Population pyramid

A population pyramid, also called an "age-sex- pyramid", is a graphical illustration that shows the distribution of various age groups in a population (typically that of a country or region of the world), which forms the shape of a pyramid when the population is growing.[1] Males are conventionally shown on the left and females on the right, and they may be measured by raw number or as a percentage of the total population. This tool can be used to visualize and age of a particular population.[2] It is also used in ecology to determine the overall age distribution of a population; an indication of the reproductive capabilities and likelihood of the continuation of a species.

Population pyramid example
This distribution is named for the frequently pyramidal shape of its graph.


Population pyramids often contain continuous stacked-histogram bars, making it a horizontal bar diagram. The population size is depicted on the x-axis (horizontal) while the age-groups are represented on the y-axis (vertical).[3] The size of the population can either be measured as a percentage of the total population or by raw number. Males are conventionally shown on the left and females on the right. Population pyramids are often viewed as the most effective way to graphically depict the age and distribution of a population, partly because of the very clear image these pyramids represent.[4] A great deal of information about the population broken down by age and sex can be read from a population pyramid, and this can shed light on the extent of development and other aspects of the population.

The measures of central tendency, mean, median, and mode, should be considered when assessing a population pyramid. since the data is not completely accurate. For example, the average age could be used to determine the type of population in a particular region. A population with an average age of 15 would have a young population compared to a population that has an average age of 55, which would be considered an older population. It is also important to consider these measures because the collected data is not completely accurate. The mid-year population is often used in calculations to account for the number of births and deaths that occur.

A population pyramid gives a clear picture of how a country transitions from high fertility to low fertility rate. The broad base of the pyramid means the majority of population lies between ages 0–14, which tells us that the fertility rate of the country is high and above population sub-replacement fertility level. The older population is declining over time due to a shorter life expectancy of sixty years.[5] However, there are still more females than males in these ranges since women have a longer life expectancy. As reported by the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, women tend to live longer than men because women do not partake in risky behaviors. Also, Weeks' Population: an Introduction to Concepts and Issues, considered that the sex ratio gap for the older ages will shrink due to women's health declining due to the effects of smoking, as suggested by the United Nations and U.S. Census Bureau. Moreover, it can also reveal the age-dependency ratio of a population. Populations with a big base, young population, or a big top, an older population, shows that there is a higher dependency ratio. The dependency ratio refers to how many people are dependent on the working class (ages 15–64). According to Weeks' Population: an Introduction to Concepts and Issues, population pyramids can be used to predict the future, known as a population forecast. Population momentum, when a population's birth rates continue to increase even after replacement level has been reached, can even be predicted if a population has a low mortality rate since the population will continue to grow. This then brings up the term doubling time, which is used to predict when the population will double in size. Lastly, a population pyramid can even give insight on the economic status of a country from the age stratification since the distribution of supplies are not evenly distributed through a population.

In the demographic transition model, the size and shape of population pyramids vary. In stage one of the demographic transition model, the pyramids have the most defined shape. They have the ideal big base and skinny top. In stage two, the pyramid looks similar, but starts to widen in the middle age groups. In stage three, the pyramids start to round out and look similar in shape to a tombstone. In stage four, there is a decrease in the younger age groups. This causes the base of the widened pyramid to narrow. Lastly, in stage five, the pyramid starts to take on the shape of a kite as the base continues to decrease. The shape of the population is dependent upon what the economy is like in the country. More developed countries can be found in stages three four and five while the least developed countries have a population represented by the pyramids in stages one and two.


Each country will have different or unique population pyramids. However, population pyramids will be defined as the following: stationary, expansive, or constrictive. These types have been identified by the fertility and mortality rates of a country.[6]

"Stationary" pyramid
A pyramid can be described as stationary if the percentages of population (age and sex) remains constant over time.[7] Stationary population is when a population contains equal birth rates and death rates.[7]
"Expansive" pyramid
A population pyramid that is very wide at the younger ages, characteristic of countries with high birth rate and low life expectancy.[6] The population is said to be fast-growing, and the size of each birth cohort gets larger than the size of the previous year.[8]
"Constrictive" pyramid
A population pyramid that is narrowed at the bottom. The population is generally older on average, as the country has long life expectancy, a low death rate, but also a low birth rate.[6] However, the percentage of younger population are extremely low, this can cause issues with dependency ratio of the population.[8] This pyramid is more common when immigrants are factored out. This is a typical pattern for a very developed country, a high level of education, easy access to and incentive to use birth control, good health care, and few negative environmental factors.[9]

Youth bulge phenomenon

2017 world map, median age by country
Median age by country. A youth bulge is evident for Africa, and to a lesser extent for West Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia and Central America.
Fertility rate world map 2
Map of countries by fertility rate (2018), according to CIA World Factbook

Gary Fuller (1995) described Youth bulge as a type of expansive pyramid. Gunnar Heinsohn (2003) argues that an excess in especially young adult male population predictably leads to social unrest, war and terrorism, as the "third and fourth sons" that find no prestigious positions in their existing societies rationalize their impetus to compete by religion or political ideology.

Heinsohn claims that most historical periods of social unrest lacking external triggers (such as rapid climatic changes or other catastrophic changes of the environment) and most genocides can be readily explained as a result of a built-up youth bulge, including European colonialism, 20th-century fascism, rise of Communism during the Cold War, and ongoing conflicts such as that in Darfur and terrorism.[10] This factor has been also used to account for the Arab Spring events.[11] Economic recessions, such as the Great Depression of the 1930s and the Late 2000's recession, are also claimed to be explained in part due to a large youth population who cannot find jobs.[11] Youth bulge can be seen as one factor among many in explaining social unrest and uprisings in society.[12] A 2016 study finds that youth bulges increases the chances of non-ethnic civil wars, but not ethnic civil wars.[13]

A large population of adolescents entering the labor force and electorate strains at the seams of the economy and polity, which were designed for smaller populations. This creates unemployment and alienation unless new opportunities are created quickly enough – in which case a 'demographic dividend' accrues because productive workers outweigh young and elderly dependents. Yet the 16–30 age range is associated with risk-taking, especially among males. In general, youth bulges in developing countries are associated with higher unemployment and, as a result, a heightened risk of violence and political instability.[14][15] For Cincotta and Doces (2011), the transition to more mature age structures is almost a sine qua non for democratization.[16]

To reverse the effects of youth bulges, specific policies such as creating more jobs, improving family planning programs, and reducing over all infant mortality rates should be a priority.[17]

Egypt population pyramid 2005

Population pyramid of Egypt in 2005. Many of those 30 and younger are educated citizens who are experiencing difficulty finding work.


Nearly half of Libya's 2011 population consists of children younger than age 20.

Middle East and North Africa

The Middle East and North Africa are currently experiencing a prominent youth bulge. "Across the Middle East, countries have experienced a pronounced increase in the size of their youth populations over recent decades, both in total numbers and as a percentage of the total population. Today, the nearly 111 million individuals aging between 15 to 29 living across the region make up nearly 27 percent of the region’s population." [18] Structural changes in service provision, especially health care, beginning in the 1960s created the conditions for a demographic explosion, which has resulted in a population consisting primarily of younger people. It is estimated that around 65% of the regional population is under the age of 30.[19]

The Middle East has invested more in education, including religious education, than most other regions such that education is available to most children.[20] However, that education has not led to higher levels of employment, and youth unemployment is currently at 25%, the highest of any single region.[21] Of this 25%, over half are first time entrants into the job market.[20]

The youth bulge in the Middle East and North Africa has been favorably compared to that of East Asia, which harnessed this human capital and saw huge economic growth in recent decades.[22] The youth bulge has been referred to by the Middle East Youth Initiative as a demographic gift, which, if engaged, could fuel regional economic growth and development.[23] "While the growth of the youth population imposes supply pressures on education systems and labor markets, it also means that a growing share of the overall population is made up of those considered to be of working age; and thus not dependent on the economic activity of others. In turn, this declining dependency ratio can have a positive impact on overall economic growth, creating a demographic dividend. The ability of a particular economy to harness this dividend, however, is dependent on its ability to ensure the deployment of this growing working-age population towards productive economic activity, and to create the jobs necessary for the growing labor force." [18]

See also


  1. ^ "Population Pyramids of the World from 1950 to 2100". PopulationPyramid.net. Retrieved 21 April 2018.
  2. ^ Weeks, John (2001). Population An introduction to concepts and issues. Wadsworth. p. 307.
  3. ^ "population pyramid | sociology". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-03-29.
  4. ^ Department of Health Home Archived 2009-08-30 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ "From Population Pyramids to Pillars". www.prb.org. Retrieved 2017-03-29.
  6. ^ a b c Population Pyramids - Oregon State University
  7. ^ a b Weeks, John (2011). Population An Introduction to concepts and issues. Wadsworth. p. 309. ISBN 978-1305094505.
  8. ^ a b Korenjak-Cˇ erne, Kejžar, Batagelj (2008). "Clustering of Population Pyramids". Informatica. 32.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  9. ^ Boucher, Lauren (10 March 2016). "What are the different types of population pyramids?". www.populationeducation.org. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
  10. ^ "Why a two-state solution doesn't guarantee peace in the Middle East". Washington Examiner. Retrieved 2017-04-05.
  11. ^ a b Korotayev A. et al.A Trap At The Escape From The Trap? Demographic-Structural Factors of Political Instability in Modern Africa and West Asia. Cliodynamics 2/2 (2011): 1-28.
  12. ^ "The Effects of 'Youth Bulge' on Civil Conflicts". Retrieved 21 April 2018.
  13. ^ Yair, Omer; Miodownik, Dan (2016-02-01). "Youth bulge and civil war: Why a country's share of young adults explains only non-ethnic wars". Conflict Management and Peace Science. 33 (1): 25–44. doi:10.1177/0738894214544613. ISSN 0738-8942.
  14. ^ Huntington, Samuel P. 1996. The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster
  15. ^ Urdal, Henrik. 2006. "A Clash of Generations? Youth Bulges and Political Violence." International Studies Quarterly 50:607-29 doi:10.1111/j.1468-2478.2006.00416.x
  16. ^ Cincotta, Richard, and John Doces. 2011. "The Age-structural Maturity Thesis: The Youth Bulge's Influence on the Advent and Stability of Liberal Democracy?" In Political Demography: identity, conflict and institutions ed. J. A. Goldstone, E. Kaufmann and M. Toft. Boulder, CO: Paradigm Press
  17. ^ "The Effects of 'Youth Bulge' on Civil Conflicts". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 2017-04-05.
  18. ^ a b Hassan, Islam; Dyer, Paul (2017). "The State of Middle Eastern Youth" (PDF). The Muslim World. 107 (1): 3–12.
  19. ^ "Middle East Youth Initiative". Middle East Youth Initiative. Retrieved 21 April 2018.
  20. ^ a b "Middle East Youth Initiative". Middle East Youth Initiative. Retrieved 21 April 2018.
  21. ^ "Middle East Youth Initiative". Middle East Youth Initiative. Retrieved 21 April 2018.
  22. ^ "Youth – An Undervalued Asset: Towards a New Agenda in the Middle East and North Africa, Progress, Challenges and Way Forward," Middle East and North Africa Region Human Development Department (MNSHD), The World Bank, 2007" (PDF). Retrieved 27 October 2011.
  23. ^ "Middle East Youth Initiative: About: Why Shabab?". Retrieved 27 October 2011.

Additional References

Further reading

External links

Ageing of Europe

The aging of Europe, also known as the greying of Europe, is a demographic phenomenon in Europe characterised by a decrease in fertility, a decrease in mortality rate, and a higher life expectancy among European populations. Low birth rates and higher life expectancy contribute to the transformation of Europe's population pyramid shape. The most significant change is the transition towards a much older population structure, resulting in a decrease in the proportion of the working age while the number of the retired population increases. The total number of the older population is projected to increase greatly within the coming decades, with rising proportions of the post-war baby-boom generations reaching retirement. This will cause a high burden on the working age population as they provide for the increasing number of the older population.Throughout history many states have worked to keep high birth rates in order to have moderate taxes, more economic activity and more troops for their military.


Alsószentmárton is a village in Baranya county, Hungary. It is located near the border with Croatia.

The population is composed of the Romani people.

Brod-Posavina County

Brod-Posavina County (Croatian: Brodsko-posavska županija) is the southern Slavonian county in Croatia. Its center is the city of Slavonski Brod and it spreads along the left bank of the Sava river, hence the name Posavina. Other notable towns include Nova Gradiška.


Calvià (locally [kəlviˈa]) is a municipality on the island of Majorca, part of the Spanish autonomous community of the Balearic Islands. It is located in the southwestern part of the island of Majorca, between the Serra de Tramuntana and the Serra de Na Burguesa. The municipal seat is the town of Vila Calvia.Calvià has an approximate area of 145 km2 (56 sq mi). It is bordered on the north by the municipalities of Puigpunyent and Estellencs, Palma de Mallorca (Palma), the island's capital to the east, Andratx to the west and to the south by the Mediterranean Sea.

According to the 2008 census, the municipality had a population of 50,777 inhabitants, of whom 18,046 were foreigners. Today, it is the second most populated area of the entire archipelago Balearic after Palma, and also an area that has the largest number of tourists in the islands. Its population is scattered around the different urban centers created as a result of tourism development and twentieth century urbanization.

The historical epic that marked the most important local culture and traditions regarding the rest of Mallorca is the landing in Santa Ponsa on 10 September 1229 of King James I of Aragon, and the subsequent conquering of Muslims who had arrived in the year 903. Since 1248, Calvià has had its own parochial church, Sante Ihoannes Caviano. Despite the popularity and use of the official shield locally, the municipality has no flag.


The Caucasus or Caucasia is an area situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia. It is home to the Caucasus Mountains, including the Greater Caucasus mountain range, which has historically been considered a natural barrier between Eastern Europe and Western Asia.Europe's highest mountain, Mount Elbrus, at 5,642 metres (18,510 ft) is located in the west part of the Greater Caucasus mountain range. On the southern side, the Lesser Caucasus includes the Javakheti Plateau and grows into the Armenian highlands, part of which is located in Turkey.The Caucasus region is separated into northern and southern parts – the North Caucasus (Ciscaucasus) and Transcaucasus (South Caucasus), respectively. The Greater Caucasus mountain range in the north is within the Russian Federation, while the Lesser Caucasus mountain range in the south is occupied by several independent states, namely Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and the partially recognised Artsakh Republic.

The region is known for its linguistic diversity: aside from Indo-European and Turkic languages, the Kartvelian, Northwest Caucasian, and Northeast Caucasian families are indigenous to the area.

Demographic statistics

Demographic statistics are measures of the characteristics of, or changes to, a population. Records of births, deaths, marriages, immigration and emigration and a regular census of population provide information that is key to making sound decisions about national policy.

A useful summary of such data is the population pyramid. It provides data about the sex and age distribution of the population in an accessible graphical format.

Another summary is called the life table. For a cohort of persons born in the same year, it traces and projects their life experiences from birth to death. For a given cohort, the proportion expected to survive each year (or decade in an abridged life table) is presented in tabular or graphical form.

The ratio of males to females by age indicates the consequences of differing mortality rates on the sexes. Thus, while values above one are common for newborns, the ratio dwindles until it is well below one for the older population.

Demographics of China

The demographics of China demonstrate a large population with a relatively small youth component, partially a result of China's two-child policy. China's population reached the billion mark in 1982.

In 2019, China's population stands at 1.418 billion, the largest of any country in the world. According to the 2010 census, 91.51% of the population was Han Chinese, and 8.49% were minorities. China's population growth rate is only 0.59%, ranking 159th in the world. China conducted its sixth national population census on 1 November 2010. Unless otherwise indicated, the statistics on this page pertain to mainland China only; see also Demographics of Hong Kong and Demographics of Macau.

Demographics of Sri Lanka

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Sri Lanka, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Sri Lanka is an island in the Indian Ocean also called Ceylon and many other names. It is about the size of Ireland. It is about 28 kilometres (18 mi.) off the south-eastern coast of India with a population of about 20 million. Density is highest in the south west where Colombo, the country's main port and industrial center, is located. The net population growth is about 0.7%. Sri Lanka is ethnically, linguistically, and religiously diverse.

Demographics of the Philippines

Demography of the Philippines records the human population, including its population density, ethnicity, education level, health, economic status, religious affiliations, and other aspects. The Philippines annualised population growth rate between the years 2010-2015 was 1.72%. According to the 2015 census, the population of the Philippines is 100,981,437. The first census in the Philippines was held in the year 1591 which counted 667,612 persons.The majority of Filipinos are of the Malay race, while the Aetas (Negritos), as well as other highland groups form a minority. The indigenous population is related to the indigenous populations of the Malay Archipelago. Ethnic groups that have been in the Philippines for centuries before European and American colonial rule have assimilated. These include ethnic groups such as Arabs, Japanese, Han Chinese and Indians which form parts of the population. There are also Europeans and Latin Americans who have migrated to the Philippines during the colonial period.

The most commonly spoken indigenous languages are Cebuano and Tagalog, each with more than 20 million native speakers. Another 11 indigenous languages have at least one million native speakers: Ilokano, Hiligaynon, Waray, northern, central and southern Bikol languages, Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Maranao, Maguindanao, Kinaray-a, Zamboangueño and Tausug. One or more of these are spoken as a mother tongue by more than 93% of the population. Filipino and English are the official languages but there are between 120 and 170 distinct indigenous Philippine languages (depending on expert classifications).

Demographics of the United Arab Emirates

This article contains demographic features of the United Arab Emirates (UAE), including population density, vital statistics, immigration and emigration data, ethnicity, education levels, religions practiced, and languages spoken within the UAE.


Faymoreau is a commune in the Vendée department in the Pays de la Loire region in western France.

Lika-Senj County

Lika-Senj County (Croatian: [lǐːka sɛ̂ːɲ], Croatian: Ličko-senjska županija) is a county in Croatia that includes most of the Lika region and some northern coastline of the Adriatic near the town of Senj, including the northern part of the Pag island. Its center is Gospić.

The county is the least populated and among the least prosperous ones, though it is largest county in the country by area and includes the Plitvice Lakes National Park and Sjeverni (North) Velebit National Park, some of Croatia's major tourist attractions.

National Bureau of Statistics of the Republic of Moldova

The National Bureau of Statistics of the Republic of Moldova (NBS; Romanian: Biroul Național de Statistică, abbr. BNS) is the central administrative authority which, as the central statistical body, manages and coordinates the activity in the field of statistics from the country.

In its activity, NBS acts according to the Constitution of the Republic of Moldova, the Law on official statistics, other legislative acts, Parliament decisions, decrees of the President of the Republic of Moldova, ordinances, decisions and Government orders, international treaties of which the Republic of Moldova is part of.

The NBS elaborates independently or in collaboration with other central administrative bodies and approves the methodologies of statistical and calculation surveys of statistical indicators, in accordance with international standards, especially those of the European Union, and with the advanced practice of other countries, as well as taking into account the peculiarities of the socio-economic conditions of the Republic of Moldova, organizes, following the programme of statistical works, annually approved by the Government, statistical surveys regarding the situation and economic, social, demographic development of the country, performing the works related to the collection, processing, centralizing, storage and dissemination of statistical data.

The content published by National Bureau of Statistics on its website may be reused completely or partly, in original or modified, as well as its storage in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form and by any means, unless otherwise stated, under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Population structure

Population structure may refer to many aspects of population ecology:

Population stratification

Population pyramid

Age class structure


Population density

Population distribution

Population dynamics and population growth

Population genetics

Population size

Požega-Slavonia County

Požega-Slavonia County (Croatian: Požeško-slavonska županija [pôʒeʃko-slǎʋoːnskaː ʒupǎnija]) is a Croatian county in western Slavonia. Its capital is Požega. Its population was 78,034 as of the 2011 census.

Alongside the City of Zagreb and Bjelovar-Bilogora County, it is one of three Croatian counties that do not border another nation.


Sajóvámos is a village in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County in northeastern Hungary.

Staszów County

Staszów County (Polish: powiat staszowski) is a unit of territorial administration and local government (powiat) in Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, south-central Poland. It came into being on January 1, 1999, as a result of the Polish local government reforms passed in 1998. Its administrative seat and largest town is Staszów, which lies 53 kilometres (33 mi) south-east of the regional capital Kielce. The county also contains the towns of Połaniec, lying 17 km (11 mi) south-east of Staszów, and Osiek, 21 km (13 mi) east of Staszów.

The county covers an area of 924.80 square kilometres (357.1 sq mi). As of 2010 its total population is 73,125, out of which the population of Staszów is 15,108, that of Połaniec is 8,227, that of Osiek is 2,001, and the rural population is 47,789.


Zabzugu is a small town and is the capital of Zabzugu district, a district in the Northern Region of north Ghana. It has a nucleated settlement and less populated. Most of the people there are farmers and their main produce is Yam.


The only Senior High School in the district is Zabzugu Senior High School.

Population size, structure and composition

The population of Zabzugu District, according to the 2010 Population and Housing Census, is 63,815 representing 2.6 percent of the region’s population. Males constitute 49.1 percent and females represent 50.9 percent. The proportion of the population living in rural localities (68%) is higher than that living in rural localities (32%) of the district’s population. The district has a sex ratio of 96.3. The population of the district is youthful (46.5% of the population is below 15 years) depicting a broad base population pyramid which tapers off with a small number of elderly persons (60 years and older) representing 5.3 percent. The total age dependency ratio for the district is 100.2, the age dependency ratio for rural localities is higher (109.3) than that of urban localities (83.1).

Economy of the District

The district had an active labour force of 34,168 in 2010 out of which 27,267 were gainfully employed. Amongst those employed, 86.3 percent are employed in agriculture, forestry and fishery related occupation while 4.0 percent are engaged in crafts and related trade. The common food products cultivated in the district include yam, maize, millet, rice, cassava and groundnuts. The main cash crop produced is the Shea nut, which is grown in the wild. Goats and Sheep are the small ruminants reared in the district. They are often sold during the lean season (May to July) to meet the food needs of households. The district enjoys the services of Zabzugu Rural Bank, Multi Credit and GN savings and Loans Company formally GN bank.

Transportation system

The district’s major source of transportation is road transport with motor vehicles and bikes as the main means of transportation. The district is span by 402km of feeder roads network, which links the district capital to other communities as well as other neighbouring districts.


The district has a lot of untapped tourism potentials in the following areas: Naa Zangina’s Grave at Sabare, Naa Zangina’s Mosque at Sabare, Water Falls, the Steep Slope at Kukuokpanga, Checheboni Waterfalls at Mogneigu, the Grave Yard of Spiritual leaders at Sabare, etc.


The district enjoys the services of three telecommunication service providers namely Vodafone Ghana which provides fixed line services as well as cellular network, MTN Ghana, and AirtelTIGO provide only cellular services.

Zagreb County

Zagreb County (Croatian: Zagrebačka županija) is a county in central Croatia. It surrounds – but does not contain – the nation's capital Zagreb, which is a separate territorial unit. For that reason, it is often nicknamed "Zagreb ring". According to the 2011 census, the county has 317,606 inhabitants.

The Zagreb County once included the city of Zagreb, but in 1997 they separated, when the City was given a special status. Although separated from Zagreb City County both administratively and territorially, it still remains closely linked with it.

Zagreb County borders on Krapina-Zagorje County, the city of Zagreb, Varaždin County, and Koprivnica-Križevci County in the north, Bjelovar-Bilogora County in the east, Sisak-Moslavina County in the south and Karlovac County in the southwest.

Franjo Tuđman Airport is located on the territory of Zagreb County, the biggest and most important airport in the country.

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