Dr.-Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG, usually shortened to Porsche AG (German pronunciation: [ˈpɔɐ̯ʃə] (listen); see below), is a German automobile manufacturer specializing in high-performance sports cars, SUVs and sedans. Porsche AG is headquartered in Stuttgart, and is owned by Volkswagen AG, which is itself majority-owned by Porsche Automobil Holding SE. Porsche's current lineup includes the 718 Boxster/Cayman, 911, Panamera, Macan and Cayenne.
|Dr.-Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG|
|Founded||1931 in Stuttgart, Germany|
|Headquarters||Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, Germany|
|Wolfgang Porsche, Chairman|
Oliver Blume, CEO
|Services||Automotive financial services, engineering services, investment management|
|Revenue||€21.533 billion (2015 annual report)|
|€3.404 billion (2015 annual report)|
|€2.335 billion (2015 annual report)|
|Total assets||€29.143 billion (2015 annual report)|
|Total equity||€10.700 billion (2015 annual report)|
Number of employees
|24,481 (2015 annual report)|
|Subsidiaries||Mieschke Hofmann und Partner (81.8%)|
Porsche Consulting group
Ferdinand Porsche founded the company called "Dr. Ing. h. c. F. Porsche GmbH" in 1931, with main offices at Kronenstraße 24 in the centre of Stuttgart. Initially, the company offered motor vehicle development work and consulting, but did not build any cars under its own name. One of the first assignments the new company received was from the German government to design a car for the people, that is a "Volkswagen". This resulted in the Volkswagen Beetle, one of the most successful car designs of all time. The Porsche 64 was developed in 1939 using many components from the Beetle.
During World War II, Volkswagen production turned to the military version of the Volkswagen Beetle, the Kübelwagen, 52,000 produced, and Schwimmwagen, 15,584 produced. Porsche produced several designs for heavy tanks during the war, losing out to Henschel & Son in both contracts that ultimately led to the Tiger I and the Tiger II. However, not all this work was wasted, as the chassis Porsche designed for the Tiger I was used as the base for the Elefant tank destroyer. Porsche also developed the Maus super-heavy tank in the closing stages of the war, producing two prototypes.
At the end of World War II in 1945, the Volkswagen factory at KdF-Stadt fell to the British. Ferdinand lost his position as Chairman of the Board of Management of Volkswagen, and Ivan Hirst, a British Army Major, was put in charge of the factory. (In Wolfsburg, the Volkswagen company magazine dubbed him "The British Major who saved Volkswagen".) On 15 December of that year, Ferdinand was arrested for war crimes, but not tried. During his 20-month imprisonment, Ferdinand Porsche's son, Ferry Porsche, decided to build his own car, because he could not find an existing one that he wanted to buy. He also had to steer the company through some of its most difficult days until his father's release in August 1947. The first models of what was to become the 356 were built in a small sawmill in Gmünd, Austria. The prototype car was shown to German auto dealers, and when pre-orders reached a set threshold, production (with aluminium body) was begun by Porsche Konstruktionen GesmbH founded by Ferry and Louise. Many regard the 356 as the first Porsche simply because it was the first model sold by the fledgling company. After the production of 356 was taken over by the father's Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche GmbH in Stuttgart in 1950, Porsche commissioned a Zuffenhausen-based company, Reutter Karosserie, which had previously collaborated with the firm on Volkswagen Beetle prototypes, to produce the 356's steel body. In 1952, Porsche constructed an assembly plant (Werk 2) across the street from Reutter Karosserie; the main road in front of Werk 1, the oldest Porsche building, is now known as Porschestrasse. The 356 was road certified in 1948.
Porsche's company logo was based on the coat of arms of the Free People's State of Württemberg of former Weimar Germany, which had Stuttgart as its capital. (The same arms were used by Württemberg-Hohenzollern from 1945-1952, while Stuttgart during these years was the capital of adjacent Württemberg-Baden.) The arms of Stuttgart was placed in the middle as an inescutcheon, since the cars were made in Stuttgart. The heraldic symbols were combined with the texts "Porsche" and "Stuttgart", which shows that it is not a coat of arms since heraldic achievements never spell out the name of the armiger nor the armigers home town in the shield.
Württemberg-Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern became part of the present land of Baden-Württemberg in 1952 after the political consolidation of West Germany in 1949, and the old design of the arms of Württemberg now only lives on in the Porsche logo. On 30 January 1951, not long before the creation of Baden-Württemberg, Ferdinand Porsche died from complications following a stroke.
In post-war Germany, parts were generally in short supply, so the 356 automobile used components from the Volkswagen Beetle, including the engine case from its internal combustion engine, transmission, and several parts used in the suspension. The 356, however, had several evolutionary stages, A, B, and C, while in production, and most Volkswagen-sourced parts were replaced by Porsche-made parts. Beginning in 1954 the 356s engines started utilizing engine cases designed specifically for the 356. The sleek bodywork was designed by Erwin Komenda, who also had designed the body of the Beetle. Porsche's signature designs have, from the beginning, featured air-cooled rear-engine configurations (like the Beetle), rare for other car manufacturers, but producing automobiles that are very well balanced.
In 1964, after a fair amount of success in motor-racing with various models including the 550 Spyder, and with the 356 needing a major re-design, the company launched the Porsche 911: another air-cooled, rear-engined sports car, this time with a six-cylinder "boxer" engine. The team to lay out the body shell design was led by Ferry Porsche's eldest son, Ferdinand Alexander Porsche (F. A.). The design phase for the 911 caused internal problems with Erwin Komenda, who led the body design department until then. F. A. Porsche complained Komenda made unauthorized changes to the design. Company leader Ferry Porsche took his son's drawings to neighbouring chassis manufacturer Reuter. Reuter's workshop was later acquired by Porsche (so-called Werk 2). Afterward Reuter became a seat manufacturer, today known as Keiper-Recaro.
The design office gave sequential numbers to every project (See Porsche type numbers), but the designated 901 nomenclature contravened Peugeot's trademarks on all 'x0x' names, so it was adjusted to 911. Racing models adhered to the "correct" numbering sequence: 904, 906, 908. The 911 has become Porsche's most well-known and iconic model – successful on the race-track, in rallies, and in terms of road car sales. Far more than any other model, the Porsche brand is defined by the 911. It remains in production; however, after several generations of revision, current-model 911s share only the basic mechanical configuration of a rear-engined, six-cylinder coupé, and basic styling cues with the original car. A cost-reduced model with the same body, but with 356-derived four-cylinder engine, was sold as the 912.
In 1972, the company's legal form was changed from Kommanditgesellschaft (KG), or limited partnership, to Aktiengesellschaft (AG), or public limited company, because Ferry Porsche came to believe the scale of the company outgrew a "family operation", after learning about Soichiro Honda's "no family members in the company" policy at Honda. This led to the establishment of an Executive Board with members from outside the Porsche family, and a Supervisory Board consisting largely of family members. With this change, most family members in the operation of the company, including F. A. Porsche and Ferdinand Piëch, departed from the company.
F. A. Porsche founded his own design company, Porsche Design, which is renowned for exclusive sunglasses, watches, furniture, and many other luxury articles. Louise's son and Ferry's nephew Ferdinand Piëch, who was responsible for mechanical development of Porsche's production and racing cars (including the very successful 911, 908 and 917 models), formed his own engineering bureau, and developed a five-cylinder-inline diesel engine for Mercedes-Benz. A short time later he moved to Audi (used to be a division, then a subsidiary, of Volkswagen), and pursued his career through the entire company, ultimately becoming the Chairman of Volkswagen Group.
The first Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of Porsche AG was Dr. Ernst Fuhrmann, who had been working in the company's engine development division. Fuhrmann was responsible for the so-called Fuhrmann-engine, used in the 356 Carrera models as well as the 550 Spyder, having four overhead camshafts instead of a central camshaft with pushrods, as in the Volkswagen-derived serial engines. He planned to cease the 911 during the 1970s and replace it with the V8-front engined grand sportswagon 928. As we know today, the 911 outlived the 928 by far. Fuhrmann was replaced in the early 1980s by Peter W. Schutz, an American manager and self-proclaimed 911 aficionado. He was then replaced in 1988 by the former manager of German computer company Nixdorf Computer AG, Arno Bohn, who made some costly miscalculations that led to his dismissal soon after, along with that of the development director, Dr. Ulrich Bez, who was formerly responsible for BMW's Z1 model, and was CEO of Aston Martin from 2000 to 2013.
In 1990, Porsche drew up a memorandum of understanding with Toyota to learn and benefit from Japanese lean manufacturing methods. In 2004 it was reported that Toyota was assisting Porsche with hybrid technology.
Following the dismissal of Bohn, Heinz Branitzki, a longtime Porsche employee, was appointed as interim CEO. Branitzki served in that position until Wendelin Wiedeking became CEO in 1993. Wiedeking took over the chairmanship of the board at a time when Porsche appeared vulnerable to a takeover by a larger company. During his long tenure, Wiedeking transformed Porsche into a very efficient and profitable company.
Ferdinand Porsche's nephew, Ferdinand Piëch, was chairman and CEO of the Volkswagen Group from 1993 to 2002, and is chairman of the Volkswagen AG Supervisory Board since then. With 12.8 percent of the Porsche SE voting shares, he also remains the second largest individual shareholder of Porsche SE after his cousin, F. A. Porsche, which had 13.6 percent.
Porsche's 2002 introduction of the Cayenne also marked the unveiling of a new production facility in Leipzig, Saxony, which once accounted for nearly half of Porsche's annual output. In 2004, production of the 456 kilowatts (620 PS; 612 bhp) Carrera GT commenced in Leipzig, and at EUR 450,000 ($440,000 in the United States) it was the most expensive production model Porsche ever built.
In mid-2006, after years of the Boxster (and later the Cayenne) as the best selling Porsche in North America, the 911 regained its position as Porsche's best-seller in the region. The Cayenne and 911 have cycled as the top-selling model since. In Germany, the 911 outsells the Boxster/Cayman and Cayenne.
In May 2011, Porsche Cars North America announced plans to spend $80–$100 million, but will receive about $15 million in economic incentives to move their North American headquarters from Sandy Springs, a suburb of Atlanta, to Aerotropolis, Atlanta, a new mixed-use development on the site of the old Ford Hapeville plant adjacent to Atlanta's airport. Designed by architectural firm HOK, the headquarters will include a new office building and test track. The facility will be known by its new address, One Porsche Drive.
In October 2017, Porsche Cars North America announced the launch of introduced Porsche Passport, a new sports car and SUV subscription program. This new offering allows consumers to access Porsche vehicles through subscribing to the service, rather than owning or leasing a vehicle. The Porsche Passport service is available initially in Atlanta.
The company has always had a close relationship with, initially, the Volkswagen (VW) marque, and later, the Volkswagen Group (which also owns Audi AG), because the first Volkswagen Beetle was designed by Ferdinand Porsche.
The two companies collaborated in 1969 to make the VW-Porsche 914 and 914-6, whereby the 914-6 had a Porsche engine, and the 914 had a Volkswagen engine. Further collaboration in 1976 resulted in the Porsche 912E (US only) and the Porsche 924, which used many Audi components, and was built at Audi's Neckarsulm factory, which had been NSU's. Porsche 944s were also built there, although they used far fewer Volkswagen components. The Cayenne, introduced in 2002, shares its chassis with the Volkswagen Touareg and the Audi Q7, which is built at the Volkswagen Group factory in Bratislava, Slovakia.
Porsche SE was created in June 2007 by renaming the old Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG, and became a holding company for the families' stake in Porsche Zwischenholding GmbH (50.1%) (which in turn held 100% of the old Porsche AG) and Volkswagen AG (50.7%). At the same time, the new Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG (Porsche AG) was created for the car manufacturing business.
In August 2009, Porsche SE and Volkswagen AG reached an agreement that the car manufacturing operations of the two companies would merge in 2011, to form an "Integrated Automotive Group". The management of Volkswagen AG agreed to 50.76% of Volkswagen AG being owned by Porsche SE in return for Volkswagen AG management taking Porsche SE management positions (in order for Volkswagen management to remain in control), and for Volkswagen AG acquiring ownership of Porsche AG.
As of the end of 2015, the 52.2% control interest in VW AG is the predominant investment by Porsche SE, and Volkswagen AG in turn controls brands and companies such as Volkswagen, Audi, SEAT, Škoda, Bentley, Bugatti, Lamborghini, Porsche AG, Ducati, VW Commercial Vehicles, Scania, MAN, as well as Volkswagen Financial Services.
Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG (which stands for Doktor Ingenieur honoris causa Ferdinand Porsche Aktiengesellschaft), as a 100% subsidiary of VW AG, is responsible for the actual production and manufacture of the Porsche automobile line. The company currently produces Porsche 911, Boxster and Cayman sports cars, the Cayenne and Macan sport utility vehicles and the four-door Panamera.
Porsche AG has a 29% share in German engineering and design consultancy Bertrandt AG and 81.8% of Mieschke Hofmann und Partner. In 2018, Porsche acquired a 10% minority shareholding stake of the Croatian electric sportscar manufacturer Rimac Automobili to form a development partnership.
Wholly owned subsidiaries of Porsche AG include Porsche Consulting GmbH.
The headquarters and main factory are located in Zuffenhausen, a district in Stuttgart, but the Cayenne and Panamera models are manufactured in Leipzig, Germany, and parts for the SUV are also assembled in the Volkswagen Touareg factory in Bratislava, Slovakia. Boxster and Cayman production was outsourced to Valmet Automotive in Finland from 1997 to 2011, and in 2012 production moved to Germany.
In 2015, Porsche reported selling a total of 218,983 cars, 28,953 (13.22%) as domestic German sales, and 190,030 (86.78%) internationally.
The company has been highly successful in recent times, and indeed claims to have the highest profit per unit sold of any car company in the world. Table of profits (in millions of euros) and number of cars produced. Figures from 2008/9 onwards were not reported as part of Porsche SE.
On May 11, 2017, Porsche built the one millionth 911. An Irish green Carrera S was built for the celebration, and it will be taken on a global tour before becoming a permanent exhibit at the Porsche Museum in Stuttgart.
|Year ending||Revenue||Pre-tax profit||Production||Sales|
|31 July 2002||€4,857m||€829m||55,050||54,234|
|31 July 2003||€5,583m||€933m||73,284||66,803|
|31 July 2004||€6,148m||€1,137m||81,531||76,827|
|31 July 2005||€6,574m||€1,238m||90,954||88,379|
|31 July 2006||€7,273m||€2,110m||102,602||96,794|
|31 July 2007||€7,368m||€5,857m||101,844||97,515|
|31 July 2008||€7,466m||€8,569m||105,162||98,652|
|31 July 2009||€?m||€-2,559m||76,739||75,238|
|31 July 2010||€7.79b||N/A||89,123||81,850|
|31 December 2010||€9.23b||€1.67b||N/A||97,273|
|31 December 2011||€10.9b||€2.05b||127,793||116,978|
|31 December 2012||€13.9b||€2.44b||151,999||143,096|
|31 December 2013||€14.3b||€2.78b||165,808||162,145|
|31 December 2014||€17.2b||€3.06b||203,097||187,208|
|31 December 2015||€21.5b||€3.382b||234,497||225,121|
Of the 246,375 cars produced in the 2017 financial year, 32,197 were 911 models, 25,114 were Boxster and Cayman cars, 63,913 were Cayennes, 27,942 were Panameras and 97,202 were Macans.
Porsche set a record for a U.S. sales month in November 2016, with over 5,500 sales, well on-pace to its best year ever.
|units||% of total||units||% of total||units||% of total|
|911 (996)||9,935 ( 18%)||33%||10,227 ( 3%)||31%||10,653 ( 4%)||31%|
|Boxster||6,432 ( 38%)||21%||3,728 ( 42%)||11%||8,327 ( 123%)||25%|
|Cayenne||13,661||45%||19,134 ( 40%)||57%||14,524 ( 24%)||43%|
|total||30,028 ( 33%)||33,289 ( 11%)||33,859 ( 2%)|
|units||% of total||units||% of total||units||% of total|
|911 (997)||12,702 ( 19%)||35%||13,153 ( 4%)||36%||8,324 ( 37%)||30%|
|Boxster||4,850 ( 42%)||14%||3,904 ( 24%)||11%||2,982 ( 24%)||11%|
|Cayman||7,313||20%||6,249 ( 17%)||17%||3,513 ( 44%)||13%|
|Cayenne||11,141 ( 23%)||31%||13,370 ( 20%)||36%||12,898 ( 4%)||46%|
|total||36,095 ( 7%)||36,680 ( 2%)||27,717 ( 24%)|
|units||% of total||units||% of total||units||% of total|
|911 (997)||6,839 ( 17.8%)||35.00%||5,735 ( 16.1%)||22.65%||6,016 ( 5.0%)||20.72%|
|Boxster&Cayman||3,875 ( 39.4%)||19.00%||3,499 ( 9.3%)||13.84%||3,150 ( 9.02%)||10.86%|
|Panamera||1,247||6.33%||7,741 ( 520.8%)||30.57%||6,879 ( 11.13%)||23.70%|
|Cayenne||7,735 ( 31.0%)||39.27%||8,343 ( 7.9%)||32.94%||12,978 ( 55.55%)||44.72%|
|total||19,696 ( 24.3%)||25,320 ( 28.6%)||29,023 ( 15%)|
|units||% of total||units||% of total||units||% of total|
|Boxster & Cayman||3,356||9.58%||7,953||18.79%||7,292||15.51%|
|total||35,043 ( 21%)||42,323 ( 21%)||47,007 ( 11%)|
|units||% of total||units||% of total||units||% of total|
|Boxster & Cayman||6,663||12.87%||6,260||11.53%|
|total||51,756 ( 10.1%)||54,280 ( 4.8%)|
The current Porsche model range includes sports cars from the Boxster roadster to their most famous product, the 911. The Cayman is a coupé otherwise similar to the Boxster. The Cayenne is Porsche's mid-size luxury sport utility vehicle (SUV). A high performance luxury saloon/sedan, the Panamera, was launched in 2009.
In 2010 Porsche launched the Cayenne S Hybrid and announced the Panamera S Hybrid, and launched the Porsche 918 hypercar in 2014, which also features a hybrid system. Also a plug-in hybrid model called the Panamera S E-Hybrid was released in October 2013 in the United States and during the fourth quarter of 2013 in several European countries.
Porsche developed a prototype electric Porsche Boxster called the Boxster E in 2011 and a hybrid version of the 911 called the GT3 R Hybrid, developed with Williams Grand Prix Engineering in 2010.
In July 2014 Porsche announced the launch by the end of 2014 of the Porsche Cayenne S E-Hybrid a plug-in hybrid, which will displace the Cayenne S Hybrid from the line up. The S E-Hybrid will be the first plug-in hybrid in the premium SUV segment and will allow Porsche to become the first automaker with three production plug-in hybrid models.
In July 2017, Porsche installed its first 350 kW, 800V charging station, which the upcoming Porsche Mission E will use. As of 2017, the Porsche charging station is the fastest electric vehicle charging station in the world, being able to charge a Porsche Mission E up to 80% within 15 minutes. Porsche is also currently working with other manufacturers to make Porsche charging stations compatible with other electric vehicles.
In August 2018, Porsche announced that the formerly named Mission E electric car will be named "Taycan" meaning 'leaping horse'. The prototype electric car is expected to be revealed in 2019 after its completion.
See Porsche PFM 3200.
Porsche has a record 19 outright wins at the 24 Hours of Le Mans. Porsche is currently the world's largest race car manufacturer. In 2006, Porsche built 195 race cars for various international motor sports events. In 2007, Porsche is expected to construct no fewer than 275 dedicated race cars (7 RS Spyder LMP2 prototypes, 37 GT2 spec 911 GT3-RSRs, and 231 911 GT3 Cup vehicles).
In keeping with the family name of founder Ferdinand Porsche, the company's name is pronounced [ˈpɔɐ̯ʃə] in German, which corresponds to /ˈpɔːrʃə/ (listen) PORSH-ə in English, homophonous with the feminine name Portia. However, in English it is often pronounced as a single syllable /pɔːrʃ/ (listen) PORSH—without a final /ə/. In German orthography, word-final ⟨e⟩ is not silent but is instead an unstressed schwa.
In a survey conducted by the Luxury Institute in New York, Porsche was awarded the title of "the most prestigious automobile brand". Five hundred households with a gross annual income of at least $200,000 and a net worth of at least $720,000 participated.
In 2015, US News ranked the Macan as the best luxury compact SUV in its class.
A Canadian study in 2011 revealed that 97.4 percent of Porsches from the last 25 years are still on the road.
Porsche's 911 has been officially named by the Technischer Überwachungsverein (Technical Inspection Association) as Germany's most reliable car.
A dual-clutch transmission (DCT) (sometimes referred to as a twin-clutch transmission or double-clutch transmission) is an automated automotive transmission, closely related to a manual transmission. It uses two separate clutches for odd and even gear sets. It can fundamentally be described as two separate manual transmissions with their respective clutches contained within one housing, and working as one unit. Although usually operated in a fully automatic mode, many also have the ability to allow the driver to manually shift gears in semi-automatic mode, albeit still using the transmission's electrohydraulics.Ferdinand Porsche
Ferdinand Porsche (3 September 1875 – 30 January 1951) was an Austrian automotive engineer and founder of the Porsche car company. He is best known for creating the first gasoline-electric hybrid vehicle (Lohner-Porsche), the Volkswagen Beetle, the Mercedes-Benz SS/SSK, several other important developments and Porsche automobiles.
An important contributor to the German war effort during World War II, Porsche was involved in the production of advanced tanks such as the VK 4501 (P), Tiger I, Tiger II, Elefant, and Panzer VIII Maus, as well as other weapon systems, including the V-1 flying bomb. Porsche was a member of the Nazi Party. He was a recipient of the German National Prize for Art and Science, the SS-Ehrenring and the War Merit Cross, and was called the "Great German Engineer" by Nazi officials.Porsche was inducted into the International Motorsports Hall of Fame in 1996 and won the Car Engineer of the Century award in 1999.List of Nürburgring Nordschleife lap times
This is a list of lap times achieved by various vehicles on the Nürburgring (Nordschleife). The list itself is broken down into categories.Patrick Dempsey
Patrick Galen Dempsey (born January 13, 1966) is an American actor and race car driver, best known for his role as neurosurgeon Derek "McDreamy" Shepherd in Grey's Anatomy, starring with Ellen Pompeo (Dr. Meredith Grey). He saw early success as an actor, starring in a number of films in the 1980s, including Can't Buy Me Love (1987) and Loverboy (1989). In the 1990s, he mostly appeared in smaller roles in film, such as Outbreak (1995) and television, before landing a lead role in Sweet Home Alabama (2002), a surprise box office hit. He has since starred in other films, including Enchanted (2007), Made of Honor (2008), Valentine's Day (2010), Flypaper (2011), Freedom Writers (2007), Transformers: Dark of the Moon (2011), and Bridget Jones's Baby (2016).
Also possible appearance in Twin Peaks (season 2 episode 20 13:46 and episode 21). No lines.
Dempsey, who maintains a sports car and vintage car collection, also enjoys auto racing in his spare time. He has competed in pro-am events such as the 24 Hours of Le Mans, Rolex 24 at Daytona sports car race and Ensenada SCORE Baja 1000 off-road race. Prior to the 2013 24 Hours of Le Mans, Dempsey declared that he would "walk away" from acting if he could and dedicate himself full-time to motorsports.Porsche 356
The Porsche 356 is a sports car which was first produced by Austrian company Porsche Konstruktionen GesmbH (1948–1949), and then by German company Dr. Ing. h. c. F. Porsche GmbH (1950–1965). It was Porsche's first production automobile. Earlier cars designed by the Austrian company include Cisitalia Grand Prix race car, the Volkswagen Beetle, and Auto Union Grand Prix cars.
The 356 is a lightweight and nimble-handling, rear-engine, rear-wheel drive, two-door available both in hardtop coupé and open configurations. Engineering innovations continued during the years of manufacture, contributing to its motorsports success and popularity. Production started in 1948 at Gmünd, Austria, where approximately 50 cars were built. In 1950 the factory relocated to Zuffenhausen, Germany, and general production of the 356 continued until April 1965, well after the replacement model 911 made its autumn 1963 debut. Of the 76,000 originally produced, approximately half survive.The original price in 1948 for the 356 coupe was US$3,750. The 356 cabriolet cost US$4,250.Porsche 911
The Porsche 911 (pronounced Nine Eleven or in German: Neunelfer) is a two-door, 2+2 high performance rear-engined sports car made since 1963 by Porsche AG of Stuttgart, Germany. It has a rear-mounted flat-six engine and all round independent suspension. It has undergone continuous development, though the basic concept has remained unchanged. The engines were air-cooled until the introduction of the Type 996 in 1998, with the 993, produced from 1994–1998 model years, being the last of the air-cooled Porsche sports cars.The 911 has been modified by private teams and by the factory itself for racing, rallying, and other forms of automotive competition. It is among the most successful competition cars. In the mid-1970s, naturally aspirated the 911 Carrera RSR won major world championship sports car races, such as Targa Florio and 24 Hours of Daytona, even against prototypes. The 911-derived 935 turbo also won the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1979 and Porsche won World Championship for Makes titles in 1976, 1977, 1978 and 1979 with 911-derived models.
In the 1999 international poll to determine the Car of the Century, the 911 came fifth. It is one of two in the top five that had remained continuously in production (the original Beetle remained in production until 2003), and was until 1998 a successful surviving application of the air- (now water-) cooled opposed rear-engine layout pioneered by its ancestor, the Porsche 356. It is one of the oldest sports coupé nameplates still in production with one million manufactured as of May 2017.Porsche 911 GT2
The Porsche 911 GT2 is a high-performance sports car built by the German automobile manufacturer Porsche from 1993 to 2009, and then since 2010 as the GT2 RS. It is based on the 911 Turbo, and uses a similar twin-turbocharged engine, but features numerous upgrades, including engine upgrades, larger brakes, and stiffer suspension calibration. The GT2 is significantly lighter than the Turbo due to its use of rear-wheel-drive instead of all-wheel-drive system and the reduction or removal of interior components. As a result, the GT2 (now GT2 RS) is the most expensive and fastest model among the 911 lineup.Porsche 911 GT3
The Porsche 911 GT3 is a high performance version of the Porsche 911 sports car primarily intended for racing. It is a line of high-performance models, which began with the 1973 911 Carrera RS. The GT3, introduced in 1999, is named after the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) Group GT3 class, in which it was designed to compete.
A number of variations, designed for road and track duty, have been introduced since its launch in 1999. More than 14,000 cars have been produced.
The GT3 has had a successful racing career in the one-make national and regional Porsche Carrera Cup and GT3 Cup Challenge series, as well as the international Porsche Supercup supporting the FIA Formula 1 World Championship. It has won championship and endurance races, including the GT class of the American Le Mans Series seven times, first overall in the 24 Hours of Daytona, and first overall at the 24 Hours Nürburgring six times.Porsche 918 Spyder
The Porsche 918 Spyder is a mid-engined plug-in hybrid sports car manufactured by German automobile manufacturer Porsche. The Spyder is powered by a naturally aspirated 4.6 L (4,593 cc) V8 engine, developing 608 PS (447 kW; 600 bhp) at 8700 rpm, with two electric motors delivering an additional 210 kW (286 PS; 282 bhp) for a combined output of 887 PS (652 kW; 875 bhp) and 1,280 N⋅m (944 lbf⋅ft) of torque. The 918 Spyder's 6.8 kWh lithium-ion battery pack delivers an all-electric range of 19 km (12 mi) under the US Environmental Protection Agency's five-cycle tests.Production began on September 18, 2013, with deliveries initially scheduled to begin in December 2013, and a starting price of ~ €611,000 (US$845,000 or GB£511,000). The 918 Spyder was sold out in December 2014 and production ended in June 2015.The 918 Spyder was first shown as a concept at the 80th Geneva Motor Show in March 2010. On July 28, 2010, after 2,000 declarations of interest, the supervisory board of Porsche AG approved series development of the 918 Spyder. The production version was unveiled at the September 2013 Frankfurt Motor Show. Porsche also unveiled the RSR racing variant of the 918 at the 2011 North American International Auto Show, which combines hybrid technology first used in the 997 GT3 R Hybrid, with styling from the 918 Spyder. The 918 Spyder was the second plug-in hybrid car from Porsche, after the 2014 Panamera S E-Hybrid.Porsche 935
The Porsche 935 was a race car developed and manufactured by German automaker Porsche. Introduced in 1976 as the factory racing version of the 911 (930) Turbo and prepared for FIA-Group 5 rules, it was an evolution of the Carrera RSR 2.1 turbo prototype, the second place overall finisher in the 1974 24 Hours of Le Mans.
Beginning with the 1977 season, Porsche offered the 935 to customers entering the World Championship for Makes, in the IMSA GT Championship and in the German Deutsche Rennsport Meisterschaft (DRM). The 935 went on to win the 1979 24 Hours of Le Mans overall, and other major endurance races, including Sebring, Daytona, and the 1,000 km Nürburgring. Of the 370 races it was entered, it won 123.Usually, no other make could challenge the 935, due to the non-availability of customer models. Each race, at the time, typically featured at least five 935s. The 935 used a 3.3L Type 935 twin-turbocharged flat-six engine which used a mechanical fuel injection system. All of the high performance components combined enabled the engine to have a power output up to 630 kW (845 hp; 857 PS), the engine often produced turbo lag at low RPM due to the large turbochargers. The dominance of the 935 ended with changes in the FIA rules which came into effect in 1982, replacing the six numbered groups with only three groups, namely A, B and C.Porsche 944
The Porsche 944 is a sports car manufactured by German automobile manufacturer Porsche from 1982 to 1991. A front-engine, rear-wheel drive mid-level model based on the 924 platform, the 944 was available in coupé or cabriolet body styles, with either naturally aspirated or turbocharged engines.
The 944 was to continue production in the 1990s but major revisions planned for a 944 "S3" model eventually morphed into the 968, which became its replacement. Over 163,000 cars were produced in total, making it the most successful sports car in Porsche's history until the introductions of the Boxster and 997 Carrera.Porsche 962
The Porsche 962 (also known as the 962C in its Group C form) is a sports-prototype racing car built by Porsche as a replacement for the 956 and designed mainly to comply with IMSA's GTP regulations, although it would later compete in the European Group C formula as the 956 had. The 962 was introduced at the end of 1984, from which it quickly became successful through private owners while having a remarkably long-lived career, with some examples still proving competitive into the mid-1990s. The vehicle was later replaced by the Porsche WSC-95.Porsche 991
The Porsche 991 is the internal designation for the seventh generation of the Porsche 911 sports car, which was unveiled at the 2011 Frankfurt Motor Show on 15 September as the replacement for the 997. The 991 is an entirely new platform, only the third since the original 911 launched in 1963 (the 996 of 1999 was the second new platform).Porsche 997
Porsche 997 is the internal designation for the Porsche 911 sports car manufactured and sold by German manufacturer Porsche between 2004 (as Model Year 2005) and 2012. Production of the Carrera and Carrera S coupés began in early 2004, all-wheel drive Carrera 4 and Carrera 4S began to be delivered to customers in November 2005, the Turbo and GT3 derivatives went on sale in late 2006 and the GT2 in 2007. In addition to the coupé and cabriolet versions, Targa versions of the Carrera 4 and Carrera 4S were also available, which carry on with the "glass canopy" roof design used since its first application on the 993 until the 991, which reverted to the classic targa top layout used on the early 911 Targas.
The 997 was an evolution of the preceding 996, with the most significant changes being interior and exterior styling, the most notable being the replacement of the "fried egg" headlamps used on the 996 with the classic "bug eye" units. Larger 18-inch wheels were fitted as standard, and other engineering changes include slightly increased power; however, the car is technically very similar to its predecessor. A new S version was offered, with additional power from a slightly larger engine, sports suspension, and sports exhaust.
During 2009, Porsche updated the 997 line-up including styling changes, a revised engine with direct injection and the introduction of the company's new "PDK" dual clutch transmission. As a result, the updated 997 models were faster, lighter and more fuel efficient than the outgoing versions, with improved handling. In the case of the 997 Turbo, a comprehensively re-tuned all wheel drive system with an optional "torque vectoring" system was also a part of the upgrades package; in an October 2009 preliminary review, Car and Driver magazine estimated that when equipped with the PDK transmission, the updated Turbo should be capable of accelerating from 0–97 km/h (0–60 mph) in three seconds.
The 997 is the most commercially successful 911 of all time, having sold 100,000 units in the first phase alone between its introduction in 2005 and July 2007. It has also received mostly positive reviews from the worldwide motoring press; even British motoring journalist Jeremy Clarkson, a known detractor of Porsche cars, noted that the 997 will "make love to your fingertips and stir your soul."Porsche Boxster/Cayman
The Porsche Boxster and Porsche Cayman are mid-engined two-seater sports cars manufactured and marketed by German automobile manufacturer Porsche across four generations — as a 2-door, 2-passenger roadster (Boxster) and a 3-door, 2-passenger fastback coupé (Cayman).
The first generation Boxster was introduced in 1996; the second generation Boxster and the Cayman arrived in late 2005; and the third generation launched in 2012. Since the introduction of the fourth generation in 2016, the two models are marketed as the Porsche 718 Boxster and Porsche 718 Cayman.
The Boxster and Cayman have been manufactured in Stuttgart (Zuffenhausen), Germany (1996–present) as well as Uusikaupunki, Finland by Valmet (1997–2011) and Osnabrück, Germany (2012–present).
The nameplate Boxster is a portmanteau of boxer, a reference to its flat or boxer engine engine, and roadster, a reference to the body style. The nameplate Cayman is an alternative spelling of caiman, a reptile in the alligator family.Porsche Cayenne
The Porsche Cayenne is a mid-size luxury crossover sport utility vehicle produced by the German manufacturer Porsche since 2002, with North American sales beginning in 2003. It is the first V8-engined vehicle built by Porsche since 1995, when the Porsche 928 was discontinued. It is also Porsche's first off road variant vehicle since its Super and Junior tractors of the 1950s, and the first Porsche with four doors. Since 2008, all engines have featured direct injection technology.
The second-generation Cayenne (Type 92A) was unveiled at the 2010 Geneva Motor Show in March following an online reveal. The Cayenne shares its platform, body frame, doors and electronics with the similar Volkswagen Touareg and Audi Q7. The second generation received a facelift in 2014 with minor external changes, and introduced a new plug-in E-Hybrid version, with its public launch at the Paris Motor Show.Porsche Panamera
The Porsche Panamera is a full-sized luxury vehicle (F-segment in Europe) manufactured by the German automobile manufacturer Porsche. It is front-engined and has a rear-wheel-drive layout, with all-wheel drive versions also available. It is the only sedan manufactured by Porsche as part of its strategy of expanding its market.
The production version of the Porsche Panamera was unveiled at the 13th Auto Shanghai International Automobile Show in Shanghai, China, on April 2009. In 2011, hybrid and diesel versions were launched. In April 2013, a facelift to the Panamera was announced, making its debut again at the Shanghai Auto Show. A plug-in hybrid version, the Panamera S E-Hybrid, was released in the U.S. market in November 2013. The Panamera range received a re-design in 2016.Porsche in motorsport
Porsche has been successful in many branches of motorsport of which most have been in long distance races.
Despite their early involvement in motorsports being limited to supplying relatively small engines to racing underdogs up until the late 1960s, by the mid-1950s Porsche had already tasted moderate success in the realm of sports car racing, most notably in the Carrera Panamericana and Targa Florio, classic races which were later used in the naming of street cars. The Porsche 917 of 1969 turned them into a power house, winning in 1970 the first of over a dozen 24 Hours of Le Mans, more than any other company. With the 911 Carrera RS and the Porsche 935 Turbo, Porsche dominated the 1970s, and even has beaten sports prototypes, a category in which Porsche entered the successful 936, 956 and 962 models.
Porsche is currently the world's largest race car manufacturer. In 2006, Porsche built 195 race cars for various international motor sports events, and in 2007 Porsche is expected to construct no less than 275 dedicated race cars (7 RS Spyder LMP2 prototypes, 37 GT2 spec 911 GT3-RSRs, and 231 911 GT3 Cup vehicles).Porsche regards racing as an essential part of ongoing engineering development—it was traditionally very rare for factory-entered Porsche racing cars to appear at consecutive races in the same specification. Some aspect of the car almost invariably, was being developed, whether for the future race programs or as proof of concept for future road cars.Volkswagen Group
Volkswagen AG (German: [ˈfɔlksˌvaːgn̩]), known internationally as the Volkswagen Group, is a German multinational automotive manufacturing company headquartered in Wolfsburg, Lower Saxony, Germany and indirectly majority owned by the Austrian Porsche-Piëch family. It designs, manufactures and distributes passenger and commercial vehicles, motorcycles, engines, and turbomachinery and offers related services including financing, leasing and fleet management. In 2016, it was the world's largest automaker by sales, overtaking Toyota and keeping this title in 2017 and 2018, selling 10.8 million vehicles. It has maintained the largest market share in Europe for over two decades. It ranked seventh in the 2018 Fortune Global 500 list of the world's largest companies.
Volkswagen Group sells passenger cars under the Audi, Bentley, Bugatti, Lamborghini, Porsche, SEAT, Škoda and the flagship Volkswagen marques; motorcycles under the Ducati brand; and TRATON (commercial vehicles, trucks, and buses) under the marques MAN, Scania, and Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles. It is divided into two primary divisions, the Automotive Division and the Financial Services Division, and as of 2008 had approximately 342 subsidiary companies. Volkswagen also has two major joint-ventures in China (FAW-Volkswagen and SAIC Volkswagen). The company has operations in approximately 150 countries and operates 100 production facilities across 27 countries.
Volkswagen was founded in 1937, to manufacture the car which would become known as the Beetle. The company's production grew rapidly in the 1950s and 1960s, and in 1965 it acquired Auto Union, which subsequently produced the first post-war Audi models. Volkswagen launched a new generation of front-wheel drive vehicles in the 1970s, including the Passat, Polo and Golf; the latter became its bestseller. Volkswagen acquired a controlling stake in SEAT in 1986, making it the first non-German marque of the company, and acquired control of Škoda in 1994, of Bentley, Lamborghini and Bugatti in 1998, Scania in 2008 and of Ducati, MAN and Porsche in 2012. The company's operations in China have grown rapidly in the past decade with the country becoming its largest market. In June 2018, Volkswagen Trucks and Buses which comprises the MAN, Scania, and RIO truck brands are renamed to TRATON AG but the marques will not change, said by Andreas Renschler.
Volkswagen Aktiengesellschaft is a public company and has a primary listing on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange, where it is a constituent of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index, and secondary listings on the Luxembourg Stock Exchange, SIX Swiss Exchange. It has been traded in the United States via American depositary receipts since 1988, currently on the OTC Marketplace. Volkswagen delisted from the London Stock Exchange in 2013. The state of Lower Saxony holds 12.7% of the company's shares, granting it 20% of the voting rights.
A subsidiary of Volkswagen Group
marques & companies
|Engines and technologies|
Porsche road car timeline, 1948–1990s — next »
|Roadster & sports cars||912||912E||924||Boxster (986)|
|911||911 / 930||911 (964)||911 (993)||911 (996)|
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|Roadster & sports cars||Boxster (986)||Boxster (987)||Boxster (981)||718 Boxster (982)|
|Cayman (987)||Cayman (981)||718 Cayman (982)|
|911 (996)||911 (997)||911 (991)||911 (991.2)|
|Luxury||Panamera (970)||Panamera (971)|
|Supercar||Carrera GT (980)||918 Spyder|
|Cayenne (9PA)||Cayenne (92A)||Cayenne (9Y0)|