Populus nigra

Populus nigra, the black poplar, is a species of cottonwood poplar, the type species of section Aigeiros of the genus Populus, native to Europe, southwest and central Asia, and northwest Africa.[1]

Black poplar
Populus nigra kz1
Black poplars in Poland
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Salicaceae
Genus: Populus
Section: Populus sect. Aigeiros
Species:
P. nigra
Binomial name
Populus nigra
Populus nigra range
Distribution map

Description

The black poplar is a medium- to large-sized deciduous tree, reaching 20–30 m, and rarely 40 m tall. Normally, their trunks achieve up to 1.5 m in diameter, but some unusual individual trees in France have grown old enough to have much larger trunks – more than 3 meters DBH. Their leaves are diamond-shaped to triangular, 5–8 cm long and 6–8 cm broad, and green on both surfaces.[2]

The species is dioecious, male and female flowers are on different plants, with flowers in catkins and pollination achieved by the wind. The black poplar grows in low-lying areas of moist ground.[3] Like most other pioneer species, the tree is characterized by rapid growth and is able to quickly colonize open areas.[4]

Poplar seed tufts 2009 G1
Poplar seed tufts

Subspecies

Three subspecies are established and some botanists distinguish a fourth:[1][2]

  • P. n. subsp. nigra. Central and eastern Europe. Leaves and shoots glabrous (hairless); bark grey-brown, thick and furrowed.
Burr on Black poplar
Burrs and normal bark on a black poplar tree (subspecies betulifolia) in Ayrshire, Scotland.
  • P. n. subsp. betulifolia (Pursh) W.Wettst. North-west Europe (France, Great Britain, Ireland). Leaf veins and shoots finely downy; bark grey-brown, thick and furrowed, often with heavy burrs, trunk usually heavily leaning.
  • P. n. subsp. caudina (Ten.) Bugała. Mediterranean region, also southwest Asia if var. afghanica not distinguished.
  • P. n. var. afghanica Aitch. & Hemsl. (syn. P. n. var. thevestina (Dode) Bean). Southwest Asia; treated as a cultivar of P. nigra by many botanists,[5] and as a distinct species P. afghanica by others;[6] bark smooth, nearly white; leaves and shoots as subsp. caudina (see also cultivars, below).

The subspecies P. n. betulifolia is one of the rarest trees in Great Britain and Ireland,[7][8] with only about 7,000 trees known, of which only about 600 have been confirmed as female.[9]

Cultivars

Several cultivars have also been selected, these being propagated readily by cuttings:

  • 'Italica' is the true Lombardy poplar, selected in Lombardy, northern Italy, in the 17th century. The growth is fastigiate (having the branches more or less parallel to the main stem), with a very narrow crown. Coming from the Mediterranean region, it is adapted to hot, dry summers and grows poorly in humid conditions, being short-lived due to fungal diseases. It is a male clone.[10] As a widely selected species chosen by golf architects in the 1960s, it soon became apparent that the poplar's very invasive roots destroyed land drainage systems. Decades later, the same courses were removing poplar stands wholesale. Around 40 to 50 years, this short-lived variety starts shedding branches and is very likely to be blown over in high winds, each successive tree lost exposing neighbouring trees, creating a domino effect.
Populus nigra-bekes
A fastigiate black poplar cultivar of the Plantierensis group, in Hungary
  • Plantierensis group clones are derived by crossing 'Italica' with P. n. ssp. betulifolia at the Plantières Nursery near Metz in France in 1884; they are similar to 'Italica' (and often mistaken for it), but with a slightly broader crown, and better adapted to the cool, humid climate of northwest Europe, where the true Lombardy poplar does not grow well. Both male and female clones are grown. This is the tree most commonly grown in Great Britain and Ireland as "Lombardy poplar".[10]
  • 'Manchester' is a cultivar of P. n. subsp. betulifolia widely planted in northwest England. It is a male clone, and currently seriously threatened by poplar scab disease.[11][12]
  • 'Gigantea'is another fastigiate clone, of unknown origin, with a rather broader, more vigorous crown than 'Italica'. It is a female clone.[10]
  • 'Afghanica' (syn. 'Thevestina')most, if not all, specimens are of a single clone, and many botanists, therefore, treat it as a cultivar rather than a botanical variety. It is fastigiate, similar to 'Italica', but with a striking whitish bark; it also differs from 'Italica' in being a female clone. This is the common fastigiate poplar in southwest Asia and southeast Europe (the Balkans), where it was introduced during the Ottoman Empire period.[10]

Distribution

Black poplar has a large distribution area throughout Europe and is also found in northern Africa and central and west Asia. The distribution area extends from the Mediterranean in the south to around 64° latitude in the north and from the British Isles in the west to Kazakhstan and China in the east. The distribution area also includes the Caucasus and large parts of the Middle East.[4]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Flora Europaea: Populus nigra
  2. ^ a b Rushforth, K. (1999). Trees of Britain and Europe. Collins. ISBN 0-00-220013-9.
  3. ^ "Black Poplar". The Woodland Trust. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
  4. ^ a b Broeck, An Vanden (2003), European black poplar - Populus nigra: Technical guidelines for genetic conservation and use (PDF), European Forest Genetic Resources Programme, p. 6
  5. ^ "Populus nigra var. thevestina". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved December 12, 2017.
  6. ^ Flora of Pakistan: Populus afghanica
  7. ^ Milne-Redhead, E. (1990). The B.S.B.I. Black Poplar survey, 1973-88. Watsonia 18: 1-5. Available online Archived 2009-01-09 at the Wayback Machine (pdf file).
  8. ^ Arkive: Populus nigra Archived 2006-02-11 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ Cooper, Fiona (2006). The Black Poplar: Ecology, History and Conservation. Windgather Press ISBN 1-905119-05-4
  10. ^ a b c d Bean, W. J. (1980). Trees and Shrubs Hardy in the British Isles Vol. 3. John Murray ISBN 0-7195-2427-X
  11. ^ Stace, C. A. (1971). The Manchester Poplar. Watsonia 8: 391-393.
  12. ^ Arboricultural Information Exchange: Manchester Poplar Disease Archived 2007-09-30 at the Wayback Machine

External links

Ancylis laetana

Ancylis laetana is a moth of the family Tortricidae. It is found in most of Europe, except the Iberian Peninsula, the Balkan Peninsula, Iceland, Ireland and Ukraine.

The wingspan is 14–18 mm. Adults are on wing from May to June in one generation per year.The larvae feed on Populus tremula and occasionally Populus nigra. They feed in a single leaf which is spun pod-like. The larvae can be found under the folded leaf margin or among the spun leaves.

Catocala relicta

The white underwing or relict (Catocala relicta) is a moth of the family Erebidae. It is found in southern Canada, from Newfoundland to Vancouver Island, south to Missouri, and Arizona.

The wingspan is 67–75 mm. Adults are on wing from July to September in one generation depending on the location.

The larvae feed on Betula papyrifera, Carya ovata, Populus alba, Populus balsamifera, Populus deltoides, Populus nigra, Populus tremuloides, Quercus species, and Salix species (including Salix eriocephala).

Ectoedemia hannoverella

Ectoedemia hannoverella is a moth of the Nepticulidae family. It is found from most of Europe (except Ireland) to southern Siberia and European Russia, but it is most common in central Europe. It was not recorded in Great Britain until 2002 when mines were found in fallen leaves of Italian poplar.

The wingspan is 6–7 mm. Adults are on wing from April to May in western Europe.

The larvae feed on Populus x canadensis and Populus nigra. They mine the leaves of their host plant. They only feed at night. The first instar larva bores in the petiole, causing local swelling. Once the larva has reached the leaf disc it begins forming an elongate blotch between the leaf margin and the most lateral vein, or in some cases between the midrib and the first lateral vein. The frass is concentrated in two stripes running parallel to the sides of the mine. Pupation takes place outside of the mine.

Gelechia rhombelliformis

Gelechia rhombelliformis is a moth of the family Gelechiidae. It was described by Staudinger in 1871. It is found from the Netherlands and Germany east to Russia and from Denmark and Latvia south to Austria, Hungary and Romania.

The wingspan is 15–19 mm. Adult are on wing from June to mid-September.The larvae feed on the leaves of Populus species, including Populus nigra, Populus pyramidalis and Populus balsamifera. Pupation takes place under the bark.

Gelechia turpella

Gelechia turpella, the grand groundling, is a moth of the family Gelechiidae. It is widely distributed in Europe. Outside of Europe, it is found from the Caucasus to Siberia and the Russian Far East. The habitat consists of woodlands and parks.

The wingspan is 16–22 mm. Adults are on wing from mid-June to early September.The larvae feed on Populus nigra (including Populus nigra f. italica), Populus pyramidalis, Populus balsamifera and Populus laurifolia. They live living within a spun or rolled leaf of their host plant.

Gypsonoma aceriana

Gypsonoma aceriana, the poplar shoot-borer, is a moth of the family Tortricidae. It is found from Europe to Russia, eastern Turkey and Iraq. It is also present in North Africa.

The wingspan is 13–15 mm. Adults are on wing in July. In Japan, there are two to three generations per year (in June, July and August).

The larvae feed on Populus nigra, Populus nigra subsp. italica, Populus alba, Populus balsamifera, Acer platanoides and Acer campestre. It is a common species in poplar plantations and nurseries. It has been recorded as a pest from Italy, France, Germany and the Netherlands. Older larvae (third instars) bore into buds and below terminal shoots, which are usually destroyed, causing bushy growth of lateral shoots and making young trees unmarketable.

Gypsonoma minutana

Gypsonoma minutana, the poplar tortricid, is a moth of the family Tortricidae. It is found in Europe (north up to Finland) and North Africa, Turkey, Transcaucasia, Ural, Kazakhstan, from central Asia to Siberia and eastern Russia, Asia Minor, Iran, Afghanistan, Mongolia, China and Japan.

The wingspan is 12–15 mm. Adults are on wing in July in England. In Japan, there are two to three generations per year (in June, July and August). In Italy, there are two to three generations per year, with adults on wing from late May to mid-June, late July to mid-August and from mid-September to late October.

The larvae feed on Populus nigra, Populus alba and Populus tremula. The larvae feed between whorls and closely joined leaves. It is recorded as a serious pest in parks in Russia.

Gypsonoma oppressana

Gypsonoma oppressana, the poplar bud-worm, is a moth of the family Tortricidae. It is found on Madeira and in central and southern Europe, from Transcaucasia to Kazakhstan and Tajikistan.

The wingspan is 12–15 mm. Adults are on wing in June and July.

The larvae feed on Populus nigra, Populus alba and Populus tremula and is considered a minor pest on these species. Young larvae feed on the underside of the leaf in an angle of the veins, living beneath a silken web and eating the surface of the leaf. Later they feed in the buds, moving from bud to bud.

Leucoptera sinuella

Leucoptera sinuella is a moth in the Lyonetiidae family. It is found in most of Europe, except Ireland, the Balkan Peninsula and the Mediterranean Islands. It is also found in Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu) and North Africa.

The wingspan is about 6 millimetres (0.24 in).

The larvae feed on Populus alba, Populus candicans, Populus deltoides, Populus gileadensis, Populus nigra, Populus tremula, Salix aurita, Salix caprea, Salix cinerea, Salix fragilis, Salix purpurea. They mine the leaves of their host plant. The mine consists of a large, upper-surface blotch. Pupation takes place outside of the mine.

Perisomena caecigena

Perisomena caecigena, the autumn emperor moth, is a moth of the family Saturniidae. The species was first described by Franz Josef Kupido in 1825. It is found in Italy (east of Venice near the Croatian border) and then from south-eastern Austria through Hungary, Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia, Albania, the western Ukraine, Romania, Bulgaria and Greece to most of Turkey and the Caucasus Mountains of the Republic of Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan. There is also an isolated population in the mountains of Lebanon and Israel. Subspecies stroehlei is endemic to the Troodos Mountains of Cyprus.

The wingspan is 62–88 mm for subspecies caecigena and 40–65 mm for males and 48–90 mm for females of subspecies stroehlei. Adults are on wing from late September to early November.

The larvae feed on Quercus species, including Quercus robur, Quercus petrea, Quercus pubescens, Quercus cerris and Quercus ilex, but also Populus alba, Populus nigra, Fraxinus, Pyrus and Prunus. Salix might also be a host plant, since larvae have been reared on Salix caprea in captivity.

Phyllocnistis extrematrix

Phyllocnistis extrematrix is a moth of the family Gracillariidae. It is known from Kazakhstan, Romania and the European part of Russia.The larvae feed on Populus balsamifera, Populus nigra and Populus suaveolens.

Phyllocnistis unipunctella

Phyllocnistis unipunctella is a moth of the family Gracillariidae. It is known from all of Europe.

The wingspan is 7–8 mm. Adults are on wing in July and from September onwards, sometimes overwintering in haystacks.The larvae feed on Populus balsmifera, Populus x canadensis, Populus candicans, Populus deltoides, Populus euphratica, Populus gileadensis, Populus nigra, Populus simonii, Populus suaveolens and Populus trichocarpa. They mine the leaves of their host plant. The mine consists of long, broad, epidermal corridor that winds in dense loops over the upper-side of the leaf without crossing itself. The frass is deposited in a continuous, vague central line. The mine ends at the leaf margin, where the corridor is slightly widened, and in which some silk is deposited to create a pupal chamber. When this dries, the leaf margin somewhat folds over. The mine has a strong resemblance to the trail of dried mucus left by a small snail.

Phyllonorycter comparella

Phyllonorycter comparella is a moth of the family Gracillariidae. It is found from Germany and the Baltic States to Spain, Sardinia, Sicily, Hungary and Bulgaria and from Great Britain to central and southern Russia.

The wingspan is about 8 mm.

The larvae feed on Populus alba, Populus canescens and sometimes Populus nigra. They mine the leaves of their host plant. They create an oval, lower-surface tentiform mine. The lower epidermis has no recognisable folds. The frass is heaped in an angle of the mine. The pupa is found in a barely recognisable flimsy cocoon.

Phyllonorycter connexella

Phyllonorycter connexella is a moth of the family Gracillariidae. It is found from Fennoscandia to the Pyrenees and Italy and from France to central Russia and Ukraine.

The larvae feed on Populus alba, Populus x canadensis, Populus nigra, Populus nigra cv. 'Italica', Salix alba, Salix fragilis, Salix pentandra and Salix purpurea. They mine the leaves of their host plant. They create a lower-surface tentiform mine, usually between two side veins. There is one strong lengthwise fold. The pupa is made in a cocoon. The frass is incorporated in the sides of the cocoon.

Phyllonorycter pastorella

Phyllonorycter pastorella is a moth of the family Gracillariidae. It is known from all of Europe (except the British Isles, Greece, Portugal, Denmark, Norway, Luxembourg and the Mediterranean islands), east to Russia, China and Japan.

The wingspan is 8-9.5 mm.The larvae feed on Populus alba, Populus nigra, Salix alba, Salix babylonica, Salix fragilis, Salix lanata, Salix pentandra, Salix purpurea, Salix x sepulcralis, Salix triandra and Salix viminalis. They mine the leaves of their host plant. They create a large, lower-surface tentiform mine with one sharp fold. Pupation takes place within the mine in a cocoon. The frass is deposited in the opposite corner of the mine.

Phyllonorycter populifoliella

Phyllonorycter populifoliella is a moth of the family Gracillariidae. It is known from all of Europe, except the British Isles.

Adults are on wing in two generations per year, from April to May and in again from August to September.The larvae feed on Populus x canadensis, Populus deltoides, Populus euramericana and Populus nigra. They mine the leaves of their host plant. They create a lower surface tentiform mine, without a fold. Pupation takes place in a round cocoon within the mine. The frass is deposited in a corner of the mine. The pupa of the second generation hibernates.

Populus sect. Aigeiros

Populus section Aigeiros is a section of three species in the genus Populus, the poplars. Like some other species in the genus Populus, they are commonly known as cottonwoods. The species are native to North America, Europe, and western Asia. In the past, as many as six species were recognized, but recent trends have been to accept just three species, treating the others as subspecies of P. deltoides.

They are large, deciduous trees that are 50–80 feet tall, distinguished by thick, deeply fissured bark and triangular-based to diamond-shaped leaves that are green on both sides (without the whitish wax on the undersides) and without any obvious balsam scent in spring. An important feature of the leaves is the petiole, which is flattened sideways so that the leaves have a particular type of movement in the wind.

Male and female flowers are in separate catkins, appearing before the leaves in spring. The seeds are borne on cottony structures that allow them to be blown long distances in the air before settling to ground.

The cottonwoods are exceptionally tolerant of flooding, erosion, and flood deposits filling around the trunk.

Although each of the three cottonwood species has a different leaf pattern, they all have the same general diamond leaf shape.

Pygaera

Pygaera is a moth genus of the family Notodontidae. It consist of only one species Pygaera timon, which is found in Northern and Central Europe, through Eastern Asia up to Ussuri and Japan.

The wingspan is 17–19 mm. The moth flies from May to July depending on the location.

The larvae feed on Populus tremula, Populus alba and Populus nigra.

Stigmella populnea

Stigmella populnea is a moth of the Nepticulidae family. It is only known from Hokkaido in Japan.

The larvae feed on Populus nigra. They mine the leaves of their host plant.

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