Pope Victor III

Pope Victor III (c. 1026 – 16 September 1087), born Dauferio, was Pope from 24 May 1086 to his death in 1087. He was the successor of Pope Gregory VII, yet his pontificate is far less impressive in history than his time as Desiderius, the great Abbot of Montecassino.

His failing health was the factor that made him so reluctant to accept his pontifical election and his health was so poor that he fell to illness during his papal coronation. The only literary work of his that remains is his "Dialogues" on the miracles performed by Saint Benedict of Nursia and other saints at Montecassino.[1]

Pope Leo XIII beatified him on 23 July 1887.

Pope Blessed

Victor III
Pope Victor III
Papacy began24 May 1086
Papacy ended16 September 1087
PredecessorGregory VII
SuccessorUrban II
Consecration9 May 1087
by Otho de Lagery
Created cardinal6 March 1058
by Pope Nicholas II
Personal details
Birth nameDauferio
Bornc. 1026
Benevento, Duchy of Benevento
Died16 September 1087
Monte Cassino, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
Previous post
Feast day
  • 16 September (Roman Martyrology)
  • 16 October (Roman Proper)
Venerated inCatholic Church
Title as SaintBlessed
Beatified23 July 1887
Rome, Kingdom of Italy
by Pope Leo XIII
Other popes named Victor
Papal styles of
Pope Victor III
Emblem of the Papacy SE
Reference styleHis Holiness
Spoken styleYour Holiness
Religious styleHoly Father
Posthumous styleBlessed


Early life and abbacy

He was born in 1026 to a branch of the Lombard dukes of Benevento as the only son of Prince Landulf V of Benevento.

After his father died in battle with the Normans in 1047, he fled from an arranged marriage and, though brought back by force, eventually fled again. He went to Cava de' Tirreni, where he obtained permission to enter the monastery of S. Sophia at Benevento, where he changed his name from Dauferius to Desiderius. It was a decision that his mother vehemently opposed, owing to his being the only son and the only child. The life at S. Sophia was not strict enough for the young monk, who betook himself first to the island monastery of Tremite San Nicolo[2] in the Adriatic and in 1053 to some hermits at Majella in the Abruzzi. About this time he was brought to the notice of St. Leo IX, and it is probable that the pope employed him at Benevento to negotiate peace with the Normans after the fatal battle of Civitate.

Somewhat later Desiderius attached himself to the court of Pope Victor II at Florence. There he met two monks of the renowned Benedictine monastery of Monte Cassino, with whom he returned in 1055. He joined the community and was shortly afterwards appointed superior of the dependent house at Capua. In 1057 Pope Stephen IX, who had retained the abbacy of Monte Cassino, came to visit and at Christmas, believing himself to be dying, ordered the monks to elect a new abbot. Their choice fell on Desiderius. The pope recovered, and, desiring to retain the abbacy during his lifetime, appointed the abbot-designate his legate for Constantinople. It was at Bari, when about to sail for the East, that the news of the pope's death reached Desiderius. Having obtained a safe-conduct from Robert Guiscard, the Norman Count (later Duke) of Apulia, he returned to his monastery and was duly installed by Cardinal Humbert on Easter Day 1058.[3]

Pope Nicholas II elevated him into the cardinalate the Cardinal-Deacon of Santi Sergio e Bacco on 6 March 1058. He opted to be the Cardinal-Priest of Santa Cecilia in 1059.

Desiderius rebuilt the church and conventual buildings, perfected the products of the scriptorium and re-established monastic discipline, so that there were 200 monks in the monastery in his day. On 1 October 1071, the new Basilica of Monte Cassino was consecrated by Pope Alexander II. Desiderius' reputation brought gifts and exemptions to the abbey. The money was spent on church ornaments, including a great golden altar front from Constantinople adorned with gems and enamels and "nearly all the church ornaments of Victor II, which had been pawned here and there throughout the city".[4] Peter the Deacon gives[5] a list of some seventy books Desiderius had copied at Monte Cassino, including works of Saint Augustine, Saint Ambrose, Saint Bede, Saint Basil, Saint Jerome, Saint Gregory of Nazianzus and Cassian, the histories of Josephus, Paul Warnfrid, Jordanes and Saint Gregory of Tours, the Institutes and Novels of Justinian, the works of Terence, Virgil and Seneca, Cicero's De natura deorum, and Ovid's Fasti.

Desiderius had been appointed papal vicar for Campania, Apulia, Calabria and the Principality of Beneventum with special powers for the reform of monasteries. So great was his reputation with the Holy See that he "...was allowed by the Roman Pontiff to appoint Bishops and Abbots from among his Benedictine brethren in whatever churches or monasteries he desired, of those that had lost their patron".[6]

Within two years of the consecration of the Cassinese Basilica, Alexander II died and was succeeded by Hildebrand as Pope Gregory VII. Desiderius was able to call forth the help of the Normans of southern Italy repeatedly in favour of the Holy See. Already in 1059 he had persuaded Robert Guiscard and Richard of Capua to become vassals of St. Peter for their newly conquered territories: now Gregory VII immediately after his election sent for him to give an account of the state of Norman Italy and entrusted him with the negotiation of an interview with Robert Guiscard on 2 August 1073, at Benevento. In 1074 and 1075 he acted as intermediary, probably as Gregory's agent, between the Norman princes themselves, and even when the latter were at open war with the pope, they still maintained the best relations with Monte Cassino. At the end of 1080 Desiderius obtained Norman troops for Gregory. In 1082 he visited the Italian king and future Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV at Albano, while the troops of the Imperialist antipope were harassing the pope from Tivoli. In 1083 the peace-loving abbot joined Hugh of Cluny in an attempt to reconcile pope and emperor, and his proceedings seem to have aroused some suspicion in Gregory's entourage. In 1084, when Rome was in Henry's hands and the pope besieged in Castel Sant'Angelo, Desiderius announced the approach of Guiscard's army to both emperor and pope.[3]


Victor III. - Desiderius of Montecassino
Pope Victor III
Vicente Carducho. "Visión del papa Víctor III" (1626-1632), Cartuja del Paular-Museo del Prado
Vicente Carducho: Vision of Pope Victor III. Monastery of El Paular (Spain).

Though certainly a strong partisan of the Hildebrandine reforms, Desiderius belonged to the moderate party and could not always see eye-to-eye with Pope Gregory VII in his most intransigent proceedings. Yet when the latter lay dying at Salerno on 25 May 1085, the Abbot of Monte Cassino was one of those whom he recommended to the cardinals of southern Italy as fittest to succeed him. The Roman people had expelled the antipope Clement III from the city, and hither Desiderius hastened to consult with the cardinals on the approaching election. Finding, however, that they were bent on forcing the papal dignity upon him, he fled to Monte Cassino, where he busied himself in exhorting the Normans and Lombards to rally to the support of the Holy See. When autumn came, Desiderius accompanied the Norman army on its march to Rome. However, when he became aware of the plot between the cardinals and the Norman princes to force the papal tiara on him, he would not enter Rome unless they swore to abandon their design. They refused to do that, and the election was postponed. At about Easter[7] the bishops and cardinals assembled at Rome summoned Desiderius and the cardinals who were with him at Monte Cassino to come to Rome to treat concerning the election.

On 23 May a great meeting was held in the deaconry of St. Lucy, and Desiderius was again importuned to accept the papacy but persisted in his refusal, threatening to return to his monastery in case of violence. On the next day, the feast of Pentecost, the same scene was repeated very early in the morning. The Roman consul Cencius now suggested the election of Odo, Cardinal-Bishop of Ostia (afterwards pope Urban II), but this was rejected by some of the cardinals on the grounds that the translation of a bishop was contrary to ecclesiastical law.

Cardinal Desiderio, O.S.B., abbot of Montecassino, was elected successor to Gregory VII on May 24, 1086 in the deaconry of S. Lucia in Septisolis and took the name Victor III.[8] Four days later, pope and cardinals had to flee from Rome before the imperial prefect of the Eternal City, and at Terracina, in spite of all protests, Victor laid aside the papal insignia and once more retired to Monte Cassino, where he remained nearly a whole year. In the middle of Lent 1087, the pope-elect assisted at a council of cardinals and bishops held at Capua as "Papal vicar of those parts" (letter of Hugh of Lyons) together with the Norman princes, Cencius the Consul and the Roman nobles. Here, Victor finally yielded and "by the assumption of the cross and purple confirmed the past election".[9] How much his obstinacy had irritated some of the prelates is evidenced in the letter of Hugh of Lyons preserved by Hugh of Flavigny.[10]

Under pressure from Prince Jordan I of Capua, to whom he had also rendered important service , he was elected on 24 May 1086, taking the throne name of Victor III, but his consecration did not take place until 9 May 1087 owing to the presence of the Antipope Clement III in Rome. After celebrating Easter of 1087 in his monastery, Victor proceeded to Rome, and when the Normans had driven the soldiers of the Antipope Clement III (Guibert of Ravenna) out of St. Peter's, he was consecrated and enthroned on 9 May 1087. He only remained eight days in Rome and then returned to Monte Cassino, though with the help of Matilda and Jordan, he took back the Vatican Hill. Before May was out he was once more in Rome in answer to a summons for the countess Matilda of Tuscany, whose troops held the Leonine City and Trastevere, but when at the end of June the antipope once more gained possession of St. Peter's, Victor again withdrew at once to his Monte Cassino abbey. In August a council or synod of some importance was held at Benevento, which renewed the excommunication of the antipope Clement III and the condemnation of lay investiture, proclaimed a kind of crusade against the Saracens in northern Africa and anathematised Hugh of Lyons and Richard, Abbot of Marseilles.[3]

When the council had lasted three days, Victor became seriously ill and retired to Monte Cassino to die. He had himself carried into the chapter-house, issued various decrees for the benefit of the abbey, appointed with the consent of the monks the prior, Cardinal Oderisius, to succeed him in the abbacy, just as he himself had been appointed by Stephen IX, and proposed Odo of Ostia to the assembled cardinals and bishops as the next pope. He died on 16 September 1087 and was buried in the tomb he had prepared for himself in the abbey's chapter-house. Odo was duly elected his successor as Pope Urban II.


In the sixteenth century his body was removed to the abbey church, and again translated in 1890. The cult of Blessed Victor III seems to have begun not later than the pontificate of Pope Anastasius IV, about six decades after his death (Acta Sanctorum, Loc. cit.).

In 1727 the Abbot of Monte Cassino obtained from Pope Benedict XIII permission to keep his feast (Tosti, I, 393).

Pope Leo XIII beatified Victor III.


Pope Victor's only existing literary work "Dialogues," is on the miracles wrought by St. Benedict and other saints at Monte Cassino. There is also a letter to the bishops of Sardinia, where (since c. 1050 brought under Pisan and Genoan control) he sent monks while still abbot of Monte Cassino. In his "De Viris Illustribus Casinensibus", Peter the Deacon ascribes to him the composition of a "Cantus ad B. Maurum" and letters to King Philip I of France and to Hugh of Cluny, which no longer exist.

See also


  1. ^ "September 16 – The pope who exacted tribute from the Mohammedan ruler of Tunis". Nobility. 15 September 2011. Retrieved 2 June 2015.
  2. ^ The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, 12 p. 178.
  3. ^ a b c Webster, Douglas Raymund. "Pope Blessed Victor III." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 15. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. 13 Feb. 2013
  4. ^ Chron. Cass., III, 18 (20)
  5. ^ Chron. Cass., III, 63
  6. ^ Chron. Cas., III, 34
  7. ^ Chron. Cass., III, 66
  8. ^ mirandas/conclave-xi.htm Miranda, Salvatore. "The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church", Florida International University
  9. ^ Chron. Cass., III, 68
  10. ^ Monumenta German. Histor.: Script. VIII, 466–468
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Gregory VII
Succeeded by
Urban II

The 1080s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1080, and ended on December 31, 1089.


Year 1086 (MLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.


Year 1087 (MLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.


Year 1088 (MLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

1088 papal election

A papal election subsequent to the death of Pope Victor III in 1087 was held on 12 March 1088. Six cardinal-bishops, assisted by two lower-ranking cardinals, elected Cardinal-Bishop of Ostia Odon de Lagery as the new Pope. He assumed the name Urban II.

Anselm III (archbishop of Milan)

Anselm III (Italian: Anselmo da Rho) was the archbishop of Milan from his consecration on 1 July 1086 to his death on 4 December 1093. He reestablished order in the Ambrosian see after more than a decade of fighting between the pataria and the religious authorities and confusion over the succession to the bishopric.

Anslem was a relative of Arnaldo da Rho. It was more than a year after the death of his predecessor, Tedald, that Anselm was nominated archbishop by Henry IV. He was the last imperially-appointed bishop in Milan and originally opposed to the Gregorian reforms in order to maintain the integrity of the historical Milanese independence of the Holy See. Pope Victor III refused him the pallium, but he made peace with Pope Urban II in 1088, after a brief retirement to a monastery, and received the pallium. He always supported the concurrent Cluniac reforms, however. In his first year in office, he founded a Cluniac nunnery at Cantù. Early in 1093, he renounced control of S. Maria in Calvenazzo after it was donated to Cluny.

The Milanese citizenry strongly opposed the imperial pretensions of and agitated for Conrad the Emperor's son as their own king. Anselm duly crowned Conrad King of Italy in opposition to his father first at Monza then at Milan. He died very soon after the coronation and was buried in S. Nazaro in Brolo.

Bernard of Carinola

Bernard of Carinola, also known as Bernard of Capua, was Bishop of Carinola. He was the confessor of Duke Richard II of Capua until appointed the Bishop of Forum Claudii in 1087 by Pope Victor III. He was later transferred to the see of Carinola in 1100. He died in extreme old age in 1109 and is now venerated as the principal patron of Carinola.

Council of Benevento

The Council of Benevento may mean one of a number of Councils, or more accurately in some cases synods, of the Roman Catholic Church.

Synod of Benevento (1087): Pope Victor III condemned lay investiture.

Council of Benevento (1091): Pope Urban II held councils at Melfi (1089), Benevento and Troia (1093).

Synod of Benevento (1108), Synod of Benevento (1113), Synod of Benevento (1117): Pope Paschal II



Gisulf II of Salerno

Gisulf II (also spelled Gisulph, Latin Gisulphus or Gisulfus, and Italian Gisulfo or Gisolfo) was the last Lombard prince of Salerno (1052–1077).

Gisulf was the eldest son and successor of Guaimar IV and Gemma, daughter of the Capuan count Laidulf. He appears as a villain and a pirate in the chronicle of Amatus of Montecassino, Ystoire de li Normant. Historian John Julius Norwich (The Normans in the South pg. 201n) speaks "of one unfortunate victim [an Amalfitan] whom Gisulf kept in an icy dungeon, removing first his right eye and then every day one more of his fingers and toes. He [Amatus] adds that the Empress Agnes—who was spending much of her time in South Italy—personally offered a hundred pounds of gold and one of her own fingers in ransom, but her prayers went unheard."

He was made co-prince with his father in 1042 while very young and, only a decade later, his father was assassinated in the harbour of his capital by four brothers, sons of Pandulf V of Capua and inlaws of Guaimar, who had been goaded into the act by the Byzantine partisans of Amalfi. Young Gisulf was taken captive by the assassins, but soon his uncle, Guy, the duke of Sorrento, had garnered a Norman army and was besieging Salerno. Guy took captive the assassins' families and negotiated the freedom of Gisulf. Soon the city had surrendered and Guy and the Normans paid homage to Gisulf, who confirmed their titles and lands. The rocky start to his reign was merely an indication of its character, for Gisulf held a grudge against the Amalfitans who initiated the slaying of his father. He also, for reasons unknown, came to hate the Normans as barbarians and spent his whole reign in opposition to them.

His enmity with the Normans soon cost him. Robert Guiscard sallied forth from his Calabrian castle at San Marco and captured the Salernitan town of Cosenza and several of its neighbours. Gisulf soon raised the ire of Count Richard I of Aversa and, only by alliance with the despised Almafitans, could he retain his throne. The predations of William, Count of the Principate, a brother of Guiscard, forced him to marry his sister Sichelgaita to Guiscard in return for protection, and eventually his sister Gaitelgrima to Jordan, the son of Richard, recently prince of Capua. In 1071, he and Richard of Capua threw their support behind a rebellion of Abelard of Hauteville and Herman of Hauteville, nephews of Robert Guiscard, and several other minor lords against Guiscard's authority in his duchy of Apulia. The rising accomplished little but to further irritate his powerful brother-in-law.

In his later years, his fleets turned to piracy, especially against Amalfi and even Pisa. The latter's merchants, when called on to serve Pope Gregory VII on behalf of the Marchioness Matilda of Tuscany, caused such a stir with Gisulf that the latter was sent to Rome by the pope and the army—assembled to march on Robert Guiscard's domain—dispersed. Having alienated his papal ally, he was more isolated than ever when, in the summer of 1076, his city was besieged by Richard of Capua and Robert Guiscard. Though he had wisely ordered his citizens to store up two years worth of food, he confiscated enough of it to continue his life of luxury that the citizenry was soon starving. On 13 December, the city submitted and the prince and his men retreated to the citadel, which fell in May of the next year. Gisulf's lands and relics were taken, and he went, free, to Capua, where he tried to incite Richard to war with Robert, but to no effect. He went on to Rome to notify the pope of his and Salerno's misfortunes and there he slowly faded out of view.

Pope Gregory gave him military command of the Campania and sent him to France, but he was recalled on the pope's death in 1085. He allied with Jordan I of Capua in support of Desiderius of Benevento, who was duly elected as Pope Victor III. He was briefly made duke of Amalfi (March 1088 – 20 April 1089) by the citizens of that city to protect them from the invasions of Robert Guiscard, but he was dead by 1090. He left no children by his wife Gemma, whom he apparently repudiated.

Landulf VIII of Capua

Landulf VIII was the last Lombard prince of Capua from 1057, when his brother Pandulf VI died, to the conquest of the city in 1058 by Count Richard of Aversa. Landulf was first associated with the rule along with his brother in 1047, when their father, the infamous Pandulf IV, was reinstated as prince for the second time. According to the Catalogus Principum Capuæ, he reigned for twelve years, which would correspond to his rule jointly with his brother from their father's death in 1050 until his final expulsion from Capua.

According to the Annali di Napoli, the city of Capua itself was not fully captured by Richard until 21 May 1062. Landulf was probably forced to surrender the keys to the city to Richard and his son Jordan in 1058, but allowed to continue ruling until 1062. Landulf's sons did not fare well. They were seen by Pope Victor III wandering the countryside of the Mezzogiorno as beggars.


The Landulfids or Atenulfings were a noble family of Lombardic origin in the ninth through eleventh centuries. They were descended from Landulf I of Capua, whose own ancestry is unknown and who died in 843. The dynasty produced a line of princes which ruled most of southern Italy at one time or another and even one pope, Victor III.

In 839, a civil war broke out in the Principality of Benevento. Landulf of Capua supported Siconulf in the war and when the Emperor Louis II forced a division of the principality on the claimants in 849, Capua was assigned to the Principality of Salerno. But Landulf's heirs aimed to make themselves independent of any princely authority. By 860–861 this task was essentially complete and Capua was independent county.

Leo of Ostia

Leo Marsicanus (meaning "of the Marsi") or Ostiensis (meaning "of Ostia"), also known as Leone dei Conti di Marsi (1046, Marsica – 1115/7, Ostia), was a nobleman and monk of Monte Cassino around 1061 and Italian cardinal from the 12th century.

In Monte Cassino, he became a friend of Desiderius of Benevento, later Pope Victor III, and it was to him that Leo dedicated his most famous work as an historian and chronicler, being a librarian: the Chronicon monasterii Casinensis, usually called the Montecassino Chronicle in English. The chronicler depends largely on Amatus' earlier work, but also on oral traditions and other archives. Leo finished it at 1075; it is continued by other monastic librarian Peter the Deacon.

Pope Urban II created him cardinal deacon in 1088 with the deaconry of Ss. Vito e Modesto. In 1101, Pope Paschal II promoted him cardinal-bishop of Ostia. In 1105 he was appointed cardinal - bishop of Velletri until his death.

Liber pantegni

The Liber pantegni (παντεχνῆ "[encompassing] all [medical] arts") is a medieval medical text compiled by Constantinus Africanus (died before 1098/99) prior to 1086. Constantine’s Pantegni has been called “the first fully comprehensive medical text in Latin.” There was, of course, a substantial body of Latin medical writing circulating in western Europe in the early Middle Ages, but the Pantegni was the first text to bring together, in one place, a broad array of learning on anatomy, physiology, and therapeutics. It was dedicated to Abbot Desiderius of Monte Cassino, before he became Pope Victor III in 1086. In 2010, a manuscript at the Hague known to scholars since the early 20th century, but little studied, was recognized as being the earliest copy of the Pantegni, made at Monte Cassino under Constantine's supervision.The Pantegni is a compendium of Hellenistic and Islamic medicine, for the most part a translation from the Arabic of the Kitab al-Malaki "Royal Book" (also called the Kitāb Kāmil aṣ-ṣinā'a aṭ-ṭibbīya, "the complete"—or "perfect"—"book of the medical art") of Ali ibn al-Abbas al-Majusi. A distinction is made between theorica and practica, as it has been made before in the so-called Isagoge Johannitii, an earlier medical text that was originally written by Hunayn ibn Ishaq. Each part of al-Majusi's original, Theorica and Practica, had had ten books. The Theorica was translated in its entirety. However, in Constantine's version, the Practica was never completed, perhaps because of damage that occurred when Constantine brought his books from North Africa to Italy. Extant manuscripts show that initially only a three-book Practica was in circulation in the early part of the 12th century, consisting of Book I on regimen, the first half of Book II on simple (uncompounded) medicinal substances, and the first third of Book IX on surgery. Interest in the surgical material prompted two subsequent translators, a converted Muslim and a Christian physician from Pisa, to complete the translation of Book IX in 1114-15, during a siege of the Balearic Islands.Research by Monica H. Green and Iolanda Ventura has demonstrated, however, that more of the Pantegni, Practica seems to have been translated by Constantine, perhaps toward the end of his life, than scholars had hitherto known. Green established that at least three twelfth-century manuscripts contain translations of Books VI and VII (on diseases of the thorax and gastro-intestinal system, respectively). Ventura not only identified the existence of a mid-twelfth-century manuscript copy of the tenth book of the Practica, the antidotarium (on compound drugs), but she also established that Constantine (or an associate) did complete the translation of the second half of Book II of the Practica, translating the section on simple (uncompounded) medicines.There were, in other words, bits and pieces of at least six of the ten books of the Pantegni, Practica in circulation in the 12th century. But they were scattered and in some cases incoherent. A devotee of the Constantinian project did not give up the goal of seeing the Practica finally made whole. Perhaps as late as the early thirteenth century, this still anonymous editor pieced together a "complete" version of the Practica, gathering all the sections that Constantine had translated himself and fusing them with excerpts from several of Constantine's other translations (such as the Viaticum and his translation of Isaac Israeli's 10th-century book on fevers) and weaving them together into what passed as al-Majusi's full ten-book treatise. This "re-created" twenty-book Pantegni (now joining together the 10 books of the Theorica and the newly constituted 10 books of the Practica) began to circulate by the second quarter of the 13th century and would be printed in 1515 under Isaac Israeli's name.

In 1127, Stephen of Antioch, a Pisan notary working in the Crusader state of Antioch, criticized the incompleteness and poor quality of Constantine's Pantegni and re-translated al-Majusi's Arabic treatise anew. This was known as the Liber regalis dispositionis. Nevertheless, Constantine's Pantegni proved to be the far more influential text; it now survives in over 100 manuscript copies, whereas Stephen's Liber regalis survives in only eight. In addition, the Pantegni would be turned to by a variety of compilers and medical writers as a source for specific information on anatomy and physiology. The section on reproductive anatomy, for example, was excerpted early in the 12th century and would form the foundation for beliefs about generation for centuries to come.

Mahdia campaign of 1087

The Mahdia campaign of 1087 was an attack on the North African town of Mahdia by armed ships from the northern Italian maritime republics of Genoa and Pisa. It had been prompted by the actions of the Zirid ruler Tamim ibn Muizz (reigned 1062–1108) as a pirate in waters off the Italian Peninsula, along with his involvement in Sicily fighting the Norman invasion. The attack was led by Hugh of Pisa, with military aid from Rome and the Genoese navy; the nobleman Pantaleone from Amalfi was also involved, and the whole endeavour had the backing of Matilda of Tuscany. It succeeded in capturing the city, but they could not hold it; the money from the plunder was spent on the cathedral at Pisa and to build a new church.

Crusade historian Carl Erdmann considers the raid a direct precursor to the First Crusade ("ganz als Kreuzzug ausgeführt") which occurred eight years later, as it was conducted under the banner of St. Peter against a Muslim ruler who was demonised in the accounts of it, and a form of indulgence was granted to the campaigners by Pope Victor III.

The main source of information for the campaigns is the Carmen in victoriam Pisanorum, written within months of it by a Pisan religious cleric.

Pandulf III of Benevento

Pandulf III (died 1060) was the prince of Benevento in the Mezzogiorno in medieval Italy, first as co-ruler with his father, Landulf V, and grandfather, Pandulf II, from 1012 or thereabouts to 1014, when the elder Pandulf died. He co-ruled with his father until his death in 1033. Thereafter he was the primary ruler until his abdication in 1059 (except for a brief period).

Immediately after the death of Pandulf II, the citizens of Benevento led a revolt against the two princes, father and son. The rebellion failed to dislodge the princes from power. However, the citizens did force concessions of authority to themselves and the city's aristocracy. The Annales say facta est communitas prima: "the first commune is made."

Benevento was forced to make submission to the Byzantine Empire, whose Italian catepan Boiannes had built the fortified city of Troia nearby. In 1022, the Emperor Henry II joined his army with two other armies under Poppo of Aquileia and Pilgrim of Cologne at Benevento, which submitted after a quick siege. From there they marched on Troia, but failed to take it. After making submission to the Western Emperor, Landulf is not heard of again in the pages of history until his death and his son takes his place.

In August or September 1038, Pandulf associated his own son, Landulf VI, in the principality. Such co-regency was a tradition dating back to the will of Atenulf I of Capua in 910. In 1041, it was his brother Atenulf who incited a rebellion because he was not included in the regency. To the author of the meagre Annales Beneventani, this fuit [...] coniuratio secundo, the second conspiracy to remove the princes. Like the first of 1014, it failed.

In 1047, the Emperor Henry III came down to secure his authority in the Mezzogiorno. The Empress Agnes visited Monte Gargano as a pilgrim and returned via Benevento, where she was accepted, but her husband denied. The spurned imperator immediately laid siege to the city and Pope Clement II excommunicated Landulf and Pandulf and the citizenry. The siege was eventually lifted, however, the disrespect shown the imperial family and the church coupled with the principality's decline caused Pandulf's brother, Daufer (later Pope Victor III), to flee the city and take refuge with Guaimar IV of Salerno.

Beneventan matters came to a head in 1050, when Pope Leo IX went on a pilgrimage to Monte Gargano and reaffirmed the excommunication of the princes. The citizens turned on them and threw them out cum sculdays suis, "with their squire." The citizens turned the city over to the pope in April 1051 and on 5 July the pope accepted and entered his new city.

In the aftermath of the Battle of Civitate, in which the pope was imprisoned in Benevento, the city invited Pandulf and Landulf back (sometime between June 1053 and March 1054). Pandulf returned and ruled as a vassal of the pope. In 1056, he oversaw the association of his grandson Pandulf IV. In 1059, he abdicated to the monastery of S. Sofia, the familial foundation and mausoleum of the Beneventan ruling house. He died there the next year.

Peter of Lesina

Peter (fl. 1056–92) was the Norman count of Lesina in the Duchy of Apulia. He was a son of Walter of Civitate and brother of Amicus of Giovinazzo. Unlike several members of his family, including his brother, he remained loyal to Duke Robert Guiscard throughout the latter's life.In December 1081, Peter and Count Robert I of Loritello witnessed the renunciation by Abbot Desiderius (the future Pope Victor III) of the claims of the Abbey of Montecassino over the Abbey of Santa Maria a Mare on Tremiti.On Duke Robert's death in 1085, Peter recognised Roger Borsa as his successor and in August 1086 accompanied him on his visit to Sicily, which was then in the process of being conquered by the Normans from its Muslim rulers. He attended the ducal court again in 1092, witnessing a charter of Duke Roger, but the remoteness of Lesina in northern Apulia seems generally to have kept him out of the civil strife of the kingdom, into which his brother Amicus was frequently drawn.Peter was succeeded as count of Lesina by a son, Rao (fl. 1099). Richard, the first count of Manoppello, may have been a son.

Pope Victor

Pope Victor has been the papal name of three popes of the Roman Catholic Church.

Pope Victor I (189–199)

Pope Victor II (1055–1057)

Pope Victor III (1086–1087)There were also two antipopes called Victor IV.

Antipope Victor IV (1138)

Antipope Victor IV (1159–1164)


Wezilo, died 1088, was Archbishop of Mainz from 1084–88. He was a leading supporter of the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV in the Investiture Controversy, and of antipope Clement III.

A priest in Halberstadt, Wezilo owed his promotion to the support of Henry IV. In 1085 he negotiated on behalf of the emperor with the papal legate, the future Pope Urban II, and in the same year he was convicted of simony and excommunicated by the pro-papal Synod of Quedlinburg.In May 1087 the forces of Clement III and "the imperialist prefect Wezilo" forced Pope Victor III to retreat from Rome.Wezilo was buried in Mainz Cathedral.

1st–4th centuries
During the Roman Empire (until 493)
including under Constantine (312–337)
5th–8th centuries
Ostrogothic Papacy (493–537)
Byzantine Papacy (537–752)
Frankish Papacy (756–857)
9th–12th centuries
Papal selection before 1059
Saeculum obscurum (904–964)
Crescentii era (974–1012)
Tusculan Papacy (1012–1044/1048)
Imperial Papacy (1048–1257)
13th–16th centuries
Viterbo (1257–1281)
Orvieto (1262–1297)
Perugia (1228–1304)
Avignon Papacy (1309–1378)
Western Schism (1378–1417)
Renaissance Papacy (1417–1534)
Reformation Papacy (1534–1585)
Baroque Papacy (1585–1689)
17th–20th centuries
Age of Enlightenment (c. 1640-1740)
Revolutionary Papacy (1775–1848)
Roman Question (1870–1929)
Vatican City (1929–present)
21st century
History of the papacy
Bible and
By country
of the faithful
Early Church
Late antiquity
Early Middle Ages
High Middle Ages
Late Middle Ages
19th century
20th century
21st century

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.