Pope Urban III

Pope Urban III (Latin: Urbanus III; died 20 October 1187), born Uberto Crivelli, reigned from 25 November 1185 to his death in 1187.[1]

Pope

Urban III
B Urban III
Papacy began25 November 1185
Papacy ended20 October 1187
PredecessorLucius III
SuccessorGregory VIII
Orders
Consecration1182
Created cardinalSeptember 1173
by Pope Lucius III
Personal details
Birth nameUberto Crivelli
Born1120
Cuggiono, Holy Roman Empire
Died20 October 1187
Ferrara, Holy Roman Empire
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Other popes named Urban

Life

Early life and papal election

Crivelli was born in Cuggiono as the son of Guala Crivelli and had four brothers: Pietro, Domenico, Pastore and Guala. He was, on his mother's side, the uncle of the future Pope Celestine IV. He studied in Bologna.

In 1182, he was made a cardinal by Pope Lucius III. His original title is unknown, but he opted to be the Cardinal-Priest of San Lorenzo in Lucina in 1182. Lucius appointed him Archbishop of Milan in 1185. Lucius III died on 25 November 1185; Cardinal Crivelli was elected that same day.[2] The haste was probably due to fear of imperial interference.[3]

Pontificate

He vigorously took up his predecessor's quarrels with Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa, including the standing dispute about the disposal of the territories of the countess Matilda of Tuscany. This was embittered by personal enmity, for at the sack of Milan in 1162 the emperor had caused several of the pope's relatives to be proscribed or mutilated. Even after his elevation to the papacy, Urban III continued to hold the archbishopric of Milan, and in this capacity refused to crown as King of Italy Frederick I's son Henry, who had married Constance, the heiress of the kingdom of Sicily. By this marriage the papacy lost that Norman support on which it had so long relied in its contests with the emperor.[3]

Urban exerted himself to bring about peace between England and France, and on 23 June, 1187, his legates by threats of excommunication prevented a pitched battle between the armies of the rival kings near Châteauroux, and brought about a two years' truce.[3]

While Henry in the south cooperated with the rebel Senate of Rome, his father Frederick blocked the passes of the Alps and cut off all communication between the Pope, then living in Verona, and his German adherents. Urban III now resolved on excommunicating Frederick I, but the Veronese protested against such a proceeding being resorted to within their walls. He accordingly withdrew to Ferrara, but died before he could give effect to his intentions. His successor was Gregory VIII.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Duffy, Eamon, Saints & sinners: A History of the Popes, (Yale University Press, 2001), 392.
  2. ^ Coulombe, Charles A., Vicars of Christ: A History of the Popes, (Citadel Press, 2003), 249.
  3. ^ a b c Webster, Douglas Raymund. "Pope Urban III." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 15. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Lucius III
Pope
1185–87
Succeeded by
Gregory VIII
1180s

The 1180s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1180, and ended on December 31, 1189.

1185

Year 1185 (MCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

1185 papal election

The papal election of 1185 (held November 25) was a convoked after the death of Pope Lucius III. It resulted in the election of Cardinal Uberto Crivelli of Milan, who took the name of Urban III.

1187

Year 1187 (MCLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Brønshøj

Brønshøj, part of the municipality of Copenhagen, forms, together with Husum, the administrative city district (bydel) of Brønshøj-Husum, in Denmark. Brønshøj lies on rising ground 4 km west of Copenhagen center and is bordered by the large wetland area of Utterslev Mose and Tingbjerg to the north. A number of ponds, lakes, and parks characterise Brønshøj. On its eastern edge, the ridgeline of Bellahøj provides extensive views over Copenhagen.

The first mention of the village Brønshøj (Brunshoga), is in a letter dated October 21, 1186 from Pope Urban III to Archbishop Absalon. Brønshøj Church dates from approximately the same time.

In 1658-1660, during The Northern Wars, the village and its immediate surroundings were transformed into a military fortress and town, named Carlstad by the Swedish Army under the command of King Karl X Gustav. This town supported the Swedish siege of Copenhagen. The population reached c. 30,000, which was the same as that of Copenhagen itself. The siege ended on the death of Karl X Gustav, 13 February 1660. Evidence of the fortifications cannot be found in the landscape today, though many artifacts have been uncovered. Artifacts and models of Carlstad and the events surrounding its creation are found at Brønshøj Museum.

During the late part of the 19th century and early part of the 20th century the rural village developed into a suburb of the growing metropolis of Copenhagen. In 1901, Brønshøj, together with several of the neighboring villages, was incorporated into the municipality of Copenhagen. Brønshøj contains some important examples of Danish housing types. In 1899, the cooperative housing area of Enigheden was begun as worker housing for the local dairy: this was followed in 1923 by the English Garden Village. In the 1950s, Denmark's first significant high-rise housing was built at Bellahøj. The great Danish landscape architect C.Th. Sørensen lived in one of the penthouses, known as rooftop villas, until his death. C.Th. Sørensen and architect Steen Eiler Rasmussen also planned the housing area Tingbjerg (near Utterslev Mose) between the late 1950s and early 1970s, and was constructed on the English architectural concept (of the times) of having a village within the city.

Today, Brønshøj is not served by the S-train and Metro networks, but the City bus connects the area to the core of Copenhagen, which can be reached within 20 minutes by car, bus or bicycle. In the most significant current development, small workshops, car lots and other single-storey buildings are being demolished and replaced with new housing blocks, often over shops, along Brønshøj's main street, Frederiksundsvej. However, the area maintains a distinctive character generated by its topography, parks, and housing architecture.

Cardinals created by Urban III

Pope Urban III (r. 1185-87) created five cardinals in two consistories held during his pontificate.

Crivelli (surname)

Crivelli is a surname. Notable persons with that surname include:

Alessandro Crivelli (1514-74), Italian cardinal

Carlo Crivelli (c.1435-c.1495), Venetian Renaissance painter

Domenico Crivelli (c.1793–1856), Italian-English tenor and singing teacher

Lucrezia Crivelli, model for La Belle Ferronière

Taddeo Crivelli (fl. 1451, died by 1479), painter of illuminated manuscripts of the Ferrara school (also known as Taddeo da Ferrara)

Uberto Crivelli (died 1187), birth name of Pope Urban III

Vittorio Crivelli (c.1440-c.1501), Italian painter, brother of Carlo Crivelli

Giovanni Francesco Crivelli (1691–1743), Italian physicist and teacher

Enzo Crivelli (1995-present). French footballer who plays for Bordeaux

Everard of Ypres

Everard of Ypres was a scholastic philosopher of the middle of the twelfth century, a master of the University of Paris who became a Cistercian monk of the abbey of Moutier of Argonne. He had worked also for Cardinal Giacinto Bobone, the future Pope Innocent III.He studied with Gilbert de la Porrée, first in Chartres and then in Paris, moving from four hearers to huge audiences in the hundreds. He is an important commentator on the dispute between Gilbert and Bernard of Clairvaux, about which he later wrote. The Dialogus Ratii et Everardi, a work dated to the 1190s, and variously considered either fictional or based on real conversations, contains an exposition of Gilbert's views. The dialogue is presented between a letter to Pope Urban III and another letter, a literary structure that has been traced back to Sulpicius Severus.The identification of the author of the Dialogus and the canonist author of Summula decretionum quaestionum, dated c.1180, was made by N. M. Häring; but this is not universally accepted. The Summula is a digest of the Summa of Sicardus of Cremona.

Gotofredo da Castiglione

Gotofredo da Castiglione (sometimes given as Gotofredo II to distinguish him from Gotofredo I, Archbishop of Milan) was an Italian anti-bishop from 1070 to 1075, appointed by Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor to the office of Bishop of Milan. This began the Investiture Controversy, whereby Pope St. Gregory VII excommunicated Gotofredo over the issue of lay investiture.

Gotofredo was eventually recanted as bishop after the Walk to Canossa in 1077.

History of Copenhagen

The history of Copenhagen dates back to the first settlement at the site in the 11th century. From the middle of the 12th century it grew in importance after coming into the possession of Bishop Absalon, and the city was fortified with a stone wall during the 13th century. The harbour and the excellent possibilities for herring fishing contributed to Copenhagen's growth and development into an important trading centre. It was repeatedly attacked by the Hanseatic League as the Germans became aware of its expansion. In 1254, it received its charter as a city under Bishop Jakob Erlandsen.

The town was significantly enlarged under Christian IV of Denmark after his coronation in 1596 by the addition of new city districts and modern fortifications with earthworks and bastions. The king commissioned German and Dutch architects and craftsmen to construct magnificent edifices designed to enhance his prestige. By the time of Christian IV's death in 1648, Copenhagen had become Denmark's principal fortification and naval port, and the town formed a framework for the administration of the Danish kingdom and as a centre of trade in Northern Europe.

During 1658-59 it withstood a severe siege by the Swedes under Charles X and successfully repelled a major assault. In 1728 and again in 1795, the city was ravaged by large fires, which destroyed most of the medieval part of town. In 1801, a British fleet under Admiral Parker fought a major battle, the Battle of Copenhagen, with the Danish navy in Copenhagen harbour. It was during this battle Lord Nelson "put the telescope to the blind eye" in order not to see Admiral Parker's signal to cease fire. When a British expeditionary force bombarded Copenhagen in 1807 in order to take control of the Danish navy, thus denying it to nascent French plans to invade Britain, the city suffered great damage and hundreds of people were killed. The main reason for the extensive devastation was that Copenhagen relied on an old defence line rendered virtually useless by the long ranged bombard ships and mortar batteries employed by the British. But not until the 1850s were the ramparts of the city opened to allow new housing to be built around the lakes which bordered the old defence system to the west. This dramatic increase of space was long overdue, not only because the old ramparts were out of date as a defence system, but also because of bad sanitation in the old city. Before this relaxation, the historic centre of Copenhagen was inhabited by approximately 125,000 people, peaking in the census of 1870 (140,000); today the figure is around 25,000. In 1901, Copenhagen expanded further, incorporating communities with 40,000 people, and in the process making Frederiksberg an enclave within Copenhagen.

Since the summer 2000, the cities of Copenhagen and Malmö have been connected by a toll bridge/tunnel (Øresund Bridge) for both rail and road traffic. As a result, Copenhagen has become the centre of a larger metropolitan area which spans both nations. The construction of the bridge has led to a large number of changes to the public transportation system and the extensive redevelopment of Amager, south of the main city.

John's first expedition to Ireland

John's First Expedition to Ireland refers to a visit to the Island of Ireland by John Plantagenet as part of a campaign to secure the influence of the House of Plantaganet and the Crown of England, who planned to set up a Kingdom of Ireland within the Angevin Empire. John was himself a future King of England, the son of Henry II of England and had been declared Lord of Ireland by his father at the Council of Oxford in 1177. Despite his own ambitions for the Kingdom of Jerusalem, John Lackland was sent west to Ireland by his father and landed at Waterford in April 1185.

The inexperienced young prince managed to offend the customs of the Irish Gaels who had met him diplomatically. John (who struggled to pay his own men) attempted to promise knights who traveled with him with Gaelic lands, which further irritated the natives. Aside from these concerns, he grew an intense dislike of the powerful Viceroy of Ireland, Hugh de Lacy, who held the Lordship of Meath, following his conquest of the Gaelic Kingdom of Meath. Following the Norman invasion of Ireland, the Plantagenets were repeatedly concerned with Norman barons, nominally loyal to them, becoming too powerful in Ireland and this was the case with the successful (militarily and diplomatically) de Lacys.

John returned to England in December 1185 and complained bitterly to his father about the influence of de Lacy in Ireland. Much to the relief of the Plantaganets, the following year, de Lacy himself was assassinated at Durrow by an Irishman, Giolla Gan Mathiar Ó Maidhaigh. Plans were made for John to return to Ireland and the new Pope Urban III was more favourable than his predecessors to granting him the title King of Ireland. However, this was cancelled due to the death of John's brother Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany. John would later return to Ireland for a second time in 1210 while King of England, as part of a campaign to crush a rebellion by a section of Norman lords; this time he was far more successful.

Krbava

Krbava (pronounced [kř̩bav̞a]; Latin: Corbavia) is a historical region located in Mountainous Croatia and a former Catholic bishopric (1185–1460), precursor of the diocese of Modruš an present Latin titular see.

It can be considered either located east of Lika, or indeed as the eastern part of Lika. The town of Udbina is the central settlement of the Krbava karst field.

October 1187 papal election

The papal election of October 1187 (held October 21) was convoked after the death of Pope Urban III. It resulted in the election of Cardinal Alberto Sartori di Morra, who took the name of Gregory VIII.

Pandolfo da Lucca

Pandolfo da Lucca (1140/45–1210/11), erroneously Pandolfo Masca, was an Italian cardinal of the late 12th century. His name is sometimes given in the anglicised form Pandulf or Pandulph.

Pandolfo was born in Lucca in the early 1140s. He was the son of a certain Pietro di Roberto. In the 16th century, the Spanish historian Alfonso Chacón mistakenly assigned him to the noble Masca family from the Pisan commune, an error finally caught in 1844 by Domenico Barsocchini, who found a document from 1208 naming Pandolfo's father.Pandolfo commissioned several paintings from Tuscany on the orders of Callixtus II, for which he was made sub-deacon of the apostolic seat. He was created a cardinal by Pope Lucius III in December 1182 with the title (titulus) of Santi XII Apostoli. He held this title at the time of the five papal elections at which he was present - Pope Urban III on November 25, 1185; Pope Gregory VIII on October 21, 1187; Pope Clement III on December 17–19, 1187; Pope Celestine III on March 25 (?) - 30, 1191; and Pope Innocent III on January 8, 1198. He subscribed the papal bulls between January 4, 1183 and November 11, 1200.

Pope Celestine III, wanting peace between Genoa and Pisa, sent Masca to Tuscany but, as for Lerici, at 1196 peace negotiations it proved impossible to arrive at an understanding. Anti-imperialist sentiment was also growing in Tuscany and, following the example of the Lombard League, a new league was formed, the League of San Genesio or the Tuscan League. The Church favoured such moves, seeing the need to return power to the Communes. On arrival in Tuscany, Masca succeeded in uniting the towns under the flag of the anti-feudality and of keeping themselves distinct from imperial authority. However, on the succession of Innocent III, the new pope did not wish to become part of the anti-imperialist league but instead to take possession of the Tuscan towns himself. Innocent wrote immediately to Masca and another cardinal who accepted the League's agreements (Bernardo, canon of S. Frediano of Lucca), affirming that the alliance had his disapproval since signoria (overlordship) over the March of Tuscany formally belonged to the Church, and as such the Pope could not negotiate with those who were in fact his subjects. Though this weakened the League, the Tuscan towns opposed the Pope in this, forcing him soon to give up the idea of a temporal dominion over Tuscany and limit himself to obstructing the League.Owing to confusion with an earlier cardinal, Pandulf of Pisa, Pandolfo was thought to have been born in 1101 and thus died over the age of one hundred in or after 1201. In reality, Pandolfo seems to have gone into an informal retirement to his native Lucca after 1201. He never appears at the papal court after that date, but he was active in Lucca as late as 1210. He probably died late that year or early the next. He was certainly dead by 1213.

Philip I (archbishop of Cologne)

Philip I (German: Philipp von Heinsberg) (c. 1130 – 13 August 1191) was the Archbishop of Cologne and Archchancellor of Italy from 1167 to 1191.

He was the son of Count Goswin II of Heinsberg and Adelaide of Sommerschenburg. He received his ecclesiastic training in Cologne and Rheims, becoming dean of the cathedral chapter in Cologne and then provost of Liège. In late Summer 1167, he was raised to the archchancery and the archdiocese of Cologne, where he was consecrated 29 September 1168. In that year, he entered into and mediated the controversy between France and England.

As bishop, Philip continued the policies of his predecessors. He exceeded all of them, however, in his territorial expansions, buying up the lands of his vassals and selling many for a profit. Philip held his fief directly from the emperor and was the greatest of the imperial tenants-in-chief. By buying up his vassals' subvassals, he tied them closer to himself. Frederick Barbarossa, however, saw a threat in the archbishop's pretensions and allied himself to the competing baronial factions of the region, especially Henry IV of Luxembourg, who had a hereditary claim to the Hainaut. Barbarossa also made Aachen and Duisburg royal cities with trade privileges in order to weaken Cologne economically.

Despite this, Philip remained a supporter of Frederick. As archchancellor, he campaigned with him in Italy on several occasions. He was present at the disastrous Battle of Legnano on 29 May 1176, where Barbarossa's Italian ambitions were left slain on the field. On 13 April 1180, Philip was created Duke of Westphalia in the breakup of the old Duchy of Saxony following the dispossession of Henry the Lion. With Westphalia in his control, Philip was the most powerful lord of the north of the realm and threatened the power and influence of the emperor. At the great council at Mainz in 1184, he raised Baldwin V of Hainault to margravial status. Philip responded by negotiating with Pope Urban III, then at odds with Barbarossa, and Canute IV of Denmark. He also moved to support the old count of Luxembourg, who had claims to Hainault. Philip further lent his support to the anti-Imperial candidate to the Archbishopric of Trier, Folmar of Karden, and erected a fortress in Zeltingen to that purpose, The archbishop's wider attempts to align the German episcopate against the emperor failed, however.

Around Whitsuntide 1187, Philip defeated an imperial army on its way to oppose Philip II of France. At this, the emperor formally accused the archbishop of unfaithfulness. In March 1188, Philip was subjected to a council in Mainz under the emperor. He made peace the next year (1189). In 1190, Philip was again playing a political rôle, this time mediating between Barbarossa and Henry the Lion. Philip accompanied the new Emperor Henry VI into Italy, to seize the Kingdom of Sicily in right of his wife Constance, in 1191 and died at the siege of Naples during an epidemic — either bubonic plague or malaria. His body was returned to Cologne.

In 1180 he began construction on Cologne's city wall. Documents dated 27 July and 18 August of the year attest to the beginning of work on what would become Europe's largest city wall until 1881. He also began the Shrine of the Three Kings, in which was found (1864) one of his coins.

Pope Gregory VIII

Pope Gregory VIII (Latin: Gregorius VIII; c. 1100/1105 – 17 December 1187), born Alberto di Morra, reigned from 21 October to his death in 1187.

Pope Urban

Pope Urban may refer to one of several people:

Pope Urban I, pope c. 222–230, a Saint

Pope Urban II, pope 1088–1099, the Blessed Pope Urban

Pope Urban III, pope 1185–1187

Pope Urban IV, pope 1261–1264

Pope Urban V, pope 1362–1370, also the Blessed Pope Urban

Pope Urban VI, pope 1378–1389

Pope Urban VII, pope 1590, had the shortest recognized papal reign

Pope Urban VIII, pope 1623–1644

San Martino di Castagnolo Minore, Bentivoglio

San Martino di Castagnolo Minore or of Castaniolo Minore is a Roman Catholic parish church located in the town of Bentivolgio in the Province of Bologna, Italy.

A large chestnut tree near the site gave name to two parish churches, the one on higher ground next to Castel Maggiore, and this one as Minore. The church is dedicated to the Bishop Martin of Tours. A church on the site might have been present by the 10th century, and is documented by the late 12th century, through a bull of Pope Urban III in 1187. The present church was built in the 1500s.

In the 1830s, rebuilding restored the belltower and facade, and the interior was redecorated with nave frescoes by Gaetano Caponeri; and chapel frescoes by Luigi Biondi, Cammillo Mattioli, and Antonio Muzzi.

Uberto Allucingoli

Uberto Allucingoli was an Italian cardinal and cardinal-nephew of Pope Lucius III, his uncle who ostensibly elevated him with the title of San Lorenzo in Damaso in 1182.Modern scholars consider him a fictitious individual who owes his existence to a confusion with Uberto Crivelli, who was created cardinal-priest of San Lorenzo in Damaso in December 1182 and then became Pope Urban III (1185–1187).

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