032, with optional extension to 2052. As part of the agreement the New York City Department of Sanitation will continue to use about 50% of the plant's disposal capacity. Convanta agreed to invest $75 to $100 million for operational improvements, including a modern particulate emissions control system and a new recycling system for ferrous and non-ferrous metals.In June 2013, a refuelling station for trucks using compressed natural gas (CNG) opened at the facility.

George Washington Bridge Bus Station

The George Washington Bridge Bus Station is a commuter bus terminal located at the east end of the George Washington Bridge in the Washington Heights area of Manhattan in New York City, New York. The bus station is owned and operated by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. On a typical weekday, approximately 20,000 passengers on about 1,000 buses use the station.The building, an example of 1960s urban renewal, has been described as a blight on its surrounding environment and "a brutal assault on the senses". Its upper-level bus ramps cross Fort Washington Avenue, blocking light and the view of the George Washington Bridge.

Major renovations, including an expansion of retail space from 30,000 to 120,000 square feet (3,000 to 11,000 m2), began in late 2013 and were expected to cost more than US$183 million. Although scheduled to be completed in early 2015, the renovated station reopened on May 16, 2017, two years behind schedule, $17 million over budget, and still unfinished.

Howland Hook Marine Terminal

The Howland Hook Marine Terminal is a container port facility in the Port of New York and New Jersey located at Howland Hook in northwestern Staten Island, New York City. It is situated on the east side of the Arthur Kill, at the entrance to Newark Bay, just north of the Goethals Bridge and Arthur Kill Vertical Lift Bridge.

Built by American Export Lines, the terminal was purchased in 1973 by New York City for $47.5 million. In 1985, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey leased the terminal from the City for a period of 38 years. The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey currently contracts Global Container to operate a container terminal on the site. The original facility is 187 acres (757,000 m²) in size, but it is undergoing expansion with the acquisition in 2001 of the adjacent 124 acre (502,000 m²) Port Ivory, a former shipping port operated by Procter & Gamble.The site originally housed a B & O coal dumper, which was completed in 1949. The facility had a capacity of 100 cars per eight-hour shift. The dumped coal was delivered via barge to utilities in the harbor. It was in the process of being dismantled by Summer 1965.The terminal operates a 3,012 feet (918 m) long wharf on the Arthur Kill, with three berths for container ships. The wharf depth is 45 feet (13.8 meters) for 1,200 feet, 41 feet (12.5 meters) for 1,100 feet, 35 feet (10.7 meters) for 700 feet. A fourth 1,340 feet (410 m) long berth with 50 feet (15 m) depth is planned on the old Port Ivory site. Facilities include container storage, deep-freeze, refrigeration and United States Customs Service inspection.

The facility is also used to transfer containerized municipal waste from barges to trains, handling roughly half of New York City's barged trash volume.The terminal includes an on-site seven-track ExpressRail intermodal facility that connects via the Arthur Kill Vertical Lift Bridge to New Jersey and the national rail network. Two tracks are used for transferring waste containers. The rail facility opened in mid-2007 and uses part of the once-abandoned North Shore Branch of the Staten Island Railway, which leads into the Arlington Yard, and the Travis branch, along the West Shore.

John J. Degnan

John J. Degnan (born October 6, 1944, West Orange, New Jersey) was the Attorney General of New Jersey from 1978 until 1981. He was vice chairman and chief operating officer of The Chubb Corporation until 2010, and Chairman of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ) from 2014 to 2017.

Kathleen Donovan

Kathleen A. Donovan (born 1952) is an American Republican Party politician, who served as County Executive of Bergen County, New Jersey. She previously served as County Clerk of Bergen County, New Jersey for four terms, and one term in the New Jersey General Assembly. Donovan unsuccessfully sought support to run for Bergen County Executive in the 2002 Republican primary, and lost a campaign for the 2006 Republican nomination for County Executive. She ran again for County Executive in 2010, where she defeated incumbent Dennis McNerney.

Lewis Eisenberg

Lewis Michael Eisenberg (born 1942) is an American financier and investor who is the United States Ambassador to Italy. He is known for co-founding and heading private equity firm Granite Capital International Group L.P. He has a multi-decade history in American political fundraising circles and has held a number of national, state, and bi-state appointments throughout his career, including serving as the Chairman of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey at the time of the September 11, 2001 attack of the World Trade Center, which the Port Authority operated.

In July 2017, Eisenberg was named as President Donald Trump's nominee to become the United States Ambassador to Italy. He was confirmed by the U.S. Senate on August 3, 2017.

New York New Jersey Rail

New York New Jersey Rail, LLC (reporting mark NYNJ) is a switching and terminal railroad that operates the only car float operation across Upper New York Bay between Jersey City, New Jersey and Brooklyn, New York. Since mid-November 2008, it has been owned by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, which acquired it for about $16 million as a step in a process that might see a Cross-Harbor Rail Tunnel completed.

Since freight trains are not allowed in Amtrak's North River Tunnels, and the Poughkeepsie Bridge was closed in 1974, the ferry is the only freight crossing of the Hudson River south of the Alfred H. Smith Memorial Bridge, 140 miles (230 km) to the north of New York City, in a process known as the Selkirk hurdle.

It is the last remaining car float operation in the Port of New York and New Jersey.

Newark Legal Center

The Newark Legal Center, also known as One Riverfront Center, is an office building in Newark, New Jersey located along the banks of the Passaic River and connected by a skywalk over Raymond Boulevard to Gateway Center and Penn Station. Originally developed by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, the twenty story tower contains condominium and rental office space geared to the legal profession.

Land between the tower and the riverfront in the shadow of the nearby Dock Bridge, maybe incorporated into a planned park.

Outerbridge Crossing

The Outerbridge Crossing, also known as the Outerbridge, is a cantilever bridge that spans the Arthur Kill between Perth Amboy, New Jersey, and Staten Island, New York. It carries New York State Route 440 (NY 440) and New Jersey Route 440, with the two roads connecting at the state border near the bridge's center. The Outerbridge Crossing is one of three vehicular bridges connecting New Jersey with Staten Island, and like the others, is maintained and operated by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. The others are the Bayonne Bridge (also carrying Route 440), which connects Staten Island with Bayonne, and the Goethals Bridge (carrying Interstate 278 (I-278), which connects the island with Elizabeth).

Port Authority of New York and New Jersey Police Department

The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey Police Department, or Port Authority Police Department (PAPD), is a law enforcement agency in New York and New Jersey, the duties of which are to protect and to enforce state and city laws at all the facilities, owned or operated by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ), the bi-state agency running airports, seaports, and many bridges and tunnels within the Port of New York and New Jersey. Additionally, the PAPD is responsible for other PANYNJ properties including three bus terminals (the Port Authority Bus Terminal, the George Washington Bridge Bus Station and Journal Square Transportation Center), the World Trade Center in lower Manhattan, and the PATH train system. The PAPD is the largest transit-related police force in the United States.

Port Jersey

Port Jersey, officially the Port Jersey Port Authority Marine Terminal and referred to as the Port Jersey Marine Terminal, is an intermodal freight transport facility that includes a container terminal located on the Upper New York Bay in the Port of New York and New Jersey. The municipal border of the Hudson County cities of Jersey City and Bayonne runs along the long pier extending into the bay.The facility was created in the between 1972 and 1976 and acquired by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey in July 2010. Its major tenant is GCT Bayonne, a post-panamax shipping facility operated by Global Container Terminals.Modernization brought to GCT Bayonne has been multifaceted. In May 2013 a 900 foot berth extension was completed, increasing the total dock face to 2,700 feet of contiguous berth, allowing the facility to handle the latest Suez Max vessels. https://www.ajot.com/premium/ajot-gct-bayonne-mixing-things-up-in-ny-nj

Much of Port Jersey is part of United States Foreign-Trade Zone 49. Most of the area in and around the facility is restricted, though a walkway along its northern side is accessible to the general public and may eventually connect with the Hudson River Waterfront Walkway. A very small bird sanctuary (specifically for the least tern) is also located on the promenade.

Port Newark–Elizabeth Marine Terminal

Port Newark–Elizabeth Marine Terminal, a major component of the Port of New York and New Jersey, is the principal container ship facility for goods entering and leaving New York metropolitan area and the northeastern quadrant of North America. Located on Newark Bay, the facility is run by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Its two components—Port Newark and the Elizabeth Marine Terminal (sometimes called "Port Newark" and "Port Elizabeth")—sit side by side within the cities of Newark and Elizabeth, New Jersey, just east of the New Jersey Turnpike and Newark Liberty International Airport.

Queens West

Queens West is a district and redevelopment project along the East River south of the Anable Basin on Hunter's Point in the Long Island City neighborhood of Queens, New York City. Queens West is a joint project sponsored by the Port Authority of New York & New Jersey (PANYNJ) and the Empire State Development Corporation (ESD). The Queens West Development Corporation (QWDC), a subsidiary of ESD, was established in 1992 to facilitate implementation of the approved development plan.

Red Hook Container Terminal

The Red Hook Marine Terminal is an intermodal freight transport facility that includes a container terminal located on the Upper New York Bay in the Port of New York and New Jersey. The maritime facility in Red Hook section of Brooklyn, New York handles container ships and bulk cargo.

The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ) bought the piers in the 1950s when there was still much break bulk cargo activity in the port. The container terminal was built in the 1980s,There are two active container cranes along 2,080 feet berth, 3,140 feet of breakbulk berth space, two major bulk-handling yards, and approximately 400,000 square feet of warehouse. In October 2011 the PANYNJ took over operations at the site. In 2011, the terminal handled 110,000 containers. Red Hook Container Terminal LLC operates the terminal on the Port Authority's behalf in an agreement set to end in 2018. Nearly all labor on the terminal is supplied by Local 1814 of the International Longshoremans Association union.

Teleport (Staten Island)

The Teleport is a suburban-style 100-acre business park east of New York State Route 440 and west of the Bulls Head neighborhood of Staten Island in New York City. It includes five Class A office and specialized buildings totaling 700,000 square feet, as well as additional development-ready sites.The Teleport was developed in the mid-1980s by the government of New York City and the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ), which manages it under contract to the city, focusing on new technologies and offering high-speed voice, data and video services via satellite and fiber optic connectivity.In 2001 AT&T, the Teleport's biggest tenant, moved 4,000 employees out of two office buildings on the site. They were sold in 2009 to the Nicotra Group, LLC and renamed Corporate Commons, with a major tenant being the St Paul's School of Nursing.The New York City Economic Development Corporation and the PANYNJ retain control over the available development acreage.

Trans-Manhattan Expressway

The Trans-Manhattan Expressway is an east–west limited-access highway in New York City, in the United States. It traverses the northern end of the borough of Manhattan at one of its narrowest points, running for 0.8 miles (1.3 km) in a cut through Washington Heights. The highway connects the George Washington Bridge over the Hudson River to the Alexander Hamilton Bridge over the Harlem River. Designated Interstate 95 (I-95) and U.S. Route 1, approximately 280,000 vehicles traverse the highway on a daily average basis.Completed in 1960, the expressway is located below ground level, in an open cut; however, the George Washington Bridge Bus Station and the high-rise Bridge Apartments are built over the expressway, creating intermittent tunnels. It is maintained by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey.Although the highway is aligned compass east-west, it carries the north-south routings of I-95 and US 1. The westbound lanes carry southbound route designations, while the eastbound lanes carry northbound route designations.

Westfield World Trade Center

Westfield World Trade Center is a shopping center at the World Trade Center complex in Manhattan, New York, that is operated and managed by Unibail-Rodamco-Westfield. The mall opened on August 16, 2016 as the largest shopping complex in Manhattan, with 125 retail spaces. It replaces the Mall at the World Trade Center, the underground shopping mall under the original World Trade Center, which was destroyed on September 11, 2001.

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