Pork

Pork is the culinary name for meat from a domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus). It is the most commonly consumed meat worldwide,[1] with evidence of pig husbandry dating back to 5000 BC.

Pork is eaten both freshly cooked and preserved. Curing extends the shelf life of the pork products. Ham, smoked pork, gammon, bacon and sausage are examples of preserved pork. Charcuterie is the branch of cooking devoted to prepared meat products, many from pork.

Pork is the most popular meat in Eastern and Southeastern Asia, and is also very common in the Western world, especially in Central Europe. It is highly prized in Asian cuisines for its fat content and pleasant texture. Consumption of pork is forbidden by Jewish, Muslim, and Rastafarian dietary law, for religious reasons, with several suggested possible causes.

Schweinebauch-2
Pork belly cut, shows layers of muscle and fats.
Roast Pig 1
Slow-roasting pig on a rotisserie.

History

1850 le depecage de porc par Louis Humbert de Molard 1847 1898
Pig being prepared in France during the mid-19th century.

Charcuterie is the branch of cooking devoted to prepared meat products such as bacon, ham, sausage, terrines, galantines, pâtés, and confit, primarily from pig.[2] Originally intended as a way to preserve meats before the advent of refrigeration, these preparations are prepared today for the flavors that are derived from the preservation processes.[3] In 15th century France, local guilds regulated tradesmen in the food production industry in each city. The guilds that produced charcuterie were those of the charcutiers. The members of this guild produced a traditional range of cooked or salted and dried meats, which varied, sometimes distinctively, from region to region. The only "raw" meat the charcutiers were allowed to sell was unrendered lard. The charcutier prepared numerous items, including pâtés, rillettes, sausages, bacon, trotters, and head cheese.

Before the mass production and re-engineering of pigs in the 20th century, pork in Europe and North America was traditionally an autumn dish—pigs and other livestock coming to the slaughter in the autumn after growing in the spring and fattening during the summer. Due to the seasonal nature of the meat in Western culinary history, apples (harvested in late summer and autumn) have been a staple pairing to fresh pork. The year-round availability of meat and fruits has not diminished the popularity of this combination on Western plates.[4]

Consumption patterns

Pork
A traditional Austrian pork dish, served with potato croquettes, vegetables, mushrooms and gravy.
Vindalho
Pork vindaloo, spicy pork curry from India.

Pigs are the most widely eaten animal in the world, accounting for about 38% of meat production worldwide. Consumption varies widely from place to place. The meat is taboo to eat in the Middle East and most of the Muslim world because of Jewish kosher and Islamic Halal dietary restrictions. But, pork is widely consumed in East and Southeast Asia, Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa, the Americas and Oceania. As the result, large numbers of pork recipes are developed throughout the world. Jamón is the most famous Spanish inlay, which is made with the front legs of a pig. Feijoada for example, the national dish of Brazil (also served in Portugal), is traditionally prepared with pork trimmings: ears, tail and feet.[5]

According to the USDA's Foreign Agricultural Service, nearly 100 million metric tons of pork were consumed worldwide in 2006 (preliminary data). Increasing urbanization and disposable income has led to a rapid rise in pork consumption in China, where 2006 consumption was 20% higher than in 2002, and a further 5% increase projected in 2007.[6] In 2015 recorded total 109.905 million metric tons of pork were consumed worldwide.[7]:18 By 2017, half the world's pork was consumed in China.[8]

Worldwide pork consumption

Country 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
 China 48,823 51,157 50,004 52,725 54,250 57,195 56,668 54,070
 EU 20,691 20,952 20,821 20,375 20,268 20,390 20,913 20,062
 United States 9,013 8,654 8,340 8,441 8,616 8,545 9,341 9,452
 Russia 2,719 2,835 2,971 3,145 3,090 3,024 3,016 3,160
 Brazil 2,423 2,577 2,644 2,670 2,771 2,845 2,893 2,811
 Japan 2,467 2,488 2,522 2,557 2,553 2,543 2,568 2,590
 Vietnam 2,071 2,072 2,113 2,160 2,205 2,408 2,456 2,506
 Mexico 1,770 1,784 1,710 1,850 1,945 1,991 2,176 2,270
 South Korea 1,480 1,539 1,487 1,546 1,598 1,660 1,813 1,868
 Philippines 1,356 1,418 1,432 1,446 1,533 1,551 1,544 1,659
 Ukraine 713 776 806 953 1,006
 Taiwan 925 901 919 906 892 875 930 897
 Canada 853 802 785 834 837
 Hong Kong 486 467 558 547 537
 Australia 464 482 482 511 528
 Chile 369 385 408 430 430
Others 3,615 3,756 3,932 4,022 4,183 6,869 6,587 6,656
Total 100,238 103,045 101,934 105,118 107,242 109,896 109,095 108,001
In metric tons ('000s), Source: USDA reports, 2009–2013 figures,[9]:16 2014–2016 figures[7]:18

Asian pork consumption

HK Sheung Wan Cafe de Coral lunch rice red barbecue pork meat green vegetable 10-Aug-2012
Red-colored charsiu is one of the popular ways to prepare pork in Southern China.

Pork is popular throughout eastern Asia and the Pacific, where whole roast pig is a popular item in Pacific Island cuisine. It is consumed in a great many ways and highly esteemed in Chinese cuisine.[10] Currently China is the world's largest pork consumer, with pork consumption expected to total 53 million tons in 2012, which accounts for more than half of global pork consumption.[11] In China, pork is preferred over beef for economic and aesthetic reasons; the pig is easy to feed and is not used for labour. Domestic pigs also feed on human waste, thus reducing cost of feeding and helping in recycling. The colours of the meat and the fat of pork are regarded as more appetizing, while the taste and smell are described as sweeter and cleaner. It is also considered easier to digest.[12] In rural tradition, pork is shared to celebrate important occasions and to form bonding. In China, pork is so important that the nation maintains a "strategic pork reserve".[13] Red braised pork (hong shao rou), a delicacy from Hunan Province, inspired Mao Zedong.[14] Other popular Chinese pork dishes are sweet and sour pork, bakkwa, and charsiu. In the Philippines, due to 300 years of Spanish colonization and influence, lechon, which is an entire roasted suckling pig, is the national delicacy.

Pork products

Smoked country style pork ribs
Smoked pork ribs.

Pork may be cooked from fresh meat or cured over time. Cured meat products include ham and bacon. The carcass may be used in many different ways for fresh meat cuts, with the popularity of certain cuts and certain carcass proportions varying worldwide.

Fresh meat

Most of the carcass can be used to produce fresh meat and in the case of a suckling pig, the whole body of a young pig ranging in age from two to six weeks is roasted. Danish roast pork or flæskesteg, prepared with crispy crackling is a national favourite as the traditional Christmas dinner.[15]

Processed pork

Meat Iridiscence
Smoked pork loin showing iridescence due to the fine arrangement of the muscle fibrils.
Pork loin ham 2
Ham is a popular pork product.

Pork is particularly common as an ingredient in sausages. Many traditional European sausages are made with pork, including chorizo, fuet, Cumberland sausage and salami. Many brands of American hot dogs and most breakfast sausages are made from pork. Processing of pork into sausages and other products in France is described as charcuterie.

Ham and bacon are made from fresh pork by curing with salt (pickling) or smoking. Shoulders and legs are most commonly cured in this manner for Picnic shoulder and ham, whereas streaky and round bacon come from the side (round from the loin and streaky from the belly).[16]

Ham and bacon are popular foods in the west, and their consumption has increased with industrialisation. Non-western cuisines also use preserved meat products. For example, salted preserved pork or red roasted pork is used in Chinese and Asian cuisine.

Bacon is defined as any of certain cuts of meat taken from the sides, belly or back that have been cured or smoked. In continental Europe, it is used primarily in cubes (lardons) as a cooking ingredient valued both as a source of fat and for its flavour. In Italy, besides being used in cooking, bacon (pancetta) is also served uncooked and thinly sliced as part of an antipasto. Bacon is also used for barding roasts, especially game birds. Bacon is often smoked with various wood fuels for up to ten hours. Bacon is eaten fried, baked, or grilled.

A side of unsliced bacon is a "flitch" or "slab bacon", while an individual slice of bacon is a "rasher" (Australia, Ireland, New Zealand and the United Kingdom) or simply a "slice" or "strip" (North America). Slices of bacon are also known as "collops". Traditionally, the skin is left on the cut and is known as "bacon rind". Rindless bacon, however, is quite common. In both Ireland and the United Kingdom, bacon comes in a wide variety of cuts and flavours, and is predominantly known as "streaky bacon", or "streaky rashers". Bacon made from the meat on the back of the pig is referred to as "back bacon" and is part of traditional full breakfast commonly eaten in Britain and Ireland. In the United States, back bacon may also be referred to as "Canadian-style Bacon" or "Canadian Bacon".[17]

The USDA defines bacon as "the cured belly of a swine carcass", while other cuts and characteristics must be separately qualified (e.g. "smoked pork loin bacon").[18] "USDA Certified" bacon means that it has been treated for Trichinella.

The canned meat Spam is made of chopped pork shoulder meat and ham.

Industrial raw material

Due to the fact that pigs can eat unused food originally meant for humans, and due to high availability of such food in many industrialized countries, pork and other products from pigs have become securely sourced and low-priced commodities. This makes pig products very popular as raw material in many industrially produced products. [19]

Nutrition

Pork, fresh, loin, whole,
separable lean and fat,
cooked, broiled
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy1,013 kJ (242 kcal)
0.00 g
Sugars0.00 g
Dietary fibre0.0 g
13.92 g
Saturated5.230 g
Monounsaturated6.190 g
Polyunsaturated1.200 g
27.32 g
Tryptophan0.338 g
Threonine1.234 g
Isoleucine1.260 g
Leucine2.177 g
Lysine2.446 g
Methionine0.712 g
Cystine0.344 g
Phenylalanine1.086 g
Tyrosine0.936 g
Valine1.473 g
Arginine1.723 g
Histidine1.067 g
Alanine1.603 g
Aspartic acid2.512 g
Glutamic acid4.215 g
Glycine1.409 g
Proline1.158 g
Serine1.128 g
VitaminsQuantity %DV
Vitamin B6
36%
0.464 mg
Vitamin B12
29%
0.70 μg
Choline
19%
93.9 mg
Vitamin C
1%
0.6 mg
Vitamin D
9%
53 IU
MineralsQuantity %DV
Calcium
2%
19 mg
Copper
4%
0.073 mg
Iron
7%
0.87 mg
Magnesium
8%
28 mg
Phosphorus
35%
246 mg
Potassium
9%
423 mg
Sodium
4%
62 mg
Zinc
25%
2.39 mg
Other constituentsQuantity
Water57.87 g
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Its myoglobin content is lower than that of beef, but much higher than that of chicken. The USDA treats pork as a red meat.[20] Pork is very high in thiamin (vitamin B1).[21][22][23][24] Pork with its fat trimmed is leaner than the meat of most domesticated animals, but is high in cholesterol and saturated fat.

In 1987 the U.S. National Pork Board began an advertising campaign to position pork as "the other white meat"—due to a public perception of chicken and turkey (white meat) as healthier than red meat. The campaign was highly successful and resulted in 87% of consumers identifying pork with the slogan. The board retired the slogan on 4 March 2011.[25]

Religious restrictions

Eating of pork is prohibited by orthodox Jewish dietary laws and Islamic dietary laws, and is also avoided by mainstream Seventh-day Adventists, Rastafarians, and members of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church. There is also a theory that pork was taboo in Scotland until roughly 1800.

Judaism

Pork is a well-known example of a non-kosher food. This prohibition is based on Leviticus chapter 11 and Deuteronomy chapter 14:

These are the creatures that you may eat from among all the animals that are upon the land. Everything that possesses a split hoof, which is fully cloven, and that brings up its cud—this you may eat. But this is what you shall not eat from what brings up its cud or possesses split hooves—the camel, because it brings up its cud but does not possess split hooves...and the pig, because it has split hooves that are completely cloven, but it does not bring up its cud—it is impure to you and from its flesh you may not eat.

—Leviticus 11:2–4, 7–8

And the pig, because it possesses split hooves and does not bring up its cud—from its flesh you may not eat.

—Deuteronomy 14:8

As indicated by the Torah verses, pork is non-kosher because Jews may not consume an animal that possesses one trait but not the other of cloven hooves and regurgitating cud. Hogs, which are not ruminants, do not chew cud as cattle and sheep do. Practicing Jews suffice on the biblical explanation of the swine as 'unclean'. According to one rabbinic commentary, anyone who has seen the swine's filthy habits will not inquire into why it is prohibited. Maimonides shared this view in classifying the swine as an unclean creature in both its habit and diet.[26]

The prohibition of swine eating in Ancient Israel, according to Douglas, was because the pig was raised by non-Israelites, ate carrion and did not fit into the classification of ungulates. Harris disagrees and points out that Egyptians and Sumerians also restricted pigs and that goats also ate corpses, yet were not declared unclean in Ancient Israel. Harris offers an explanation based on environmental and economic factors instead.[27]

In Israel pig-raising has been limited by law to certain areas and institutions.[28][29] Some pig-related laws are openly circumvented.[30] Swine production has increased from an estimated annual slaughter of 50,000 swine in 1960[28] to 180,000 in 2010.[31] Pig meat consumption per capita was 2.7 kg in 2009.[32] Although pork marketing is prohibited in some religious localities,[29] pork products are available elsewhere at non-kosher butchers and by the Mizra and Tiv Ta'am non-kosher supermarket chain, which caters to Russian immigrants.[33] A modern Hebrew euphemism for pork is "white meat".[33]

Islam

Pork meat is prohibited by the Islamic dietary laws. Throughout the Islamic world many countries severely restrict the importation or consumption of pork products. Examples are Iran,[34] Mauritania,[35] Oman,[36] Qatar,[37] Saudi Arabia, Algeria, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Yemen, Somalia, Sudan, Afghanistan, Djibouti, Kuwait, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Libya, Pakistan and Maldives.[38] However, in other Muslim-majority countries with significant non-Muslim minorities, such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, Lebanon, Iraq, Tunisia, Turkey, Egypt, Morocco, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Jordan, Albania, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Syria and the United Arab Emirates (except the Emirate of Sharjah), pork is available in hotels, restaurants and supermarkets that cater to a significant non-Muslim population.[39]

The Qur'anic basis for the Islamic prohibition of pork can be found in surah 2:173, 5:3, 5:60, 6:145 and 16:115.[40][41][42][43][44]

He has forbidden you only the carrion, blood, and the flesh of swine, and that which is slaughtered as a sacrifice for others than God. But if one is forced by necessity, without wilful disobedience, nor transgressing due limits, then there is no sin on him. Truly, Allah is Oft-forgiving Most Merciful.

—Chapter (Sura) 2 – Verse (Ayat) 173 Al-Baqara (The Cow)

Forbidden for you for food are carrion, blood, flesh of swine, and that which has been dedicated to other than God, and animals killed by strangling or by a violent blow or by a head-long fall or by the goring of horns, and those from which a wild animal has eaten, except what you [are able to] slaughter [before its death], and those which are sacrificed on stone altars, and [prohibited is] that you seek decision through divining arrows. That is grave disobedience. This day those who disbelieve have despaired of [defeating] your religion; so fear them not, but fear Me. This day I have perfected for you your religion and completed My favor upon you and have approved for you Islam as religion. But whoever is forced by severe hunger with no inclination to sin – then indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.

—Chapter (Sura) 5 – Verse (Ayat) 3 Al-Maidah (The Table Spread)

I do not find within that which was revealed to me [anything] forbidden to one who would eat it unless it be a dead animal or blood spilled out or the flesh of swine - for indeed, it is impure - or it be [that slaughtered in] disobedience, dedicated to other than Allah . But whoever is forced [by necessity], neither desiring [it] nor transgressing [its limit], then indeed, your Lord is Forgiving and Merciful.

—Chapter (Sura) 6 – Verse (Ayat) 145 Al-An'am (The Cattle)

He has only forbidden to you dead animals, blood, the flesh of swine, and that which has been dedicated to other than Allah . But whoever is forced [by necessity], neither desiring [it] nor transgressing [its limit] - then indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.

—Chapter (Sura) 16 – Verse (Ayat) 115 An-Nahl (The Bees)

Christianity

Some sects of Christianity abstain from the consumption of pork. The prohibition is based on Leviticus chapter 11, Deuteronomy chapter 14, and Isaiah chapters 65 and 66. Some denominations that forbid pork consumption are:

In contrast, many members of the Macedonian Orthodox Church consider the consumption of pork an important tradition, symbolizing the survival of their ancestors' Christian identity during the times of Muslim Ottoman rule.[45]

Disease in pork

Pork
Vacuum packed pork loin fillets.

Pork is known to carry some diseases such as pork tapeworm and trichinosis and pigbel, thus uncooked or undercooked pork can be dangerous to consume, although raw pork is commonly eaten in parts of Europe.[46]

Undercooked or untreated pork may harbour pathogens, or can be recontaminated after cooking if left exposed for a long period of time. In one instance, the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) detected Listeria monocytogenes in 460 lbs of Polidori brand fully cooked pork sausage crumbles, although no one was made ill from consumption of the product.[47] The FSIS has previously stated that listeria and other microorganisms must be "...destroyed by proper handling and thorough cooking to an internal temperature of 160 °F (71 °C)," and that other microorganisms, such as E. coli, Salmonella, and Staphylococcus aureus can be found in inadequately cooked pork, poultry, and other meats.[48] The FSIS, a part of the USDA, currently recommends cooking ground pork to 160 °F (71 °C) and whole cuts to 145 °F (63 °C) followed by a 3-minute rest.[49]

Pigs can be carriers of various helminths, such as roundworms, pinworms, hookworms. One of the more common is Taenia solium, a type of tapeworm, which may transplant to the intestines of humans after consuming undercooked meat.

Although not a common cause of illness, Yersinia enterocolitica—which causes gastroenteritis—is present in various foods, but is most frequently caused by eating uncooked or undercooked pork and can grow in refrigerated conditions. The bacteria can be killed by heat.[50] Nearly all outbreaks in the US have been traced to pork.[51]

Pork may be the reservoir responsible for sporadic, locally acquired cases of acute hepatitis E (HEV) reported in regions with relatively mild climates. It has been found to transmit between swine and humans.[52]

Trichinosis, also called trichinellosis, or trichiniasis, is a parasitic disease caused by eating raw or undercooked pork infected with the larvae of a species of roundworm Trichinella spiralis, commonly called the trichina worm. Infection was once very common, but is now rare in the developed world. From 2002 to 2007, an annual average of 11 cases per year were reported in the United States; the majority were from consuming wild game or the source was unknown. The number of cases has decreased because of legislation prohibiting the feeding of raw meat garbage to hogs, increased commercial and home freezing of pork, and the public awareness of the danger of eating raw or undercooked pork or wild game products.[53]

Gallery of dishes

Sweet and sour pork

Sweet and sour pork, a Chinese dish that is popular in Europe and Americas.

Tonkatsu set by banej in Singapore

Tonkatsu, Japanese breaded deep fried pork cutlet.

Khao mu krop mu daeng in Nong Khai

Khao mu krop mu daeng, Thai crispy and red pork.

Bakutteh

Bak kut teh, the pork ribs and offal soup, of Malaysia and Singapore.

Panggang 2

Batak-style Babi panggang, roasted pork belly of Indonesia.

02 Galizische Spezialitäten, Rudawka Rymanowska 2013

Pork kielbasa, Polish sausage.

01 Schäufele und Knödel

Schäufele (Franconian variant), pork shoulder dish of Southern Germany.

Filet de Porc à la Bordelaise

Filet de Porc à la Bordelaise, a French-style pork tenderloin.

Feijoada in Belgium

Feijoada, typical Portuguese pork with beans, is the national dish of Brazil.

Chicharron ancashino 20100711

Chicharrón, Spanish fried pork rinds, widely distributed throughout Hispanic world.

Lechon

Lechón being roasted in Cadiz City, Philippines.

Nepali pork curry

Pork curry- stir fried, often spicy curry from Nepal.

Christmas table (Serbian cuisine)

Grilled pork as a main dish of Serbian Christmas table.

Porcetto sardo 3

Porcheddu, Sardinian suckling pig.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Sources of Meat". Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). 25 November 2014. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
  2. ^ Ruhlman, 18.; The Culinary Institute of America, 3.
  3. ^ Ruhlman, 19.
  4. ^ Thompson, Michael D., “‘Everything but the Squeal’: Pork as Culture in Eastern North Carolina,” North Carolina Historical Review, 82 (Oct. 2005), 464–98. Heavily illustrated.
  5. ^ Brazilbrazil.com Archived 21 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ "Livestock and Poultry: World Markets and Trade." Archived 28 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine Circular Series DL&P 2-06, Foreign Agricultural Service, United States Department of Agriculture, October 2006. Retrieved on 15 August 2007.
  7. ^ a b Livestock and Poultry: World Markets and Trade (PDF) (Report). United States Department of Agriculture. October 2016. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
  8. ^ "China launches a pork-price index to smooth the "pig cycle"". The Economist. 21 April 2017. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
  9. ^ Livestock and Poultry: World Markets and Trade (PDF) (Report). United States Department of Agriculture. November 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 February 2014.
  10. ^ Solomon, Charmaine (1996). Encyclopedia of Asian Food. Melbourne: William Heinemann Australia. p. 288. ISBN 0-85561-688-1.
  11. ^ Mamta Badkar (29 May 2013). "14 Facts About The Staggeringly Huge Chinese Pork Industry". Business Insider. Retrieved 31 July 2014.
  12. ^ Tropp, Barbara (1982). The Modern Art of Chinese Cooking. New York: Hearst Books. p. 183. ISBN 0-688-14611-2.
  13. ^ Wines, Michael (15 July 2011). "China Plans to Release Some of Its Pork Stockpile to Hold Down Prices". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 November 2013.
  14. ^ Moore, Malcolm (29 January 2010). "China sets standard for Chairman Mao's favourite dish". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 23 April 2014.
  15. ^ "Danish Christmas dinner", Wonderful Denmark. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
  16. ^ Ruhlman, Michael and Polcyn, Brian. Charcuterie: The Craft of Salting, Smoking and Curing. New York: W.W Norton & Company, 2008. ISBN 978-0-393-05829-1
  17. ^ Cattleman's Beef Board & National Cattlemen's Beef Association. Uniform Retail Meat Identity Standards Archived 27 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 11 July 2007.
  18. ^ United States Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service. USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service: Glossery B Archived 3 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 9 July 2007.
  19. ^ http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1217794/From-bullets-bread-beer-tambourines-toothpaste--plus-180-things-pig.html From bullets bread beer tambourines toothpaste -plus 180 things pig
  20. ^ Fresh Pork...from Farm to Table Archived 14 July 2007 at the Wayback Machine USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service.
  21. ^ "Calories in Pork, Fresh, Loin, Tenderloin". Calorie Count. Archived from the original on 6 September 2007. Retrieved 4 October 2007.
  22. ^ "Top 10 Foods Highest in Thiamin (Vitamin B1);
    from google (thiamin source) result 1"
    .
  23. ^ "Table 2: Selected Food Sources of Thiamin [10];
    from '(4)' in authoritynutrition.com/foods/pork/ ;
    from google (pork nutrition value) result 1"
    .
  24. ^ "Thiamin: Unlike other types of red meat, such as beef and lamb, pork is particularly rich in thiamin. Thiamin is one of the B-vitamins and plays an essential role in various body functions (4);
    from google (pork nutrition value) result 1"
    .
  25. ^ "Pork board swaps 'White Meat' for 'Be Inspired'". Associated Press. 4 March 2011. Retrieved 8 March 2011.
  26. ^ Marvin Harris (1996). "The Abominable Pig". In Charles Edward Carter (ed.). Community, Identity, and Ideology: Social Science Approaches to the Hebrew Bible. Carol L. Meyers. Eisenbrauns. pp. 135–. ISBN 978-1-57506-005-7.
  27. ^ Society for Old Testament Study (21 November 1991). The World of Ancient Israel: Sociological, Anthropological and Political Perspectives. Cambridge University Press. pp. 33–. ISBN 978-0-521-42392-2.
  28. ^ a b Segev, Tom (27 January 2012). "The Makings of History / Pork and the people". HaAretz. Retrieved 6 April 2013.
  29. ^ a b Barak-Erez, Daphne (2007). Outlawed Pigs: Law, Religion, and Culture in Israel. Univ of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 978-0-299-22160-7. Retrieved 6 April 2013.
  30. ^ Concern for Helping Animals in Israel (CHAI). "Pigs FACTSHEET". Retrieved 6 April 2013.
  31. ^ Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. "FAOSTAT". Retrieved 6 April 2013.
  32. ^ Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. "FAOSTAT". Retrieved 6 April 2013.
  33. ^ a b Yoskowitz, Jeffrey (24 April 2008). "On Israel's Only Jewish-Run Pig Farm, It's The Swine That Bring Home the Bacon – Letter From Kibbutz Lahav By April 24, 2008". Forward. Retrieved 6 April 2013.
  34. ^ Travel Report for Iran Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada. Archived 10 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  35. ^ Travel Report for Mauritania Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada. Archived 16 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  36. ^ Travel Advice for Oman Archived 8 October 2006 at the Wayback Machine Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade
  37. ^ Travel Report for Qatar Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada. Archived 20 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  38. ^ Travel Report for Saudi Arabia Archived 26 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada.
  39. ^ "Buying Pork in Dubai – ComingAnarchy.com". cominganarchy.com.
  40. ^ Quran 2:173
  41. ^ Quran 5:3
  42. ^ Quran 5:60
  43. ^ Quran 6:145
  44. ^ Quran 16:115
  45. ^ O'Brien, Natalie (25 July 2015). "Liverpool Council upsets Orthodox community by leaving pork off the menu for interfaith lunch". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
  46. ^ "Risk of trichinosis from locally produced raw sausages from Eastern Europe – BfR". bund.de.
  47. ^ "More meat recalls: pork sausage due to listeria contamination". 1 May 2010. Retrieved 29 June 2010.
  48. ^ "Safety of Fresh Pork...from Farm to Table". Archived from the original on 9 July 2010. Retrieved 29 June 2010.
  49. ^ "Fresh Pork...from Farm to Table". Retrieved 19 July 2013.
  50. ^ "Bacterial Food Poisoning". Retrieved 29 June 2010.
  51. ^ "Food-Related Illness and Death in the United States". Retrieved 29 June 2010.
  52. ^ "BMC Veterinary Research – Full text – Transmission dynamics of hepatitis E among swine: Potential impact upon human infection". biomedcentral.com.
  53. ^ "Trichinellosis Fact Sheet". Centers for Disease Control, US Government. 2004. Retrieved 25 February 2011.

External links

Bacon

Bacon is a type of salt-cured pork. Bacon is prepared from several different cuts of meat, typically from the pork belly or from back cuts, which have less fat than the belly. It is eaten on its own, as a side dish (particularly in breakfasts), or used as a minor ingredient to flavour dishes (e.g., the club sandwich). Bacon is also used for barding and larding roasts, especially game, including venison and pheasant. The word is derived from the Old High German bacho, meaning "buttock", "ham" or "side of bacon", and is cognate with the Old French bacon.

Meat from other animals, such as beef, lamb, chicken, goat, or turkey, may also be cut, cured, or otherwise prepared to resemble bacon, and may even be referred to as, for example, "turkey bacon". Such use is common in areas with significant Jewish and Muslim populations as both religions prohibit the consumption of pork. Vegetarian bacons such as "soy bacon" also exist and attract vegetarians and vegans.

Char siu

Char siu (Chinese: 叉燒; Cantonese Yale: chāsīu) is a popular way to flavor and prepare barbecued pork in Cantonese cuisine. It is classified as a type of siu mei (燒味), Cantonese roasted meat.

Charcuterie

Charcuterie ( or ; northern French: [ʃaʁkytˈʁi] or southern French: [ʃaʁkytəˈʁi], from chair, 'meat', and cuit, 'cooked') is the branch of cooking devoted to prepared meat products, such as bacon, ham, sausage, terrines, galantines, ballotines, pâtés, and confit, primarily from pork.Charcuterie is part of the garde manger chef's repertoire. Originally intended as a way to preserve meat before the advent of refrigeration, they are prepared today for their flavors derived from the preservation processes.

Chicharrón

Chicharrón (Spanish pronunciation: [tʃitʃaˈron], Andalusian pronunciation: [ʃiʃaˈron], plural chicharrones; Portuguese: torresmo [tuˈʁeʒmu] or [toˈʁezmu]; Filipino: chicharon; Chamorro: chachalon) is a dish generally consisting of fried pork belly or fried pork rinds. Chicharrón may also be made from chicken, mutton or beef.

Ground meat

Ground meat, called mince or minced meat outside of North America, and keema or qeema (Hindustani: क़ीमा (Devanagari), قیمہ (Nastaleeq), (pronounced [ˈqiːmaː])) in the Indian subcontinent, is finely chopped by a meat grinder or a chopping knife. A common type of ground meat is ground beef, but many other types of meats are prepared in a similar fashion, including pork, lamb, and poultry. In the Indian subcontinent, both mutton and goat meat are also minced to produce keema.

Insulin

Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body. It regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and protein by promoting the absorption of carbohydrates, especially glucose from the blood into liver, fat and skeletal muscle cells. In these tissues the absorbed glucose is converted into either glycogen via glycogenesis or fats (triglycerides) via lipogenesis, or, in the case of the liver, into both. Glucose production and secretion by the liver is strongly inhibited by high concentrations of insulin in the blood. Circulating insulin also affects the synthesis of proteins in a wide variety of tissues. It is therefore an anabolic hormone, promoting the conversion of small molecules in the blood into large molecules inside the cells. Low insulin levels in the blood have the opposite effect by promoting widespread catabolism, especially of reserve body fat.

Beta cells are sensitive to glucose concentrations, also known as blood sugar levels. When the glucose level is high, the beta cells secrete insulin into the blood; when glucose levels are low, secretion of insulin is inhibited. Their neighboring alpha cells, by taking their cues from the beta cells, secrete glucagon into the blood in the opposite manner: increased secretion when blood glucose is low, and decreased secretion when glucose concentrations are high. Glucagon, through stimulating the liver to release glucose by glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, has the opposite effect of insulin. The secretion of insulin and glucagon into the blood in response to the blood glucose concentration is the primary mechanism of glucose homeostasis.If beta cells are destroyed by an autoimmune reaction, insulin can no longer be synthesized or be secreted into the blood. This results in type 1 diabetes mellitus, which is characterized by abnormally high blood glucose concentrations, and generalized body wasting. In type 2 diabetes mellitus the destruction of beta cells is less pronounced than in type 1 diabetes, and is not due to an autoimmune process. Instead there is an accumulation of amyloid in the pancreatic islets, which likely disrupts their anatomy and physiology. The pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes is not well understood but patients exhibit a reduced population of islet beta-cells, reduced secretory function of islet beta-cells that survive, and peripheral tissue insulin resistance. Type 2 diabetes is characterized by high rates of glucagon secretion into the blood which are unaffected by, and unresponsive to the concentration of glucose in the blood. Insulin is still secreted into the blood in response to the blood glucose. As a result, the insulin levels, even when the blood sugar level is normal, are much higher than they are in healthy persons.

The human insulin protein is composed of 51 amino acids, and has a molecular mass of 5808 Da. It is a dimer of an A-chain and a B-chain, which are linked together by disulfide bonds. Insulin's structure varies slightly between species of animals. Insulin from animal sources differs somewhat in effectiveness (in carbohydrate metabolism effects) from human insulin because of these variations. Porcine insulin is especially close to the human version, and was widely used to treat type 1 diabetics before human insulin could be produced in large quantities by recombinant DNA technologies.The crystal structure of insulin in the solid state was determined by Dorothy Hodgkin. It is on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.

List of pork dishes

This is a list of notable pork dishes. Pork is the culinary name for meat from the domestic pig (Sus domesticus). It is one of the most commonly consumed meats worldwide, with evidence of pig husbandry dating back to 5000 BC. Pork is eaten both freshly cooked and preserved.

The consumption of pork is prohibited in Judaism, Islam, and some Christian denominations such as Seventh-day Adventism.

Fresh pork may contain trichinosis, a parasitic disease caused by eating raw or undercooked pork or wild game infected with the larvae of a species of roundworm Trichinella spiralis, commonly called the trichina worm. In the United States, the U.S. Department of Agriculture recommends cooking ground pork to an internal temperature of 160 °F, followed by a 3-minute rest, and cooking whole cuts to a minimum internal temperature of 145 °F, also followed by a 3-minute rest.

Pork barrel

Pork barrel is a metaphor for the appropriation of government spending for localized projects secured solely or primarily to bring money to a representative's district. The usage originated in American English. In election campaigns, the term is used in derogatory fashion to attack opponents. However, scholars use it as a technical term regarding legislative control of local appropriations.

Pork belly

Pork belly is a boneless cut of fatty meat from the belly of a pig. Pork belly is particularly popular in Chinese, Korean and Philippine cuisine.

Pork pie

A pork pie is a traditional British meat pie, usually served cold. It consists of a filling of roughly chopped pork and pork fat, surrounded by a layer of jellied pork stock in a hot water crust pastry. It is normally eaten as a snack or with a salad.

Pork pie hat

A pork pie hat is one of several different styles of hat that have been popular in one context or another since the mid-19th century, all of which bear superficial resemblance to a pork pie.

Pork rind

Pork rind is the culinary term for the skin of a pig. It can be used in many different ways.

It can be fried or roasted in pork fat (lard) to produce the snack called pork rinds in American English and pork greaves, pork scratchings, or pork cracklings in the UK (although "crackling" may instead refer to the rind on a roasted pork joint). The frying renders much of the fat attached to the uncooked rind, causing the size of the cooked product to be reduced considerably.

Ramen

Ramen () (拉麺, ラーメン, rāmen, IPA: [ɾaꜜːmeɴ]) is a Japanese dish. It consists of Chinese-style wheat noodles served in a meat or (occasionally) fish-based broth, often flavored with soy sauce or miso, and uses toppings such as sliced pork (叉焼, chāshū), nori (dried seaweed), menma, and scallions. Nearly every region in Japan has its own variation of ramen, such as the tonkotsu (pork bone broth) ramen of Kyushu and the miso ramen of Hokkaido.

Religious restrictions on the consumption of pork

Religious restrictions on the consumption of pork are common particularly in the Middle East amongst Jews and Muslims. Swine were prohibited in ancient Syria and Phoenicia, and the pig and its flesh represented a taboo observed, Strabo noted, at Comana in Pontus. A lost poem of Hermesianax, reported centuries later by the traveller Pausanias, reported an etiological myth of Attis destroyed by a supernatural boar to account for the fact that "in consequence of these events the Galatians who inhabit Pessinous do not touch pork". Concerning Abrahamic religions, clear restrictions exist in Jewish dietary laws (Kashrut) and in Islamic dietary laws (Halal).

Although Christianity is also an Abrahamic religion, most of its adherents are permitted to consume pork. Since Christianity lost most of its roots from Judaism, Christians are not bound to some restrictions of Mosaic Law. However, Seventh-day Adventists consider pork taboo, along with other foods forbidden by Jewish law. The Eritrean Orthodox Church and the Ethiopian Orthodox Church do not permit pork consumption.

Many Yazidis in Kurdistan regard pork as forbidden.

Sausage

A sausage is a cylindrical meat product usually made from ground meat, often pork, beef, or veal, along with salt, spices and other flavourings, and breadcrumbs, encased by a skin. Typically, a sausage is formed in a casing traditionally made from intestine, but sometimes from synthetic materials. Sausages that are sold raw are cooked in many ways, including pan-frying, broiling and barbecuing. Some sausages are cooked during processing and the casing may then be removed.

Sausage making is a traditional food preservation technique. Sausages may be preserved by curing, drying (often in association with fermentation or culturing, which can contribute to preservation), smoking, or freezing. Some cured or smoked sausages can be stored without refrigeration. Most fresh sausages must be refrigerated or frozen until they are cooked.

Sausages come in a huge range of national and regional varieties, which differ by their flavouring or spicing ingredients (garlic, peppers, wine, etc.), the meat(s) used in them and their manner of preparation.

Spam (food)

Spam (stylized as SPAM) is a brand of canned cooked pork made by Hormel Foods Corporation, based out of Minnesota. It was first introduced in 1937 and gained popularity worldwide after its use during World War II. By 2003, Spam was sold in 41 countries on six continents and trademarked in over 100 countries (not including the Middle East and North Africa). Spam's basic ingredients are pork with ham meat added, salt, water, modified potato starch (as a binder), sugar, and sodium nitrite (as a preservative). Natural gelatin is formed during cooking in its tins on the production line. Many have raised concerns over Spam's nutritional attributes, in large part due to its high content of fat, sodium, and preservatives.By the early 1970s the name "spam" had become a genericized trademark used to describe any canned meat product containing pork, such as pork luncheon meat. With an expansion in communications technology, it became the subject of urban legends about mystery meat and made other appearances in pop culture. The most notable was a Monty Python sketch which led to its name being borrowed for unsolicited electronic messages, especially email.

Steak

A steak () is a meat generally sliced across the muscle fibers, potentially including a bone. Exceptions, in which the meat is sliced parallel to the fibers, include the skirt steak cut from the plate, the flank steak cut from the abdominal muscles, and the silverfinger steak cut from the loin and includes three rib bones. In a larger sense, fish steaks, ground meat steaks, pork steak, and many more varieties of steak are known.

Steak is usually grilled, but can be pan-fried. It is often grilled in an attempt to replicate the flavor of steak cooked over the glowing coals of an open fire. Steak can also be cooked in sauce, such as in steak and kidney pie, or minced and formed into patties, such as hamburgers.

Steaks are often cut from grazing animals, usually farmed, other than cattle, including bison, camel, goat, horse, kangaroo, sheep, ostrich, pigs, reindeer, turkey, deer, and zebu, as well as various types of fish, especially salmon and large pelagic fish such as swordfish, shark, and marlin. For some meats, such as pork, lamb and mutton, chevon, and veal, these cuts are often referred to as chops. Some cured meat, such as gammon, is commonly served as steak.

Grilled portobello mushroom may be called mushroom steak, and similarly for other vegetarian dishes. Imitation steak is a food product that is formed into a steak shape from various pieces of meat. Grilled fruits such as watermelon have been used as vegetarian steak alternatives.

Sweet and sour

Sweet and sour is a generic term that encompasses many styles of sauce, cuisine and cooking methods. It is commonly used in China, has been used in England since the Middle Ages, and remains popular in Europe and in the Americas.

Tonkatsu

Tonkatsu (豚カツ, とんかつ or トンカツ, [tonꜜkatsɯ], "pork cutlet") is a Japanese dish that consists of a breaded, deep-fried pork cutlet. It involves cutting the pig's back center into 2-3 centimeter thick slices, smearing with bread crumbs, frying them in oil, and then serving with Japanese Worcestershire sauce, rice, and vegetable salad (mainly cabbage). The two main types are fillet and loin. Tonkatsu is often served with shredded cabbage.

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