Pope Victor I

Pope Victor I (Birth year not known - died 199) was Bishop of Rome and hence a pope, in the late second century (189-199 A.D.). He was of Berber origin.[1][2] The dates of his tenure are uncertain, but one source states he became pope in 189 and gives the year of his death as 199.[3] He was the first bishop of Rome born in the Roman Province of Africa—probably in Leptis Magna (or Tripolitania). He was later considered a saint. His feast day was celebrated on 28 July as "St Victor I, Pope and Martyr".[4]

Pope Saint

Victor I
Pope Victor I
Papacy began189
Papacy ended199
PredecessorEleuterus
SuccessorZephyrinus
Personal details
Birth nameVictor
BornEarly 2nd Century AD
Africa Proconsulare
Died199 AD
Rome, Roman Empire
Sainthood
Feast day28 July
Other popes named Victor

Biography

The primary sources vary over the dates assigned to Victor’s episcopate, but indicate it included the last decade of the second century. Eusebius puts his accession in the tenth year of Commodus (i.e. A.D. 189), which is accepted by Lipsius as the correct date. Jerome’s version of the Chronicle puts his accession in the reign of Pertinax, or the first year of Septimius Severus (i.e. 193), while the Armenian version puts it in the seventh year of Commodus (186). The Liber Pontificalis dates his accession to the consulate of Commodus and Glabrio (i.e. 186), while the Liberian Catalogue, a surviving copy of the source the Liber Pontificalis drew upon for its chronology, is damaged at this point[5] Concerning the duration of his episcopate, Eusebius, in his History, does not state directly the duration of his episcopate, but the Armenian version of Eusebius' Chronicle gives it as twelve years. The Liberian Catalogue gives his episcopate a length of nine years two months and ten days, while the Liber Pontificalis states it was ten years and the same number of months and days; the Felician Catalogue something over ten. Finally, Eusebius in his History (5.28) states Zephyrinus succeeded him "about the ninth year of Severus", (201), while the Liber Pontificalis dates it to the consulate of Laternus and Rufinus (197). Lipsius, considering Victor in connection with his successors, concludes that he held office between nine and ten years, and therefore gives as his dates 189–198 or 199.

According to an anonymous writer quoted by Eusebius, Victor excommunicated Theodotus of Byzantium for teaching that Christ was a mere man.[6] However, he is best known for his role in the Quartodeciman controversy. Prior to his elevation, a difference in dating the celebration of the Christian Passover/Easter between Rome and the bishops of Asia Minor had been tolerated by both the Roman and Eastern churches. The churches in Asia Minor celebrated it on the 14th of the Jewish month of Nisan, the day before Jewish Passover, regardless of what day of the week it fell on, as the Crucifixion had occurred on the Friday before Passover, justifying this as the custom they had learned from the apostles; for this the Latins called them Quartodecimans. Synods were held on the subject in various parts—in Judea under Theophilus of Caesarea and Narcissus of Jerusalem, in Pontus under Palmas, in Gaul under Irenaeus, in Corinth under its bishop, Bachillus, at Osrhoene in Mesopotamia, and elsewhere—all of which disapproved of this practice and consequently issued by synodical letters declaring that "on the Lord's Day only the mystery of the resurrection of the Lord from the dead was accomplished, and that on that day only we keep the close of the paschal fast" (Eusebius H. E. v. 23). Despite this disapproval, the general feeling was that this divergent tradition was not sufficient grounds for excommunication. Victor alone was intolerant of this difference, and severed ties with these ancient churches, whose bishops included such luminaries as Polycrates of Ephesus;[7] in response he was rebuked by Irenaeus and others, according to Eusebius.

See also

References

  1. ^ Serralda, Vincent; Huard, André (1984). Le Berbère-- lumière de l'Occident (in French). Nouvelles Editions Latines. p. 50. ISBN 9782723302395.
  2. ^ Guernier, Eugène (1950). La Berbérie, l'Islam et la France: le destin de l'Afrique du Nord (in French). Éditions de l'Union française. p. 125.
  3. ^ Kirsch, Johann Peter (1912). "Pope St. Victor I" in The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 15. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  4. ^ See the General Roman Calendar of 1954
  5. ^ Raymond D. Davis, The book of Pontiffs (Liber Pontificalis) (Liverpool: University Press, 1989), pp. 6, 94.
  6. ^ Eusebius Pamphilius: Church History, Life of Constantine, Oration in Praise of Constantine, 5.28
  7. ^ Eusebius Pamphilius: Church History, Life of Constantine, Oration in Praise of Constantine,5.24

Literature

  • Josef Rist (1997). "VICTOR I.". In Bautz, Traugott (ed.). Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL) (in German). 12. Herzberg: Bautz. cols. 1334–1337. ISBN 3-88309-068-9.
  • Pope St. Victor I 
  • Handl A. (2016). Viktor I. (189?-199?) von Rom und die Etablierung des “monarchischen” Episkopats in Rom. Sacris Erudiri: a Journal on the Inheritance of Early and Medieval Christianity, 55, 7-56.

External links

Titles of the Great Christian Church
Preceded by
Eleuterus
Bishop of Rome
Pope

189–199
Succeeded by
Zephyrinus
189

Year 189 (CLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Silanus and Silanus (or, less frequently, year 942 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 189 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

199

Year 199 (CXCIX) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Annullianus and Fronto (or, less frequently, year 952 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 199 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Al-Khums

Al-Khums or Khoms (Arabic: الخمس‎) is a city, port and the de jure capital of the contested Murqub District on the Mediterranean coast of Libya with an estimated population of around 202,000. The population at the 1984 census was 38,174. Between 1983 and 1995 it was the administrative center of al-Khums District.

Catholic Church in Africa

The Catholic Church in Africa refers to parts of the Catholic Church in the various countries in the continent of Africa.

Christian activity in Africa began in the 1st century when the Patriarchate of Alexandria in Egypt was formed as one of the four original Patriarchs of the East (the others being Constantinople, Antioch, and Jerusalem).

However, the Islamic conquest in the 7th century resulted in a harsh decline for Christianity in northern Africa.

Yet, at least outside the Islamic majority parts of northern Africa, the presence of the Catholic Church has recovered and grown in the modern era in Africa as a whole. Catholic Church membership rose from 2 million in 1900 to 140 million in 2000. In 2005, the Catholic Church in Africa, including Eastern Catholic Churches, embraced approximately 135 million of the 809 million people in Africa. In 2009, when Pope Benedict XVI visited Africa, it was estimated at 158 million. Most belong to the Latin Church, but there are also millions of members of the Eastern Catholic Churches. By 2025, one-sixth (230 million) of the world's Catholics are expected to be Africans.The world's largest seminary is in Nigeria, which borders on Cameroon in western Africa, and Africa produces a large percentage of the world's priests. There are also 16 Cardinals from Africa, out of 192, and 400,000 catechists. Cardinal Peter Turkson, formerly Archbishop of Cape Coast, Ghana, is Africa's youngest Cardinal at 64 years old, and was also one of several prelates from Africa estimated as papabile for the Papacy in the last papal conclave of 2013.

Easter controversy

The controversy over the correct date for Easter began in Early Christianity as early as the 2nd century AD. Discussion and disagreement over the best method of computing the date of Easter Sunday has been ongoing and unresolved for centuries. Different Christian denominations continue to celebrate Easter on different dates, with Eastern and Western Christian churches being a notable example.

Felician of Foligno

Saint Felician(us) of Foligno (Italian: San Feliciano di Foligno) (c. 160 – c. 250) is the patron saint of Foligno.

History of the Roman Curia

The history of the Roman Curia, the administrative apparatus responsible for managing the affairs of the Holy See and the Catholic Church, can be traced to the 11th century when informal methods of administration began to take on a more organized structure and eventual a bureaucratic form. The Curia has undergone a series of renewals and reforms, including a major overhaul following the loss of the Papal States, which fundamentally altered the range and nature of the Curia's responsibilities, removing many of an entirely secular nature.

July 28

July 28 is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 156 days remain until the end of the year.

Libya in the Roman era

The area of North Africa which has been known as Libya since 1911 was under Roman domination between 146 BC and 672 AD. The Latin name Libya at the time referred to the continent of Africa in general. What is now coastal Libya was known as Tripolitania and Pentapolis, divided between the Africa province in the west, and Creta et Cyrenaica in the east. In 296 AD, the Emperor Diocletian separated the administration of Crete from Cyrenaica and in the latter formed the new provinces of "Upper Libya" and "Lower Libya", using the term Libya as a political state for the first time in history.

List of Libyans

This is a list of noteworthy people from Libya, sorted by occupation.

Polycrates of Ephesus

Polycrates of Ephesus (; Greek: Πολυκράτης; fl. c. 130 – 196) was an Early Christian bishop who resided in Ephesus.

Roberts and Donaldson noted that Polycrates "belonged to a family in which he was the eighth Christian bishop; and he presided over the church of Ephesus, in which the traditions of St. John were yet fresh in men's minds at the date of his birth. He had doubtless known Polycarp, and Irenaeus also. He seems to have presided over a synod of Asiatic bishops (A.D. 196) which came together to consider this matter of the Paschal feast. It is surely noteworthy that nobody doubted that it was kept by a Christian and Apostolic ordinance."Polycrates is best known for his letter addressed to the Pope Victor I, Bishop of Rome, who was attempting to find a consensus about the proper date to celebrate Easter, see also Quartodecimanism.

The Church historian Eusebius wrote,

A question of no small importance arose at that time. For the parishes of all Asia, as from an older tradition, held that the fourteenth day of the moon, on which day the Jews were commanded to sacrifice the lamb, should be observed as the feast of the Saviour's passover...But it was not the custom of the churches in the rest of the world...But the bishops of Asia, led by Polycrates, decided to hold to the old custom handed down to them. He himself, in a letter which he addressed to Victor and the church of Rome, set forth in the following words the tradition which had come down to him.Here is what Eusebius records that Polycrates wrote,

We observe the exact day; neither adding, nor taking away. For in Asia also great lights have fallen asleep, which shall rise again on the day of the Lord's coming, when he shall come with glory from heaven, and shall seek out all the saints. Among these are Philip, one of the twelve apostles, who fell asleep in Hierapolis; and his two aged virgin daughters, and another daughter, who lived in the Holy Spirit and now rests at Ephesus; and, moreover, John, who was both a witness and a teacher, who reclined upon the bosom of the Lord, and, being a priest, wore the sacerdotal plate. He fell asleep at Ephesus. And Polycarp in Smyrna, who was a bishop and martyr; and Thraseas, bishop and martyr from Eumeneia, who fell asleep in Smyrna. Why need I mention the bishop and martyr Sagaris who fell asleep in Laodicea, or the blessed Papirius, or Melito the Eunuch who lived altogether in the Holy Spirit, and who lies in Sardis, awaiting the episcopate from heaven, when he shall rise from the dead? All these observed the fourteenth day of the passover according to the Gospel, deviating in no respect, but following the rule of faith. And I also, Polycrates, the least of you all, do according to the tradition of my relatives, some of whom I have closely followed. For seven of my relatives were bishops; and I am the eighth. And my relatives always observed the day when the people put away the leaven. I, therefore, brethren, who have lived sixty-five years in the Lord, and have met with the brethren throughout the world, and have gone through every Holy Scripture, am not affrighted by terrifying words. For those greater than I have said 'We ought to obey God rather than man'...I could mention the bishops who were present, whom I summoned at your desire; whose names, should I write them, would constitute a great multitude. And they, beholding my littleness, gave their consent to the letter, knowing that I did not bear my gray hairs in vain, but had always governed my life by the Lord Jesus.Pope Victor attempted to cut off from the common unity Polycrates and others for taking this stance, but later reversed his decision after Irenaeus and others interceded. It is unclear what happened to Polycrates after his letter.

Polycrates' letter has been used as proof against the argument that the Churches in Asia Minor accepted the authority of the bishops at Rome.

Pope Telesphorus

Pope Telesphorus (died c. 137) was the Bishop of Rome from c. 126 to his death c. 137, during the reigns of Roman Emperors Hadrian and Antoninus Pius. He was of Greek ancestry and born in Terranova da Sibari, Calabria, Italy.

Pope Victor

Pope Victor has been the papal name of three popes of the Roman Catholic Church.

Pope Victor I (189–199)

Pope Victor II (1055–1057)

Pope Victor III (1086–1087)There were also two antipopes called Victor IV.

Antipope Victor IV (1138)

Antipope Victor IV (1159–1164)

Pope Zephyrinus

Pope Zephyrinus (died 20 December 217) was Bishop of Rome or Pope from 199 to his death in 217. He was born in Rome. His predecessor was Pope Victor I. Upon his death on 20 December 217, he was succeeded by his principal advisor, Pope Callixtus I. He is known for combatting heresies and defending the divinity of Christ.

Saint Victor Parish (San Jose)

St. Victor Parish is a territorial parish of the Roman Catholic Diocese of San Jose in California, located in the Berryessa neighborhood of San Jose, California. The parish was founded in 1961 by the Rev. James Prendeville, and was named for Pope Victor I. Its territory was taken from St. Patrick Parish and Saint John Vianney Parish in San Jose and Saint John the Baptist Parish in Milpitas. The first Mass was celebrated on October 29, 1961, the feast of Christ the King, in an old farm house that Mateo and Ann Sunseri made available to the community.

St. Victor

Saint Victor can refer to several people:

Saint Victor of Damascus, martyr, 2nd century, see Saints Victor and Corona (died c. 170)

Saint Pope Victor I (died 199), martyr

Saint Victor of Marseilles (died c. 290)

Saint Victor Maurus (died ca. 303 in Milan), martyr

Saint Victorinus of Pettau (died 303 or 304)

Saints Vincent, Orontius, and Victor (died 305), martyrs

Victor of Vita born circa 430

Saint Victor of Turin (died 465)

Saint Victor of Xanten (died 4th century), martyr.

Theodotus of Byzantium

Theodotus of Byzantium (Ancient Greek: Θεoδoτoς; also known as Theodotus the Tanner, Theodotus the Shoemaker, and Theodotus the Fuller; flourished late 2nd century) was an early Christian writer from Byzantium, one of several named Theodotus whose writings were condemned as heresy in the early church.

Theodotus claimed that Jesus was born of the Virgin Mary and the Holy Spirit as a non-divine man, and though later "adopted" by God upon baptism (that is to say, he became the Christ), was not himself God until after his resurrection.This doctrine, sometimes called "Dynamic Monarchianism" or "Adoptionism", was declared heretical by Pope Victor I, and Theodotus was excommunicated.

Victor I

Victor I may refer to:

Pope Victor I (in office c. 189 – 199)

Victor I, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym (1693–1772)

Victor I, Duke of Ratibor (1818–1893)

Victor class submarine, a nuclear-powered submarine built by the Soviet Union, the first version is referred to as Victor I

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