Pope Victor II

Pope Victor II (c. 1018 – 28 July 1057), born Gebhard, Count of Calw, Tollenstein, and Hirschberg, was Pope from 13 April 1055 until his death in 1057.[1] He was also known as Gebhard Of Dollnstein-hirschberg.[2] Gebhard was one of a series of German reform popes.

Pope

Victor II
Pope Victor II
Papacy began13 April 1055
Papacy ended28 July 1057
PredecessorLeo IX
SuccessorStephen IX
Personal details
Birth nameGebhard Graf von Calw, Tollenstein und Hirschberg
Bornca. 1018
Germany, Holy Roman Empire
Died28 July 1057
Arezzo, Holy Roman Empire
Other popes named Victor
Papal styles of
Pope Victor II
Emblem of the Papacy SE
Reference styleHis Holiness
Spoken styleYour Holiness
Religious styleHoly Father
Posthumous stylenone

Life

He was born Gebhard of Calw, a son of the Swabian Count Hartwig of Calw and a kinsman of Emperor Henry III. At the suggestion of his uncle, Gebhard, Bishop of Ratisbon, the 24-year-old Gebhard was appointed Bishop of Eichstätt. In this position, he supported the Emperor's interests and eventually became one of his closest advisors.[3]

After the death of Pope Leo IX, a Roman delegation headed by Hildebrand, later Pope Gregory VII, travelled to Mainz and asked the Emperor to nominate Gebhard as successor. At a court Diet held at Ratisbon in March, 1055, Gebhard accepted the papacy, provided that the emperor restore to the Apostolic See all the possessions that had been taken from it. When the emperor agreed, Gebhard, taking the name Victor II, moved to Rome and was enthroned in St. Peter's Basilica on 13 April 1055. [3]

Victor excommunicated both Ramon Berenguer I, count of Barcelona, and Almodis, countess of Limoges, for adultery, at the behest of Ermesinde of Carcassonne, in 1055.[4][5]

In June 1055, Victor met the Emperor at Florence and held a council, which reinforced Pope Leo IX's condemnation of clerical marriage, simony, and the loss of the church's properties. In the following year, he was summoned to the Emperor's side, and was with Henry III when he died at Bodfeld in the Harz on 5 October 1056. As guardian of Henry III's infant son Henry and adviser of the Empress Agnes, Henry IV's mother, Victor II now wielded enormous power, which he used to maintain peace throughout the empire and to strengthen the papacy against the aggressions of the barons. During, the rivalry between Archbishop Anno II of Cologne and other senior clergymen and the Dowager Empress, Victor II backed Agnes and her supporters. Many of the Dowager Empress's close followers would be promoted, men like Bishop Henry II of Augsburg, who would later become Emperor Henry's nominal regent, and several German Princes were given high court and church offices. He died shortly after his return to Italy, at Arezzo, on 28 July 1057. His death would mostly mark an end to the close relationship shared between the Salian dynasty and the Papacy.

Victor II's retinue wished to bring his remains to the cathedral at Eichstätt for burial. Before they reached the city, however, the remains were seized by some citizens of Ravenna and buried there in the Church of Santa Maria Rotonda, the burial place of Theodoric the Great.[6]

Although there have been nine German Popes, Victor II is one of only three Popes from the territory of present-day Germany, the others being Pope Clement II (1046–47) and Benedict XVI (2005–13).

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Coulombe, Charles A., Vicars of Christ: A History of the Popes, (Citadel Press, 2003), p. 208.
  2. ^ "Victor II", Holy See
  3. ^ a b Ott, Michael. "Pope Victor II." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 15. New York: Robert Appleton Company (1912); accessed 9 November 2017.
  4. ^ Bernard F. Reilly, The Contest of Christian and Muslim Spain, 1031-1157, (Blackwell Publishing, 1995), 67.
  5. ^ Ermessenda of Barcelona. The status of her authority, Patricia Humphrey, Queens, Regents and Potentates, ed. Theresa M. Vann, (Academia Press, 1993), 34.
  6. ^ Mcbrien, Richard P., The Pocket Guide to the Popes, (HarperCollins, 2006), 166.

References

  • adapted from the 9th edition (1888) of the Encyclopædia Britannica
  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHerbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope Victor II". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Leo IX
Pope
1055–57
Succeeded by
Stephen IX
1050s

The 1050s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1050, and ended on December 31, 1059.

== Events ==

=== 1050 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Hedeby is sacked by King Harald III (Hardrada) of Norway, during the course of a conflict with Sweyn II of Denmark.

King Anund Jacob dies after a 28-year reign. He is succeeded by his brother Emund the Old as king of Sweden.

====== England ======

King Macbeth (the Red King) of Scotland makes a pilgrimage to Rome.

====== Africa ======

Aoudaghost, an important Berber trading center and rival of Koumbi Saleh, is captured by the Ghana Empire.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

King Edward the Confessor unites the dioceses of Devon and Cornwall located at Crediton. He moves the see to Exeter and gives the order to build a cathedral. Leofric becomes the first bishop of Exeter.

The brewery of Weltenburg Abbey (modern Germany) is first mentioned, thus making it one of the oldest still operating breweries in the world (approximate date).

=== 1051 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Spring – William of Normandy consolidates his power in Normandy. He fights over the control of Maine (after the death of Count Hugh IV), and lays siege to the fortresses of Alençon and Domfront (Western France).

May 19 – King Henry I of France marries Anne of Kiev at the cathedral of Reims. William of Normandy marries Matilda of Flanders, daughter of Count Baldwin V, which Henry sees as a threat to his throne.

Summer – Drogo of Hauteville, count of Apulia and Calabria, meets Pope Leo IX in southern Italy – who is send by Emperor Henry III (the Black) to re-establish the "freedom of the Catholic Church".

Drogo of Hauteville is forced to promise Leo IX to stop the Normans from pillaging the Lombard countryside. On his way back, Drogo is assassinated near Bovino by a Byzantine conspiracy.

====== England ======

Eustace II, count of Boulogne, visites England and is receive with honour at the court by King Edward the Confessor. In Dover a fight breaks out between the Norman visitors and the locals, resulting in the deaths of several people. Edward blames the people of Dover and orders Godwin, earl of Wessex, to deal with them. Godwin refuses to obey Edward's order, and in response Edward raises an army and forces the Godwin family into exile.

Edward the Confessor invites William of Normandy to England. It is at this point that it is thought that Edward promises the English throne to William in the event of his death.

Heregeld is abolished by Edward the Confessor. It has been collected for many years to provide funds for defending the country from Viking raiders.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Hilarion of Kiev (or IIarion) becomes the first non-Greek metropolitan bishop of the Eastern Orthodox Church, in Kiev.

=== 1052 ===

==== By place ====

====== England ======

Summer – Godwin, earl of Wessex, sails with a large fleet up the Thames to London forcing King Edward the Confessor to reinstate him into his previous position of power.

====== Africa ======

Battle of Jabal Haydaran: The Zirid Dynasty is defeated by the invading Bedouin tribes of the Banu Hilal.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Byōdō-in, a Japanese Buddhist temple (located in the Kyoto Prefecture), changes its name by order of Fujiwara no Yorimichi.

=== 1053 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

End of the Pecheneg Revolt: Emperor Constantine IX (Monomachos) makes peace with the Pechenegs. However, Pecheneg raids do not cease – they not only damage the economy by plundering – but Constantine also is forced to buy protection or peace from them by gifts, land grants, privileges and titles.

====== Europe ======

June 18 – Battle of Civitate: Norman horsemen (3,000 men) led by Humphrey of Hauteville, count of Apulia and Calabria, rout the combined forces under Pope Leo IX in Southern Italy. The Normans destroy the allied Papal army and capture Leo – who is imprisoned (as a hostage for 8 months) in Benevento.

December – Conrad I, duke of Bavaria, is summoned to a Christmas court at Merseburg and deposed by Emperor Henry III (the Black). He flees to King Andrew I in Hungary – and joints an coalition with the rebellious Welf III, duke of Carinthia. Henry's 4-year-old son Henry becomes the new duke of Bavaria.

====== England ======

April – Harold Godwinson succeeds his father Godwin as earl of Wessex. He invites the exiled Edward the Exile, son of Edmund II, to return in the hope that he can claim the English throne from King Edward the Confessor.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Jōchō sculpts Amida Buddha for the Byōdō-in Temple during the Heian Period (approximate date).

=== 1054 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Sultan Tughril leads a large Seljuk army out of Azerbaijan into Armenia, possibly to consolidate his frontier while providing an incentive to his Turkoman allies in the form of plunder. Tughril divides his army into four columns, ordering three to veer off to the north to raid into central and northern Armenia while he takes the fourth column towards Lake Van. The Seljuk Turks capture and sack the fortress city of Artchesh after an 8-day siege.

====== Europe ======

Battle of Mortemer: The Normans led by Duke William the Bastard defeat a French army (near Mortemer), as it is caught pillaging and plundering. King Henry I of France withdraws his main army from Normandy as a result. Guy I (or Wido), count of Ponthieu, is captured during the course of the battle.

====== England ======

July 27 – Siward, earl of Northumbria, invades Scotland, to support King Malcolm III against Macbeth, who has usurp the Scottish throne from Malcolm's father, Duncan I. Macbeth is defeated at Dunsinane.

====== Africa ======

The Almoravids retake the trading center of Aoudaghost from the Ghana Empire. Repeated Almoravid incursions, aim at seizing control of the trans-Saharan gold trade, disrupt Ghana's dominance of the trade routes.

====== Asia ======

Lý Nhật Tôn, third king of the Lý Dynasty, begins to rule in Vietnam, and changes the country's official name to Đại Việt.

==== By topic ====

====== Astronomy ======

July 4 – The SN 1054, a supernova, is first observed by the Chinese, Arabs and possibly Native Americans, near the star Zeta Tauri. For 23 days it remains bright enough to be seen in daylight. Its remnants form the Crab Nebula (NGC 1952).

====== Religion ======

Spring – Pope Leo IX sends a legatine mission under Cardinal Humbert of Silva Candida (during the celebration of the Divine Liturgy) to Constantinople to negotiate with Patriarch Michael I (Cerularius), in response to his actions concerning the church in Constantinople.

July 16 – Humbert of Silva Candida, representative of the newly deceased Leo IX, breaks the relations between Western and Eastern Churches through the act of placing an invalidly-issued Papal Bull of ex-communication (see East-West Schism).

=== 1055 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

January 11 – Emperor Constantine IX (Monomachos) dies after a 12½-year reign at Constantinople. He is succeeded by Theodora (a sister of the former Empress Zoë) who is proclaimed by the imperial guard (with strong opposition from the council) as empress of the Byzantine Empire.

====== Europe ======

King Ferdinand I (the Great) begins his campaign against al-Andalus. He conquers Seia from the Christian allies of the Muslim taifas. In a drive to consolidate his southern border in Portugal – Ferdinand re-populates the city of Zamora with some of his Cantabrian (montañeses) subjects.

====== England ======

October 24 – Ælfgar, earl of Mercia, is outlawed by the witan ("meeting of wise men"). In revenge he builds a force and allies himself with the Welsh king Gruffydd ap Llywelyn. After defeating Ralph the Timid (a nephew of King Edward the Confessor), they attack Hereford and raid the church – taking everything of value leaving the building on fire. The rebels also attack Leominster.

Edward the Confessor gives Tostig Godwinson (upon the death of Earl Siward) the important position as earl of Northumbria and the difficult mission of bringing the northern state under control.

====== Arabian Empire ======

Winter – The Seljuk Turks led by Sultan Tughril capture Baghdad and enter the city in a Roman-styled truimph. Al-Malik al-Rahim, the last Buyid emir in Iraq, is taken prisoner.

==== By topic ====

====== Art ======

Construction on the Liaodi Pagoda in Hebei is completed (the tallest pagoda in Chinese history, standing at a height of 84 m (275 ft) tall).

====== Religion ======

King Andrew I (the Catholic) establishes the Benedictine Tihany Abbey. Its foundation charter is the earliest written record extant in the Hungarian language.

April 13 – Pope Victor II succeeds Leo IX as the 153rd pope of the Catholic Church in Rome (until 1057).

=== 1056 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

August 31 – Empress Theodora (a sister of the former Empress Zoë) dies after a 18-month reign by a sudden illness at Constantinople. She is succeeded by Michael VI (the Old) who has served as military finance minister under the former Emperor Romanos III. Michael is appointed through the influence of Leo Paraspondylos, Theodora's most trusted adviser. This ending the Macedonian Dynasty.

Theodosius, a nephew of the former Emperor Constantine IX, tries to usurp the Byzantine throne and liberates all the prisoners who flocks his banner. With their support he marches through the streets of Constantinople to the Palace. There, the Varangian Guard forms up outside to stop him. Theodosius losses heart and heads for Hagia Sophia. Later he is captured and exiled to Pergamum.

====== Europe ======

October 5 – Emperor Henry III (the Black) dies after a 10-year reign at Bodfeld, a imperial hunting lodge (Königspfalz) in the Harz Mountains. He is succeeded and enthroned by his 5-year-old only son Henry IV as "king of the Germans" by Pope Victor II (a German too) at Aachen – while his mother, Empress Agnes of Poitou, becomes co-regent.

Ottokar I, count of Steyr, becomes margrave of the Karantanian March (later known as Styria).

====== England ======

June 16 – In response to the attack on Hereford Cathedral (see 1055), Leofgar the bishop of Hereford takes an army into Wales to deal with the Welsh prince Gruffydd ap Llywelyn. He along with a large number of English troops is killed in battle at Glasbury-on-Wye by the Welsh. Earl Harold Godwinson raises an army to take revenge, but comes to peaceful terms with Gruffydd.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

The Pagoda of Fogong Temple in Shanxi in northern China is built during the Liao Dynasty. Work begins on the Pizhi Pagoda of Lingyan Temple in Shandong under the opposing Song Dynasty.

Dromtön, a Atiśa chief disciple, founds Reting Monastery in the Reting Tsangpo Valley (north of Lhasa) as the seat of Kadam lineage of Tibetan Buddhism.

The Muslims expel 300 Christians from Jerusalem, and European Christians are forbidden to enter the Church of the Holy Sepulcher.

=== 1057 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

June 8 – General Isaac Komnenos proclaims himself emperor in Paphlagonia (modern Turkey) and starts a civil war against Emperor Michael VI. He advances with a Byzantine expeditionary force towards Constantinople. At the same time, Michael sends against the rebels an army – western regiments and eastern ones (those from the Anatolic Theme and Charsianon) – to stop him.

August 20 – Battle of Hades: Rebel forces under Isaac Komnenos defeat the Byzantines on the plains of Hades (near Nicaea). General Katakalon Kekaumenos routs the imperial right flank and reaches the enemy's camp. He destroys the tents and supplies – which leaves the way open to Constantinople.

September 1 – A riot in favor of Isaac Komnenos breaks out in Constantinople. Patriarch Michael I convinces Michael VI to abdicate the throne and Isaac is crowned as emperor of the Byzantine Empire.

====== Europe ======

August 15 – Battle of Lumphanan: King Macbeth (the Red King) is killed by Malcolm (Canmore). Macbeth is succeeded by his stepson Lulach, who is crowned (probably on September 8) as king of Scotland at Scone.

August – Battle of Varaville: Norman forces under William (the Bastard) defeat a Franco-Angevin army at the mouth of the Dives. King Henry I on campaign in Normandy is forced to retreat his army.

Emperor Ferdinand I (the Great) takes the cities of Lamego and Viseu (modern Portugal), from Christian lords allied to the Muslim Taifa of Silves.

====== Africa ======

The Banu Hilal razes Kairouan (in modern Tunisia). The Zirid Dynasty has to re-settle to Mahdiya (approximate date).

====== Asia ======

King Anawrahta captures Thaton, the capital of the Thaton Kingdom, strengthening Theravada Buddhism in Burma.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

July 28 – Pope Victor II dies after a 15-month pontificate at Arezzo. He is succeeded by Stephen IX as the 154th pope of the Catholic Church.

=== 1058 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

March 17 – King Lulach (the Unfortunate) of Scotland is killed in battle at Lumphanan against his cousin and rival Malcolm III (Canmore) who becomes "king of the Scots".

September 20 – Empress Agnes de Poitou and King Andrew I (the White) of Hungary meet to negotiate about the border zone in Burgenland (modern Austria).

The 4-year-old Judith of Swabia, the youngest daughter of the late Emperor Henry III (the Black), is engaged to Prince Solomon of Hungary at Regensburg.

Norman conquest of southern Italy: Norman forces under Richard Drengot besiege and capture Capua. He takes the princely title from Prince Landulf VIII.

Bolesław II (the Generous), the eldest son of Casimir I (the Restorer), succeeds his father after his death in Poznań. He becomes duke of Poland.

====== Africa ======

The Almoravids conquer the Berghouata, a group of Berber tribes, who have establish an independent state in modern-day Morocco.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Spring – Pope Stephen IX pronounces on the authenticity of the relics of Mary Magdalene at Vézelay Abbey in Burgundy, making it a major centre of pilgrimage.

March 29 – Stephen IX dies of a severe illness after a pontificate of 7-month at Florence. He is succeeded by Nicholas II who will be installed the following year.

November 6 – Emperor Isaac I (Komnenos) deposes Michael I (Cerularius), patriarch of Constantinople, and have him exiled to Prokonnessos (until 1059).

Ealdred, archbishop of York, becomes the first English bishop to make a pilgrimage to Jerusalem.

=== 1059 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

November 22 – Emperor Isaac I (Komnenos) falls ill on a hunt and retires to a monastery after a 2-year reign. He abdicates the Byzantine throne and appoints Constantine X, a Paphlagonian nobleman, as his successor.

Fall – The Magyars cross the Danube River together with several Pecheneg tribes, but where halted by Byzantine forces (approximate date).

====== Europe ======

Peter Krešimir IV (the Great) is crowned king of Croatia and Dalmatia. His coronation is recognised by the Byzantine Empire who confirm him as the supreme ruler of the Dalmatian cites, i.e. over the Theme of Dalmatia – excluding the theme of Ragusa and the Duchy of Durazzo.

August 23 – Robert Guiscard, count of Apulia and Calabria, signs the Treaty of Melfi with Pope Nicholas III. Nicholas recognises the Norman conquest of southern Italy and accepts the titles of Guiscard as duke of Sicily.

====== Seljuk Empire ======

Alp Arslan succeeds his father Chaghri Beg as governor of Khorasan. He crosses with a Seljuk expeditionary force the upper Halys River (Red River) and plunders the Theme of Sebasteia (modern Turkey).

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

January 24 – Nicholas II succeeds Stephen IX as the 155th pope of the Catholic Church. He is installed in Rome in opposition to Antipope Benedict X – the brother of the late Pope Benedict IX (deposed in 1048).

April 13 – Nicholas II, with the agreement of the Lateran Council, issues the papal bull In nomine Domini, making the College of Cardinals the sole voters in the papal conclave for the election of popes.

1055

Year 1055 ('MLV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

1056

Year 1056 (MLVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

1057

Year 1057 (MLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Agnes of Poitou

Agnes of Poitou, also called Agnes of Aquitaine or Empress Agnes (c. 1025 – 14 December 1077), a member of the House of Poitiers, was German queen from 1043 and Holy Roman Empress from 1046 until 1056. From 1056 to 1061 she acted as regent of the Holy Roman Empire during the minority of her son Henry IV.

Atinolfo

Atinolfo was the Bishop of Fiesole (1038–1057) and an opponent of Papal reform.

Onomastics suggest that he was a Lombard originally from southern Italy. Atinolfo was staying in Florence when he was appointed bishop by the Emperor Conrad II in February or March 1038. His predecessor, also an imperial appointee, was Iacopo il Bavaro, was a reformer who restored the diocesan patrimony. Atinolfo appears to have been otherwise. He repossessed the possessions of the diocese which Iacopo had granted to the monastery of San Bartolomeo. As late as July 1039 he was still not consecrated, despite the growing movement within Latin Christendom against that practice. He appears also to have been an imperial partisan, though imperial intervention in ecclesiastical affairs would soon stir up the Investiture Controversy. On 25 October 1046 he attended the Synod of Pavia convoked by the Emperor Henry III.

Nonetheless, Atinolfo signed the canons with Gerard, Bishop of Florence, of a Roman synod convened under Pope Leo IX, a reformer, in May 1050. On 15 July 1050, while the pope was passing through Florence, the monks of San Bartolomeo met him and implored him to confirm the donation that Iacopo had made to them. The pope did and Atinolof complied by restoring the possessions in a charter in which he describes Conrad II, not the pope, as senior mei (my lord). Atinolof was last recorded in July 1057 at a synod of Tuscan bishops in Arezzo under Pope Victor II.

Calw (disambiguation)

Calw may refer to:

Calw, a town in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Landkreis Calw, a district in Baden-Württemberg

the family line of the counts of CalwName bearers from the same line:

Pope Victor II (c. 1018 – 28 July 1057), born Gebhard, Count of Calw, Tollenstein, and Hirschber

Erlung, Count of Calw (–1106), Bishop of Würzburg (1104-1106)

Gottfried of Calw (d 1131), Count of Calw, Count-Palatine of bei Rhein (1113–1126)

Uta of Calw (~1115/20–1197), founder of All Saints' Abbey in the Black Forest, wife of Welf VI.Other bearers of the name:

Ulrich Rülein von Calw (1465–1523), mining engineer and mayor of Freiberg, Saxony

Cynesige

Cynesige (died 22 December 1060) was a medieval English Archbishop of York between 1051 and 1060. Prior to his appointment to York, he was a royal clerk and perhaps a monk at Peterborough. As archbishop, he built and adorned his cathedral as well as other churches, and was active in consecrating bishops. After his death in 1060, the bequests he had made to a monastery were confiscated by the queen.

Eichstätt

Eichstätt (German pronunciation: [ˈaɪçʃtɛt], formerly also Eichstädt or Aichstädt) is a town in the federal state of Bavaria, Germany, and capital of the district of Eichstätt. It is located on the Altmühl river and has a population of around 13,000. Eichstätt is also the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Eichstätt.

Gebhard III (bishop of Regensburg)

Gebhard III, called Gebhard of Franconia or von Hohenlohe, was the bishop of Regensburg (or Ratisbon) from 1036 to 2 December 1060. He succeeded Gebhard II. He was an uncle of the Emperor Henry III and an ally of the emperor in Bavaria, where he fell into conflict with the Duke Conrad I.

It was Gebhard who, as bishop, recommended the young Gebhard be appointed to the vacant see of Eichstädt. This younger Gebhard would later be Pope Victor II. Henry also showed his favour to the Bavarian see with the grant to Gebhard of the abbey of Kempten. During his episcopate likewise were founded the collegiate chapter of Ohringen and the Geisenfeld convent.

When Henry III was on his deathbed in 1056, he appointed Gebhard, Gotebald, and Pope Victor II to determine the regency for his young son Henry IV.

On his death, Gebhard was succeeded by Otto of Ritenberg.

Gotebald

Gotebald (or Gotebold) was the Patriarch of Aquileia during the middle of the eleventh century (1049–1063). He was originally a provost from Speyer (prepositus Nemetensis). During his reign, the century-old conflict between Old-Aquileia and Grado reached a climax.

Between 1050 and 1051, he supported the bishop of Treviso in a conflict, going so far as to falsify an imperial diploma.

In 1053, Pope Leo IX declared Grado to be the true patriarchate, a Nova Aquileia and caput et metropolis of the Province of Venetia et Histria. Gotebald was relegated to being mere Forojuliensis episcopus. In response to this, Gotebald took up arms to defend the territorial integrity of his patriarchal diocese. He refused to aid the papal reformers against simoniacs. He did, however, have the friendship of Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor, who even confirmed the false diploma. Gotebald and the emperor put pressure on Pope Victor II to reverse the decision of Leo, but to no avail.

Henry continued to treat Gotebald with prestige nevertheless. On his deathbed (1056), the emperor called on Gotebald, Gebhard III of Regensburg, and the pope to determine the regency for his young son Henry IV. Gotebald traveled to Germany in the years that followed and was confirmed as patriarch with supremacy over Grado by Henry IV.

Despite his lifelong conflict with the see of Grado and the popes, he was not a poor clergyman. He enlarged the monasteries of his domain considerably before his death in 1063.

Liber Gomorrhianus

The Liber Gomorrhianus (Book of Gomorrah) is a book authored and published by the Benedictine monk St. Peter Damian during the Gregorian Reformation circa AD 1051. It is a treatise regarding various vices of the clergy, including sodomy, and the consequent need for reform.

Monte Cassino

Monte Cassino (sometimes written Montecassino) is a rocky hill about 130 kilometres (81 mi) southeast of Rome, in the Latin Valley, Italy, 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) to the west of the town of Cassino and 520 m (1,706.04 ft) altitude. Site of the Roman town of Casinum, it is best known for its abbey, the first house of the Benedictine Order, having been established by Benedict of Nursia himself around 529. It was for the community of Monte Cassino that the Rule of Saint Benedict was composed.

The first monastery on Monte Cassino was sacked by the invading Lombards around 570 and abandoned. Of the first monastery almost nothing is known. The second monastery was established by Petronax of Brescia around 718, at the suggestion of Pope Gregory II and with the support of the Lombard Duke Romuald II of Benevento. It was directly subject to the pope and many monasteries in Italy were under its authority. In 883 the monastery was sacked by Saracens and abandoned again. The community of monks resided first at Teano and then from 914 at Capua before the monastery was rebuilt in 949. During the period of exile, the Cluniac Reforms were introduced into the community.

The 11th and 12th centuries were the abbey's golden age. It acquired a large secular territory around Monte Cassino, the so-called Terra Sancti Benedicti ("Land of Saint Benedict"), which it heavily fortified with castles. It maintained good relations with the Eastern Church, even receiving patronage from Byzantine emperors. It encouraged fine art and craftsmanship by employing Byzantine and even Saracen artisans. In 1057, Pope Victor II recognised the abbot of Monte Cassino as having precedence over all other abbots. Many monks rose to become bishops and cardinals, and three popes were drawn from the abbey: Stephen IX (1057–58), Victor III (1086–87) and Gelasius II (1118–19). During this period the monastery's chronicle was written by two of its own, Cardinal Leo of Ostia and Peter the Deacon (who also compiled the cartulary).

By the 13th century, the monastery's decline had set in. In 1239, the Emperor Frederick II garrisoned troops in it during his war with the Papacy. In 1322, Pope John XXII elevated the abbey into a bishopric but this was suppressed in 1367. The buildings were destroyed by an earthquake in 1349, and in 1369 Pope Urban V demanded a contribution from all Benedictine monasteries to fund the rebuilding. In 1454 the abbey was placed in commendam and in 1504 was made subject to the Abbey of Santa Giustina in Padua.

In 1799, Monte Cassino was sacked again by French troops during the French Revolutionary Wars. The abbey was dissolved by the Italian government in 1866. The building became a national monument with the monks as custodians of its treasures. In 1944 during World War II it was the site of the Battle of Monte Cassino and the building was destroyed by Allied bombing. It was rebuilt after the war.

After the reforms of the Second Vatican Council the monastery was one of the few remaining territorial abbeys within the Catholic Church. On 23 October 2014, Pope Francis applied the norms of the motu proprio Ecclesia Catholica of Paul VI (1976) to the abbey, removing from its jurisdiction all 53 parishes and reducing its spiritual jurisdiction to the abbey itself—while retaining its status as a territorial abbey. The former territory of the Abbey, except the land on which the abbey church and monastery sit, was transferred to the diocese of Sora-Cassino-Aquino-Pontecorvo.

Pope Stephen IX

Pope Stephen IX (Latin: Stephanus IX; c. 1020 – 29 March 1058) reigned from 3 August 1057 to his death in 1058.

Pope Victor

Pope Victor has been the papal name of three popes of the Roman Catholic Church.

Pope Victor I (189–199)

Pope Victor II (1055–1057)

Pope Victor III (1086–1087)There were also two antipopes called Victor IV.

Antipope Victor IV (1138)

Antipope Victor IV (1159–1164)

Ramon Berenguer I, Count of Barcelona

Ramon Berenguer I (1023–1076), called the Old (Catalan: el Vell, French: le Vieux), was Count of Barcelona in 1035–1076. He promulgated the earliest versions of a written code of Catalan law, the Usages of Barcelona.

Born in 1024, he succeeded his father, Berenguer Ramon I the Crooked in 1035. It was during his reign that the dominant position of Barcelona among the other Catalan counties became evident.

Ramon Berenguer campaigned against the Moors, extending his dominions as far west as Barbastro and imposing heavy tributes (parias) on other Moorish cities. Historians claim that those tributes helped create the first wave of prosperity in Catalan history. During his reign Catalan maritime power started to be felt in the western Mediterranean. Ramon Berenguer the Old was also the first count of Catalonia to acquire lands (the counties of Carcassonne and Razés) and influence north of the Pyrenees.Another major achievement of his was beginning the codification of Catalan law in the written Usatges of Barcelona which was to become the first full compilation of feudal law in Western Europe. Legal codification was part of the count's efforts to forward and somehow control the process of feudalization which started during the reign of his weak father, Berenguer Ramon. Another major contributor was the Church acting through the institution of the Peace and Truce of God. This established a general truce among warring factions and lords in a given region for a given time. The earliest extant date for introducing the Truce of God in Western Europe is 1027 in Catalonia, during the reign of his father, Berenguer Ramon.

While still married to his second wife Blanca, he became involved with the wife of the Count of Toulouse, Almodis de La Marche, countess of Limoges. Both quickly married and were consequently excommunicated by Pope Victor II.Ramon Berenguer I, together with his third wife Almodis, also founded the Romanesque cathedral of Barcelona, to replace the older basilica presumably destroyed by Almanzor. Their velvet and brass bound wooden coffins are still displayed in the Gothic cathedral which eventually replaced the cathedral that they founded.

He was succeeded by his twin sons Ramon Berenguer II and Berenguer Ramon II.

Terra Sancti Benedicti

The Terra Sancti Benedicti ("Land of Saint Benedict") was the secular territory, or seignory, of the powerful Abbey of Montecassino, the chief monastery of the Mezzogiorno and one of the first Western monasteries: founded by Benedict of Nursia himself, hence the name of its possessions.

The secular holdings had their origin in the donation of Gisulf II of Benevento in 744. The Terra was not large, it formed a basically contiguous zone around the hill of Montecassino, but it was valuable land and the site of many battles in many wars. It was immediately subject to the Holy See and constituted its own state. In 1057, Pope Victor II declared that the abbot of Montecassino had preeminence over and above all other abbots.

Victor II

Victor II may refer to:

Pope Victor II

Victor II, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym

Victor II, Duke of Ratibor

Victor-class submarine

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