Population of Canada

Canada ranks 38 comprising about 0.5% of the world's total population,[2] with over 37 million Canadians as of 2018.[3] Despite having the 2nd largest landmass, the vast majority of the country is sparsely inhabited, with most of its population south of the 55th parallel north and more than half of Canadians live in just two provinces: Ontario and Quebec. Though Canada's population density is low, many regions in the south such as the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor, have population densities higher than several European countries. Canada's largest population centres are Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Calgary, Edmonton and Ottawa with those six being the only ones with more than one million people. The large size of Canada's north which is not arable, and thus cannot support large human populations, significantly lowers the carrying capacity. Therefore, the population density of the habitable land in Canada can be modest to high depending on the region.

The historical growth of Canada's population is complex and has been influenced in many different ways, such as indigenous populations, expansion of territory, and human migration. Being a new world country, Canada has been predisposed to be a very open society with regards to immigration, which has been the most important factor in its historical population growth.[4] The 2016 Canadian census counted a total population of 35,151,728, an increase of around 5.0 percent over the 2011 figure.[5][6] Between 1990 and 2008, the population increased by 5.6 million, equivalent to 20.4 percent overall growth.[7]

Canada Population density map
Canada population density map also showing northern United States
Quebec-Windsor Corridor
The Quebec City–Windsor Corridor is the most densely populated and heavily industrialized region of Canada, spanning 1,200 kilometres (750 miles).[1]

Historical population overview

Indigenous peoples

National indigenous Populations
(2011 National Household Survey)[8]

  First Nations (61%)
  Métis (32%)
  Inuit (4%)
  Multiple and non-Canadian North American aboriginals (3%)

Scholars vary on the estimated size of the indigenous population in what is now Canada prior to colonization and on the effects of European contact.[9] During the late 15th century is estimated to have been between 200,000[10] and two million,[11] with a figure of 500,000 currently accepted by Canada's Royal Commission on Aboriginal Health.[12] Although not without conflict, European Canadians' early interactions with First Nations and Inuit populations were relatively peaceful.[13] However repeated outbreaks of European infectious diseases such as influenza, measles and smallpox (to which they had no natural immunity),[14] combined with other effects of European contact, resulted in a twenty-five percent to eighty percent indigenous population decrease post-contact.[10] Roland G Robertson suggests that during the late 1630s, smallpox killed over half of the Wyandot (Huron), who controlled most of the early North American fur trade in the area of New France.[15] In 1871 there was an enumeration of the indigenous population within the limits of Canada at the time, showing a total of only 102,358 individuals.[16] According to the 2011 Canadian Census, indigenous peoples (First Nations – 851,560, Inuit – 59,445 and Métis – 451,795) numbered at 1,400,685, or 4.3% of the country's total population.[17]

New France

The European population grew slowly under French rule,[18] thus remained relatively low as growth was largely achieved through natural births, rather than by immigration.[19] Most of the French were farmers, and the rate of natural increase among the settlers themselves was very high.[20] The women had about 30 per cent more children than comparable women who remained in France.[21] Yves Landry says, "Canadians had an exceptional diet for their time."[21] The 1666 census of New France was the first census conducted in North America.[22] It was organized by Jean Talon, the first Intendant of New France, between 1665 and 1666.[22] According to Talon's census there were 3,215 people in New France, comprising 538 separate families.[23] The census showed a great difference in the number of men at 2,034 versus 1,181 women.[23] By the early 1700s the New France settlers were well established along the Saint Lawrence River and Acadian Peninsula with a population around 15,000 to 16,000.[24] Mainly due to natural increase and modest immigration from Northwest France (Brittany, Normandy, Île-de-France, Poitou-Charentes and Pays de la Loire) the population of New France increased to 55,000 according to the last French census of 1754.[25] This was an increase from 42,701 in 1730.[26]

British Canada

Distribution of Population, 1851 to 1941
Distribution of the population in Canada for the years 1851, 1871, 1901, 1921 and 1941

During the late 18th and early 19th century Canada under British rule experienced strong population growth. In the wake of the 1775 invasion of Canada by the newly formed Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, approximately 60,000 of the 80,000 Americans loyal to the Crown, designated later as United Empire Loyalists fled to British North America, a large portion of whom migrated to Nova Scotia and New Brunswick (separated from Nova Scotia) in 1784.[27] Although the exact numbers cannot be certain because of unregistered migration[28] At least went to 20,000 to Nova Scotia, 14,000 to New Brunswick; 1,500 to PEI and 6,000 to Ontario(13,000 including 5,000 blacks went to England and 5,500 to the Caribbean). For the rest of the 1780s additional immigrants arrived from the south. From 1791 An additional 30,000 Americans, called "Late Loyalists," were lured into Ontario in the 1790s by the promise of land and swearing loyalty to the Crown.[29] As a result of the period known as the Great Migration by 1831, Lower Canada's population had reached approximately 553,000, with Upper Canada reaching about 237,000 individuals.[30] The Irish Potato Famine of the 1840s had significantly increased the pace of Irish immigration to Prince Edward Island and the Province of Canada, peaking in 1847 with 100,000 distressed individuals.[31] By 1851, the population of the Maritime colonies also reached roughly 533,000 (277,000 in Nova Scotia, 194,000 in New Brunswick and 62,000 in Prince Edward Island).[32] To the west British Columbia had about 55,000 individuals by 1851.[32] Beginning in the late 1850s, the immigration of Chinese into the Colony of Vancouver Island and Colony of British Columbia peaked with the onset of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush.[33] By 1861, as a result of natural births and the Great Migration of Canada from the British Isles, the Province of Canada population increased to 3.1 million inhabitants.[32] Newfoundland's population by 1861 reached approximately 125,000 individuals.[32]


The population has increased every year since the establishment of the Dominion of Canada in 1867; however, the population of Newfoundland was not included prior to its entry into confederation as Canada's tenth province in 1949.[34][35] The first national census of the country was taken in 1871, with a population count around 3,689,000.[36] The year with the least population growth (in real terms) was 1882–1883, when only 30,000 new individuals were enumerated.[35]

Canada immigration graph
Births and immigration in Canada from 1850 to 2000

The 1911 census was a detailed enumeration of the population showing a count of 7,206,643 individuals.[37] This was an increase of 34% over the 1901 census of 5,371,315.[38] The year with the most population growth was during the peak of the Post-World War II baby boom in 1956–1957, when the population grew by over 529,000, in a single twelve-month period.[35] The Canadian baby boom, defined as the period from 1947 to 1966, saw more than 400,000 babies born annually.[39] The 1996 census recorded a total population of 28,846,761.[40] This was a 5.7% increase over the 1991 census of 27,296,859.[40] The 2001 census had a total population count of 30,007,094.[41] In contrast, the official Statistics Canada population estimate for 2001 was 31,021,300.[42]

Canada's total population enumerated by the 2006 census was 31,612,897.[43] This count was lower than the official 1 July 2006 population estimate of 32,623,490 people.[43] Ninety-percent of the population growth between 2001 and 2006 was concentrated in the main metropolitan areas.[44] The 2011 census was the fifteenth decennial census with a total population count of 33,476,688 up 5.9% from 2006. On average, censuses have been taken every five years since 1905. Censuses are required to be taken at least every ten years as mandated in section 8 of the Constitution Act, 1867.[45]

Components of population growth

Population Canada ver 4
Historical population of Canada since confederation, 1867–2009

In 2010, Canada's annual population growth rate was 1.238%, or a daily increase of 1,137 individuals.[35] Between 1867 and 2009 Canada's population grew by 979%.[35] Canada had the highest net migration rate (0.61%) of all G-8 member countries between 1994 and 2004.[35] Natural growth accounts for an annual increase of 137,626 persons, at a yearly rate of 0.413%.[35] Between 2001 and 2006, there were 1,446,080 immigrants and 237,418 emigrants, resulting in a net migration of just over 1.2 million people.[35] Since 2001, immigration has ranged between 221,352 and 262,236 immigrants per annum.[46]

Population by years

Prior to Canadian confederation in 1867 the population counts reflected only the former colonies and settlements and not the country to be as a whole with indigenous nations separated.[47]

Ephemeral European settlements

Year Area/colony Population Notes[48]
1000 L'Anse aux Meadows
30 to 160 Archaeological evidence of a short-lived Norse settlement was found a L'Anse aux Meadows, on the northernmost tip of the island of Newfoundland (carbon dating estimate 990–1050 AD.[49]) There is no record of how many men and women lived at the site at any given time, however archaeological evidence of the dwellings suggest it had the capacity of supporting 30 to 160 individuals.[50]
1541 Cap-Rouge
(Quebec City)
400 Jacques Cartier established Charlesbourg-Royal at Cap-Rouge on his third voyage. Even though scurvy was cured through the indigenous remedy (Thuja occidentalis infusion), the impression left is of a general misery with the effort being abandoned.[51] During the winter 35 of Cartier's men perished.[51]
1543 Cap-Rouge
(Quebec City)
200 In 1542, Jean-François Roberval tried to re-invigorate the Charlesbourg-Royal colony at Cap-Rouge which Roberval renamed France-Roy, however after a set of disastrous winters the effort was abandoned.[52] En route to Charlesbourg-Royal, Roberval had abandoned his near-relative Marguerite de La Rocque with her lover on the "Isle of Demons" (now called Harrington Island), in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, as punishment for their affair.[53] The young man, their servant and baby died, but Marguerite survived to be rescued by fishermen and returned to France two years later.[53]
1583 St. John Bay
260 Humphrey Gilbert with 260 men planned a settlement; however, during exploration of the coast line a ship was lost containing many of the prospective colonists and their provisions.[54]
1598 Sable Island
(Nova Scotia)
50 Marquis de La Roche-Mesgouez and 40 convicts (peasants and beggars) with 10 soldiers settled on Sable Island, but this colonization attempt failed, culminating in a revolt with only 11 survivors evacuated.[55][56]
1600 Tadoussac
16 François Gravé Du Pont with 16 men built a fur trading post at Tadoussac; however, only five of the men survived the winter before returning to France.[56]
1604 Saint Croix
79 The St. Croix settlement of Maine was the first real attempt at a year-round base of operation in New France. The expedition was led by Pierre Du Gua de Monts with 79 settlers including François Gravé Du Pont, Royal cartographer Samuel de Champlain, the Baron de Poutrincourt, apothecary Louis Hébert, a priest Nicolas Aubry, and Mathieu de Costa a linguist.[57] The St. Croix settlement was abandoned the following summer for a new habitation at Port-Royal after 35 died of scurvy.[58]

Former colonies and territories

17th century

Year Area/colony Population [59][60] Notes[47]
1605 Port Royal
(Nova Scotia)
44 The 44 colonists are surviving members of 79 from the now abandoned St. Croix settlement of Maine.[56] However, the habitation at Port-Royal was also abandoned and left in the care of the local Mi'kmaq.[58] The settlement was later moved upstream and to the south bank of the Annapolis River, keeping the name Port-Royal and becoming the capital of Acadia.[61]
1608 Quebec City 28 Samuel de Champlain establishes the colony with 28 settlers.[56] Half of the men that winter the first year die of scurvy or starvation.[62] Nevertheless, new settlers arrive resulting in Quebec being the first permanent settlement, and also the capital of, the French colony of Canada.
1610 Cuper's Cove
40 The Newfoundland Colony is established by John Guy his brother Phillip and his brother-in-law William Colston with 39 colonists who spend the winter of 1610–1611 at Cuper's Cove.[63] By the fall of 1613 sixteen structures are completed by about 60 settlers on the site.[64][65] As England tried to create a foothold in the north, other settlements were established at Bristol's Hope, Renews, New Cambriol, South Falkland and Avalon, an area that became known as the English Shore. However the majority of the population did not stay year round returning in the spring of each year. Over the next 100 years the English colonies of Newfoundland grew very slowly, and had only 3,000 permanent residents by the 1720s.[66]
1629 Quebec city 117 90 wintering belonged to Kirke's English Expedition that had captured the city.[67] Under brief British control the city begins to grow and be fortified.[68] Prior to 1632 only eight births were recorded among the 60 to 70 permanent European settlers.[68][69] The first European child born in Quebec had been Hélène Desportes, in 1620.[70]
1641 New France 240 De facto population of Canada (New France) and Acadia, now situated partly in the future United States.[69]
1642 Fort Ville-Marie
(Old Montreal)
50 New colony with the majority of immigrants coming directly from France led by Paul de Chomedey and Jeanne Mance, a lay woman.[71]
1666 Canada (New France) 3,215 The 1660s marked the only real "wave" of French settlers arriving until the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713.[72] Following the initial wave of French settlers natural growth was the main contributing factor to population growth.[68] Quebec city 2,100, Trois-Rivieres 455, Montreal 655. (Comprising 528 families with 2,034 men and 1,181 women. Professionals included 3 notaries, 3 schoolmasters, 3 locksmiths, 4 bailiffs, 5 surgeons, 5 bakers, 8 barrel makers, 9 millers, 18 official merchants, 27 joiners, and 36 carpenters.)[47]
1677 Indigenous
10,750 Estimated indigenous population in and around New France territory 10,750, including 2,150 warriors. (Mohawks 5 villages, 96 lodges, 300 warriors - Oneidas 1 village, 100 lodges, 200 warriors - Onondagas 2 villages, 164 lodges, 350 warriors - Cayugas 3 villages, 100 lodges, 300 warriors - Senecas 4 villages, 324 lodges, 1,000 warriors).[16]
1679 Acadia 515 Majority are from the Poitou region of France.
1681 New France 9,677 New France sees new settlements develop as residents leave Quebec City (population 1,345) and Trois-Rivières (150) with Montreal gaining influence (population 1,418).[47]
1687 Newfoundland 663 French population only.
1695 New France 13,639 Population of Saint John River New Brunswick 49.
1698 New France 15,355 English population of Newfoundland at the time 1,500.

18th century

Year Area/colony Population [60][73] Notes[47]
1705 Newfoundland 520 French population only
1706 New France 16,417 Covering territory that is now situated partly in the United States of America and partly in Canada.
1712 New France 18,440 Married - men 2,786, women 2,588. Unmarried - males 6,716, females 6,350.[47]
1718 New France 22,983 Married - men 3,662, women 3,926. Unmarried - males 7,911, females 7,484.[47]
1720 St.John Island
(Prince Edward Island)
100 17 families
1730 New France 33,682 Married - men 6,050, women 5,728. Unmarried - males 11,314, females 10,590.[47]
1736 Indigenous
17,575 Estimated population of First Nations in New France that are now within Canada - Abenakis 2,950 - Algonquins, Ottawas, Potawatomi, Saulteaux and Crees 11,475 - Wyandot-Huron 1,300 - Iroquois 1,850.[16]
1737 New France 39,970 Married - men 7,378, women 6,804. Unmarried - males 13,330, females 12,458.[47]
1741 Newfoundland 6,000 English population only.
1749 Nova Scotia 2,544 Married - men, 509 ; women 509. Unmarried - men, 660 ; women, 3. Children-boys, 228 ; girls, 216. Servants-men, 277 ; women, 142.[47]
1749 Île-Royale
(Cape Breton)
1,000 French population only.
1749 Acadian Mainland (New Brunswick) 1,000 French population only.
1749 Acadian Peninsula 13,000 French population only.
1749 St. John Island
(Prince Edward Island)
1,000 French population only.
1752 Acadia (non-French) 4,203 British and German population only. Men over sixteen years old, 574 ; women over sixteen years old, 607. Children boys, 1,899 ; children girls, 1,123.
1760 New France 70,000 Expulsion of the Acadians three-quarters of the Acadian population of 18,000 forcibly relocated between 1755 and 1764.[74]
1765 Province of Quebec (1763–91) 69,810 French and English populations.
1775 Province of Quebec (1763–91) 90,000 French and English populations.
1785 Newfoundland 10,244 French and English populations.
1790 Nova Scotia 30,000 French and English populations.
1797 St. John Island
(Prince Edward Island)
4,500 French and English populations.

19th century

Year Area/Province Population [75]
1806 New Brunswick 35,000
1806 Prince Edward Island 9,676
1806 Upper Canada 70,718
1806 Lower Canada 250,000
1806 Newfoundland 26,505
1807 Nova Scotia 65,000
1822 Prince Edward Island 24,600
1823 Newfoundland 52,157
1824 Upper Canada 150,066
1824 New Brunswick 74,176
1825 Upper Canada 157,923
1825 Lower Canada 479,288
1831 Lower Canada 553,134
1832 Upper Canada 263,554
1832 Newfoundland 59,280
1833 Prince Edward Island 32,292
1844 Lower Canada 697,084
1845 Newfoundland 96,295
1846 Assiniboia (North-West Territories) 4,871
1848 Upper Canada 725,879
1861 Colony of Vancouver Island 3,024
1869 Newfoundland 146,536
1871 British Columbia 36,247
1871 Manitoba 25,228
1871 Ontario 1,620,851
1871 Quebec 1,191,516
1871 New Brunswick 285,594
1871 Nova Scotia 387,800
1871 Prince Edward Island 94,021
1871 Northwest Territories 48,000
Year Canada as a whole Population Provinces/Area[16]
1871 Indigenous population 102,358 Prince Edward Island 323 - Nova Scotia 1,666 - New Brunswick 1,403 - Quebec 6,988 - Ontario 12,978 - British Columbia 23,000 - Rupert's Land 33,500 - Manitoba 500 and Labrador and the Arctic Watersheds 22,000

Canada as a whole since confederation

Historical population
Historical population
Historical population
2007 33,115,000+1.2%
2008 33,506,000+1.2%

Census data by years and projected data

Census data
Population projections
High-growth scenario

Modern population distribution

By province and territory

2011 Canada Pop Column
Canada's population from the 2011 census by province and territory

By cities and municipalities

First Nations

See also


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Further reading

External links

1871 Canadian Census

The 1871 Canadian Census marked the first regularly scheduled collection of national statistics of the Canadian population on April 2, 1871 as required by section 8 of the then-British North America Act (now the Constitution Act of 1867). The constitution required a census to be taken in 1871 and every tenth year thereafter. Parliament implemented the requirements of the constitution through the Census Act of May 12, 1870. In the first census, the population of Canada was enumerated to be 3,485,761.All inhabitants of Canada were included, including aboriginals. While this was the first national census of Canada, only four provinces existed at the time: Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. Other areas of what later became part of Canada continued to be enumerated in their own separate censuses. The results of the 1871 census, in both English and French, were reported in a five volume set.

The following census was the 1881 Census.

1984 Canadian federal election

The 1984 Canadian federal election was held on September 4 of that year to elect members of the House of Commons of Canada of the 33rd Parliament of Canada. The Progressive Conservative Party, led by Brian Mulroney, won the largest landslide majority government (by total number of seats) in Canadian history, while the Liberals suffered what at that time was the worst defeat for a governing party at the federal level. Only the Progressive Conservatives faced a larger defeat, when cut to two seats in 1993.

The election marked the end of the Liberals' long dominance of federal politics in Quebec, a province which had been the bedrock of Liberal support for almost a century; they did not win a majority of Quebec seats again for another three decades.

This election was also the last time that the winning party received over 50% of the national popular vote. The 6.3 million votes won by the Conservatives remained a record until the Liberals' victory in 2015 (by which time the population of Canada had grown from 25 million to 36 million).

1996 Canadian Census

The 1996 Canadian Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population. Census day was May 14, 1996. On that day, Statistics Canada attempted to count every person in Canada. The total population count of Canada was 28,846,761. This was a 5.7% increase over the 1991 Census of 27,296,859.The following census was the 2001 Census.

2006 Canadian Census

The 2006 Canadian Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population. Census day was May 16, 2006. The following census was the 2011 Census. Canada's total population enumerated by the 2006 census was 31,612,897. This count was lower than the official July 1, 2006 population estimate of 32,623,490 people.

Airdrie, Alberta

Airdrie is a city in Alberta, Canada within the Calgary Region. It is located north of Calgary within the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor at the intersection of Queen Elizabeth II Highway (Highway 2) and Highway 567.

The City of Airdrie is part of the Calgary census metropolitan area and a member community of the Calgary Metropolitan Region Board (CMRB). The city is surrounded by Rocky View County.


Assyrian Canadians are Canadians of Assyrian descent or Assyrians who have Canadian citizenship. According to the 2011 Census there were 10,810 Canadians who claimed Assyrian ancestry, an increase compared to the 8,650 in the 2006 Census.They are the indigenous pre-Arab and pre-Turkic people of Northern Iraq, southeast Turkey, northeastern Syria, and northwest Iran, who speak dialects of Eastern Aramaic and are mainly Christian, although some are irreligious. Although most come from the aforementioned countries, many Assyrians have immigrated to Canada from Jordan, Georgia and Armenia as well.

Camrose, Alberta

Camrose is a city in central Alberta, Canada, amid some of the richest farmland in the prairies. It is a relatively small city which originally grew up along a railroad and now grows along Highway 13.

Canada goose

The Canada goose (Branta canadensis) is a large wild goose species with a black head and neck, white cheeks, white under its chin, and a brown body. Native to arctic and temperate regions of North America, its migration occasionally reaches northern Europe. It has been introduced to the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Argentina, Chile, and the Falkland Islands. Like most geese, the Canada goose is primarily herbivorous and normally migratory; it tends to be found on or close to fresh water.

Extremely successful at living in human-altered areas, Canada geese have proven able to establish breeding colonies in urban and cultivated areas, which provide food and few natural predators. The success of this common park species has led to its often being considered a pest species because of their depredation of crops and their noise, droppings, aggressive territorial behavior, and habit of begging for food (caused by human hand feeding).

DeSoto National Wildlife Refuge

DeSoto National Wildlife Refuge, created in 1958, is located along the banks of the Missouri River in the U.S. states of Iowa and Nebraska. The 8,362-acre (33.83 km2) refuge (46% in Iowa, 54% in Nebraska) preserves an area that would have been otherwise lost to cultivation. In 1960, an Army Corps of Engineers channelization project on the Missouri River moved the main river channel in the area to the west. The former river channel became DeSoto Lake, a seven-mile long oxbow lake. As a result, part of the Nebraska portion of the refuge lies on the east side of the Missouri River.

For over 20 years after construction, the lake was used for recreational boating, with half of the lake designated for watersports and the other half a no-wake zone for wildlife habitat and fishing. The lake was so popular that access was limited by the park's rangers to keep the boat traffic down on the lake on Saturday and Sunday afternoons. The lake's marina, snack bar, swimming area and boat ramps were all removed, and restrictions were placed on boat operation.Today, the refuge is home to around 30 mammal species, including white-tailed deer, beavers, opossums, raccoons, fox squirrels, muskrats and coyotes. Many bird species also inhabit the refuge, such as bald eagles, great blue herons, egrets, pelicans, turkeys and cardinals. The refuge is also a major stopover on the Central Flyway bird migration route; the population of migratory birds increases substantially in the spring and fall months. The numbers of snow geese used to frequently be in the hundreds of thousands, but for unknown reasons has substantially dropped for only a few thousand a year (not at once). The population of Canada geese that stopped at the lake before it was channelized is once again rising.

Several miles of nature trails provide access to the varied landscapes of the refuge. Dogs are permitted only under physical restrictive control of a leash at all times. Hunting is allowed in season (for deer, turkey, and pheasant) with a permit and there are several fishing piers along the lake, which are open outside of the bird migration seasons.

The refuge also documents the area's human history. In 1865, the sternwheel steamboat Bertrand, bound for the Montana Territory, sank in the Missouri River. The boat and its cargo rested on the river bottom until 1968, when the wreck was rediscovered. Over 500,000 items were excavated from the wreck; many of them were in excellent condition. Catalogue numbers are now in the upper 5000's, each number sometimes only having one related object, or, in the case of nails, tens of thousands. A visitor center in the refuge displays many of these items. The Bertrand site is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

DeSoto National Wildlife Refuge is located 5 miles (8 km) east of Blair, Nebraska. Access to the refuge is on U.S. Route 30 between Blair and Interstate 29.

Golden Horseshoe

The Golden Horseshoe is a secondary region of Southern Ontario, Canada which lies at the western end of Lake Ontario, with outer boundaries stretching south to Lake Erie and north to Lake Scugog. The region is the most densely populated and industrialized in Canada. With a population of 7,826,367 people in its core and 9,245,438 in its greater area, the Golden Horseshoe accounts for over 21 per cent of the population of Canada and more than 55 per cent of Ontario's population. It is part of the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor and the Great Lakes Megalopolis.

The core of the Golden Horseshoe starts from Niagara Falls at the eastern end of the Niagara Peninsula and extends west, wrapping around the western end of Lake Ontario at Hamilton and then turning northeast to Toronto (on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario), before finally terminating at Oshawa. The term Greater Golden Horseshoe is also used to describe a broader region that stretches inland from the core to the area of the Trent–Severn Waterway, such as Peterborough in the northeast, to Barrie and Lake Simcoe in the north, and to the Grand River area, including centres such as Brantford, Waterloo Region, and Guelph to the west. The extended region's area covers approximately 33,500 km2 (13,000 sq mi), out of this, 7,300 km2 (2,800 sq mi) or approximately 22 per cent of the area is covered by the environmentally protected Greenbelt. The Greater Golden Horseshoe forms the neck of the Ontario Peninsula.

History of Ontario

The History of Ontario covers the period from the arrival of Paleo-Indians thousands of years ago to the present day. The lands that make up present-day Ontario, the most populous province of Canada as of the early 21st century have been inhabited for millennia by groups of Aboriginal people, with French and British exploration and colonization commencing in the 17th century. Before the arrival of Europeans, the region was inhabited both by Algonquian (Ojibwa, Cree and Algonquin) and Iroquoian (Iroquois, Petun and Huron) tribes.

French explorer Étienne Brûlé surveyed part of the area in 1610–12. The English explorer Henry Hudson sailed into Hudson Bay in 1611 and claimed the area for England, but Samuel de Champlain reached Lake Huron in 1615. French Jesuit missionaries began to establish posts along the Great Lakes, forging alliances in particular with the Huron people. Permanent French settlement was hampered by their hostilities with the Five Nations of the Iroquois (based in New York State), who became allied with the British. By the early 1650s, using both British and Dutch arms, they had succeeded in pushing other related Iroquoian-speaking peoples, the Petun and Neutral Nation, out of or to the fringes of territorial southern Ontario. In 1747 a small number of French settlers established the oldest continually inhabited European community in what became western Ontario; Petite Côte was settled on the south bank of the Detroit River across from Fort Detroit and near Huron and Petun villages.

The British established trading posts on Hudson Bay in the late 17th century and began a struggle for domination of Ontario. With their victory in the Seven Years' War, the 1763 Treaty of Paris awarded nearly all of France's North American possessions (New France) to Britain.

The region was annexed to Quebec in 1774. The first European settlements were in 1782–1784, when 5,000 American loyalists entered what is now Ontario following the American Revolution. From 1783 to 1796, Britain granted individuals 200 acres (0.8 km2) of land per household and other items as compensation for their losses in the Thirteen Colonies and a start for rebuilding their lives. This resettlement substantially increased the European population of Canada west of the St. Lawrence-Ottawa River confluence during this period. The Constitutional Act of 1791 recognized this development, as it split Quebec into The Canadas: Lower Canada east of the St. Lawrence-Ottawa River confluence, the area of earliest settlement; and Upper Canada southwest of the confluence. John Graves Simcoe was appointed Upper Canada's first Lieutenant-Governor in 1793.

Latin American Canadians

Latin American Canadians (French: Canadiens d'Amérique latine) are Canadians who are descendants of people from countries of Latin America. The majority of Latin American Canadians are multilingual, primarily speaking Spanish or Portuguese. Most are fluent in one or both of Canada's two official languages, English and French. Spanish, Portuguese and French are Romance languages and share some similarities in morphology and syntax.

Latin American Canadians have made distinguished contributions to Canada in all major fields, including politics, the military, music, philosophy, sports, business and economy, and science.

The largest Latin American immigrant groups in Canada are Mexican Canadians, Colombian Canadians and Salvadoran Canadians.

Latin Americans comprise a heterogeneous variation of ancestral and racial origins that span from South and North America to Europe, Africa, and Asia. Therefore, a Latin American can be of any race, but the most frequent races found in the region are Mestizos, Whites, Indigenous Americans, Blacks, and Asians

Leduc, Alberta

Leduc is a city in the province of Alberta, Canada. It is 33 kilometres (21 mi) south of the provincial capital of Edmonton and is part of the Edmonton Metropolitan Region.

List of Canadian provinces and territories by population

Canada is divided into ten provinces and three territories. The majority of Canada's population is concentrated in the areas close to the Canada–US border. Its four largest provinces by area (Quebec, Ontario, British Columbia and Alberta) are also (with Quebec and Ontario, switched in order) its most populous; together they account for 86% of the country's population. The territories (the Northwest Territories, Nunavut and Yukon) account for over a third of Canada's area but are home to only 0.3% of its population, which skews the national population density value.

Canada's population grew by 5.0% between the 2006 and 2011 censuses. Except for New Brunswick, all territories and provinces increased in population from 2011 to 2016. In terms of percent change, the fastest-growing province or territory was Nunavut with an increase of 12.7% between 2011 and 2016, followed by Alberta with 11.6% growth. New Brunswick's population decreased by 0.5% between 2011 and 2016.

Canada's population has increased every year since Confederation in 1867: see List of population of Canada by years.


Lloydminster is a Canadian city which has the unusual geographic distinction of straddling the provincial border between Alberta and Saskatchewan. The city is incorporated by both provinces as a single city with a single municipal administration.


Okotoks (, originally ) is a town in the Province of Alberta, Canada. It is situated on the Sheep River, approximately 18 km (11 mi) south of the City of Calgary. The town is a member of the Calgary Regional Partnership, a cooperative of municipalities within the Calgary Region. Okotoks has emerged as a bedroom community of Calgary. According to the 2016 Census, the town has a population of 28,881, making it the largest town in Alberta.


Ontario ( (listen); French pronunciation: [ɔ̃taʁjo]) is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, and is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included. It is home to the nation's capital city, Ottawa, and the nation's most populous city, Toronto, which is also Ontario's provincial capital.

Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, and Quebec to the east and northeast, and to the south by the U.S. states of (from west to east) Minnesota, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. Almost all of Ontario's 2,700 km (1,678 mi) border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system. These are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario. There is only about 1 km (0.6 mi) of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border.Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into two regions, Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario. The great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation.

Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge

Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge is a 10,795-acre (43.69 km2) National Wildlife Refuge established in 1937 and located in Chariton County, Missouri, 2 miles (3.2 km) south of the town of Sumner. It is located near the confluence of the Grand and Missouri Rivers.

Following the purchase of the land, the Civilian Conservation Corps began work on the refuge creating wetlands, constructing roads and buildings, and initiating the refuge farming program.

The primary purpose of the refuge is to provide nesting, resting, and feeding areas for waterfowl, primarily ducks. Two-hundred and forty-one avian species have been observed residing on or passing through the refuge; another fourteen birds, listed under accidentals on the bird list, have been reported but are not normally expected to be present. An important secondary purpose was to preserve a remnant flock of prairie chickens. However, adequate grassland habitat to maintain a viable population of these birds was not available.

Since establishment of the refuge, the primary emphasis on waterfowl species has been expanded to include the Eastern Prairie Population of Canada geese. Canada geese were first observed using the refuge in the early 1940s, and numbers increased gradually to peak populations over 200,000 birds annually. Although these populations have steadily declined, Swan Lake is still considered a primary wintering area for Canada geese.


Wetaskiwin is a city in the province of Alberta, Canada. The city is located 70 kilometres (43 mi) south of the provincial capital of Edmonton. The city name comes from the Cree word wītaskiwinihk, meaning "the hills where peace was made".Wetaskiwin is home to the Reynolds-Alberta Museum, a museum dedicated to celebrating "the spirit of the machine" as well as the Wetaskiwin and District Heritage Museum, which documents the pioneer arrival and lifestyle in Wetaskiwin's early years. Southeast of Wetaskiwin, the Alberta Central Railway Museum acknowledges the impact that the railway had on Central Alberta. Canada's Aviation Hall of Fame is also located a short walk away from the museum.

The city is well known in Western Canada for the slogan and jingle "Cars cost less in Wetaskiwin", from the Wetaskiwin Auto Dealers Association. Both have been in print, radio, and television advertisements since the mid-1970s.

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