Pope Urban II

Pope Urban II (Latin: Urbanus II; c. 1035 – 29 July 1099), born Odo of Châtillon or Otho de Lagery,[2][A] was Pope from 12 March 1088 to his death in 1099.

Urban II was a native of France. He was a descendant of a noble family in Châtillon-sur-Marne.[3][4] Reims was the nearby cathedral school that Urban, at that time Eudes, began his studies at 1050.[5]

Before his papacy he was the abbot of Cluny and Bishop of Ostia under the name Eudes.[6] As the Pope he would have to deal with many issues including the antipope Clement III, infighting of various christian nations, and the Muslim incursions into Europe. He is best known for initiating the First Crusade (1096–99) and setting up the modern-day Roman Curia in the manner of a royal ecclesiastical court to help run the Church.[7] He promised forgiveness and pardon for all of the past sins of those who would fight to reclaim the holy land, and free the eastern churches.[8] This pardon would also apply to those that would fight the Moors in Spain.

Pope

Urban II
Pope Urban II Illustration
1655 portrait (Zurbarán)
Papacy began12 March 1088
Papacy ended29 July 1099
PredecessorVictor III
SuccessorPaschal II
Orders
Ordinationc. 1068
Consecration20 July 1085
Created cardinal1073
by Gregory VII
Personal details
Birth nameEudes of Châtillon
Bornc. 1035[1]
Lagery, County of Champagne, Kingdom of France
Died29 July 1099 (aged 64)
Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
Previous post
Sainthood
Feast day29 July
Venerated inCatholic Church
Beatified14 July 1881
Rome
by Pope Leo XIII
Attributes
Other popes named Urban
Papal styles of
Pope Urban II
Emblem of the Papacy SE
Reference styleHis Holiness
Spoken styleYour Holiness
Religious styleHoly Father
Posthumous styleBlessed

Bishop of Ostia

Urban, baptized Eudes (Odo), was born to a family of Châtillon-sur-Marne.[9][10] He was prior of the abbey of Cluny,[9] later Pope Gregory VII named him cardinal-bishop of Ostia c. 1080. He was one of the most prominent and active supporters of the Gregorian reforms, especially as legate in the Holy Roman Empire in 1084. He was among the three whom Gregory VII nominated as papabile (possible successors). Desiderius, the abbot of Monte Cassino, was chosen to follow Gregory in 1085 but, after his short reign as Victor III, Odo was elected by acclamation at a small meeting of cardinals and other prelates held in Terracina in March 1088.

Papacy

Struggle for authority

From the outset, Urban had to reckon with the presence of Guibert, the former bishop of Ravenna who held Rome as the antipope "Clement III". Gregory had repeatedly clashed with the emperor Henry IV over papal authority. Despite the Walk to Canossa, Gregory had backed the rebel Duke of Swabia and again excommunicated the emperor. Henry finally took Rome in 1084 and installed Clement III in his place.

Quimper - Cathédrale Saint-Corentin - PA00090326 - 040
A 19th-century stained-glass depiction of Urban receiving St Anselm, exiled from England by William the Red amid the Investiture Controversy

Urban took up the policies of Pope Gregory VII and, while pursuing them with determination, showed greater flexibility and diplomatic finesse. Usually kept away from Rome,[11] Urban toured northern Italy and France. A series of well-attended synods held in Rome, Amalfi, Benevento, and Troia supported him in renewed declarations against simony, lay investitures, clerical marriages (partly via the cullagium tax), and the emperor and his antipope. He facilitated the marriage of Matilda, countess of Tuscany, with Welf II, duke of Bavaria. He supported the rebellion of Prince Conrad against his father and bestowed the office of groom on Conrad at Cremona in 1095.[12] While there, he helped arrange the marriage between Conrad and Maximilla, the daughter of Count Roger of Sicily, which occurred later that year at Pisa; her large dowry helped finance Conrad's continued campaigns.[12] The Empress Adelaide was encouraged in her charges of sexual coercion against her husband, Henry IV. He supported the theological and ecclesiastical work of Anselm, negotiating a solution to the cleric's impasse with King William II of England and finally receiving England's support against the Imperial pope in Rome.

Urban maintained vigorous support for his predecessors' reforms, however, and did not shy from supporting Anselm when the new archbishop of Canterbury fled England. Likewise, despite the importance of French support for his cause, he upheld his legate Hugh of Die's excommunication of King Philip over his doubly bigamous marriage with Bertrade de Montfort, wife of the Count of Anjou. (The ban was repeatedly lifted and reimposed as the king promised to forswear her and then repeatedly returned to her. A public penance in 1104 ended the controversy,[13] although Bertrade remained active in attempting to see her sons succeed Philip instead of Louis.[14])

First Crusade

StatueUrbanII
Statue of Urban II in Clermont-Ferrand

The Pope's movement took its first public shape at the Council of Piacenza, where, in March 1095,[15] Urban II received an ambassador from the Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos asking for help against the Muslim Seljuk Turks who had taken over most of formerly Byzantine Anatolia.[16] A great council met, attended by numerous Italian, Burgundian, and French bishops in such vast numbers it had to be held in the open air outside the city of Clermont. Though the Council of Clermont held in November of the same year was primarily focused on reforms within the church hierarchy, Urban II gave a speech on 27 November 1095 to a broader audience.[17] Urban II's sermon proved highly effective, as he summoned the attending nobility and the people to wrest the Holy Land, and the eastern churches generally, from the control of the Seljuk Turks.[18]

There exists no exact transcription of the speech that Urban delivered at the Council of Clermont. The five extant versions of the speech were written down some time later, and they differ widely from one another.[19] All versions of the speech except that by Fulcher of Chartres were probably influenced by the chronicle account of the First Crusade called the Gesta Francorum (written c. 1101), which includes a version of it.[20] Fulcher of Chartres was present at the Council, though he did not start writing his history of the crusade, including a version of the speech until c. 1101.[21] Robert the Monk may have been present,[22] but his version dates from about 1106. The five versions of Urban's speech reflect much more clearly what later authors thought Urban II should have said to launch the First Crusade than what Urban II actually did say.

As a better means of evaluating Urban's true motives in calling for a crusade to the Holy Lands, there are four extant letters written by Pope Urban himself: one to the Flemish (dated December 1095);[23] one to the Bolognese (dated September 1096); one to Vallombrosa (dated October 1096); and one to the counts of Catalonia (dated either 1089 or 1096–1099). However, whereas the three former letters were concerned with rallying popular support for the Crusades, and establishing the objectives, his letters to the Catalonian lords instead beseech them to continue the fight against the Moors, assuring them that doing so would offer the same divine rewards as a conflict against the Seljuks.[24] It is Urban II's own letters, rather than the paraphrased versions of his speech at Clermont, that reveal his actual thinking about crusading. Nevertheless, the versions of the speech have had a great influence on popular conceptions and misconceptions about the Crusades, so it is worth comparing the five composed speeches to Urban's actual words. Fulcher of Chartres has Urban saying this:

I, or rather the Lord, beseech you as Christ's heralds to publish this everywhere and to persuade all people of whatever rank, foot-soldiers and knights, poor and rich, to carry aid promptly to those Christians and to destroy that vile race from the lands of our friends. I say this to those who are present, it is meant also for those who are absent. Moreover, Christ commands it.[25]

The chronicler Robert the Monk put this into the mouth of Urban II:

... this land which you inhabit, shut in on all sides by the seas and surrounded by the mountain peaks, is too narrow for your large population; nor does it abound in wealth; and it furnishes scarcely food enough for its cultivators. Hence it is that you murder one another, that you wage war, and that frequently you perish by mutual wounds. Let therefore hatred depart from among you, let your quarrels end, let wars cease, and let all dissensions and controversies slumber. Enter upon the road to the Holy Sepulchre; wrest that land from the wicked race, and subject it to yourselves ... God has conferred upon you above all nations great glory in arms. Accordingly undertake this journey for the remission of your sins, with the assurance of the imperishable glory of the Kingdom of Heaven.

Robert continued:

When Pope Urban had said these ... things in his urbane discourse, he so influenced to one purpose the desires of all who were present, that they cried out "It is the will of God! It is the will of God!". When the venerable Roman pontiff heard that, [he] said: "Most beloved brethren, today is manifest in you what the Lord says in the Gospel, 'Where two or three are gathered together in my name there am I in the midst of them.' Unless the Lord God had been present in your spirits, all of you would not have uttered the same cry. For, although the cry issued from numerous mouths, yet the origin of the cry was one. Therefore I say to you that God, who implanted this in your breasts, has drawn it forth from you. Let this then be your war-cry in combats, because this word is given to you by God. When an armed attack is made upon the enemy, let this one cry be raised by all the soldiers of God: It is the will of God! It is the will of God!"[26]

B Urban II2
Pope Urban II preaching the First Crusade at the Council of Clermont

Within Fulcher of Chartres account of pope Urban’s speech there was a promise of remission of sins for whoever took part in the crusade.

All who die by the way, whether by land or by sea, or in battle against the pagans, shall have immediate remission of sins. This I grant them through the power of God with which I am invested. O what a disgrace if such a despised and base race, which worships demons, should conquer a people which has the faith of omnipotent God and is made glorious with the name of Christ! With what reproaches will the Lord overwhelm us if you do not aid those who, with us, profess the Christian religion! Let those who have been accustomed unjustly to wage private warfare against the faithful now go against the infidels and end with victory this war which should have been begun long ago. Let those who for a long time, have been robbers, now become knights. Let those who have been fighting against their brothers and relatives now fight in a proper way against the barbarians. Let those who have been serving as mercenaries for small pay now obtain the eternal reward. Let those who have been wearing themselves out in both body and soul now work for a double honor. Behold! on this side will be the sorrowful and poor, on that, the rich; on this side, the enemies of the Lord, on that, his friends. Let those who go not put off the journey, but rent their lands and collect money for their expenses; and as soon as winter is over and spring comes, let them eagerly set out on the way with God as their guide.[25]

It is disputed whether the famous slogan "God wills it" or "It is the will of God" (deus vult in Latin, Dieu le veut in French) in fact was established as a rallying cry during the Council. While Robert the Monk says so,[27] it is also possible that the slogan was created as a catchy propaganda motto afterwards.

Urban II's own letter to the Flemish confirms that he granted "remission of all their sins" to those undertaking the enterprise to liberate the eastern churches.[8] One notable contrast with the speeches recorded by Robert the Monk, Guibert of Nogent, and Baldric of Dol is the lesser emphasis on Jerusalem itself, which Urban only once mentions as his own focus of concern. In the letter to the Flemish he writes, "they [the Turks] have seized the Holy City of Christ, embellished by his passion and resurrection, and blasphemy to say—have sold her and her churches into abominable slavery." In the letters to Bologna and Vallombrosa he refers to the crusaders' desire to set out for Jerusalem rather than to his own desire that Jerusalem be freed from Muslim rule. It was believed that originally that Urban wanted to send a relatively small force to aid the Byzantines, however after meeting with two prominent members of the crusades Adhemar of Puy and Raymond of Saint-Guilles, Urban decided to rally a much larger force to retake Jerusalem.[28] Urban II refers to liberating the church as a whole or the eastern churches generally rather than to reconquering Jerusalem itself. The phrases used are "churches of God in the eastern region" and "the eastern churches" (to the Flemish), "liberation of the Church" (to Bologna), "liberating Christianity [Lat. Christianitatis]" (to Vallombrosa), and "the Asian church" (to the Catalan counts). Coincidentally or not, Fulcher of Chartres's version of Urban's speech makes no explicit reference to Jerusalem. Rather it more generally refers to aiding the crusaders' Christian "brothers of the eastern shore," and to their loss of Asia Minor to the Turks.[29]

It is still disputed what Pope Urban's motives were as evidenced by the different speeches that were recorded, all of which differ from each other. Some historians believe that Urban wished for the reunification of the eastern and western churches, a rift that was caused by the Great Schism of 1054. Others believe that Urban saw this as an opportunity to gain legitimacy as the pope as at the time he was contending with the antipope Clement III. A third theory is that Urban felt threatened by the Muslim incursions into Europe and saw the crusades as a way to unite the christian world into a unified defense against them.[30]

The most important effect of the First Crusade for Urban himself was the removal of Clement III from Rome in 1097 by one of the French armies.[31] His restoration there was supported by Matilda of Tuscany.[32]

Urban II died on 29 July 1099, fourteen days after the fall of Jerusalem to the Crusaders, but before news of the event had reached Italy; his successor was Pope Paschal II.

Spain

Urban also gave support to the crusades in Spain against the Moors there. Pope Urban was concerned that the focus on the east and Jerusalem would neglect the fight in Spain. He saw the fight in the east and in Spain as part of the same crusade so he would offer the same remission of sin for those that fought in Spain and discouraged those that wished to travel east from Spain. [33]

Sicily

Urban received vital support in his conflict with the Byzantine Empire, Romans and the Holy Roman Empire from the Norman of Campania and Sicily. In return he granted Roger I the freedom to appoint bishops as a right of ("lay investiture"), to collect Church revenues before forwarding to the papacy, and the right to sit in judgment on ecclesiastical questions.[34] Roger I virtually became a legate of the Pope within Sicily.[35] In 1098 these were extraordinary prerogatives that Popes were withholding from temporal sovereigns elsewhere in Europe and that later led to bitter confrontations with Roger's Hohenstaufen heirs.

Veneration

Pope Urban was beatified in 1881 by Pope Leo XIII with his feast day on 29 July.[36][37]

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ Alternatively, Otto, Odo, or Eudes.

References

  1. ^ Key Figures in Medieval Europe: An Encyclopedia: "Urban II, Pope (c.1035-1099, r.1088-1099)"
  2. ^ Celli-Fraentzel 1932, p. 97.
  3. ^ Key Figures in Medieval Europe: An Encyclopedia - Page 641
  4. ^ Kleinhenz,Ch.Medieval Italy: An Encyclopedia
  5. ^ Gabriele, p. 796.
  6. ^ Becker & 1:24–90.
  7. ^ McBrien 2000, p. 182.
  8. ^ a b Peters 1971, p. 16.
  9. ^ a b McBrien 2000, p. 190.
  10. ^ Kleinhenz 2004, p. 1112.
  11. ^ Peters 1971, p. 33.
  12. ^ a b Robinson, I.S. (2003-12-04), Henry IV of Germany, 1056–1106, p. 291, ISBN 9780521545907.
  13. ^ Philip I of France and Bertrade, Dissolving Royal Marriages: A Documentary History, 860–1600, ed. David d'Avray, (Cambridge University Press, 2014), 47.
  14. ^ Orderic Vitalis.
  15. ^ The synod took place on 1–7 March 1095; the Pope stayed in Piacenza until the second week in April: P. Jaffé, Regesta pontificum Romanorum, editio secunda, I (Leipzig 1885), p. 677.
  16. ^ Peters 1971, p. xiv.
  17. ^ Peters 1971, p. 1.
  18. ^ Peters 1971, p. xvi, 1-15.
  19. ^ Peters 1971, p. 1-15.
  20. ^ Peters 1971, p. 2-10.
  21. ^ Peters 1971, p. 23.
  22. ^ Peters 1971, p. 2.
  23. ^ Peters 1971, p. 15-16.
  24. ^ H.E.J. Cowdrey, "Pope Urban II's Preaching of the First Crusade," History, 55 (1970), p. 185-7.
  25. ^ a b Fulcher of Chartres' account of Urban's speech, Urban II: Speech at Council of Clermont, 1095, Five versions of the Speech (available as part of the Internet Medieval Sourcebook).
  26. ^ Robert the Monk's account of Urban's speech, Urban II: Speech at Council of Clermont, 1095, Five versions of the Speech (available as part of the Internet Medieval Sourcebook).
  27. ^ Peters 1971, p. xix.
  28. ^ Baldwin, Marshall W. (1940). "Some Recent Interpretations of Pope Urban II's Eastern Policy". The Catholic Historical Review. 25 (4): 459–466. JSTOR 25013850.
  29. ^ Quotes from Urban II's letters taken from "Crusades, Idea and Reality, 1095–1274"; Documents of Medieval History 4; eds. Louise and Johnathan Riley-Smith, London 1981, 37–40.
  30. ^ Baldwin, Marshall W. (1940). "Some Recent Interpretations of Pope Urban II's Eastern Policy". The Catholic Historical Review. 25 (4): 462–466. JSTOR 25013850.
  31. ^ Peters 1971, p. 33-34.
  32. ^ Peters 1971, p. 34.
  33. ^ Chevedden, Paul E. (2011). "The View of the Crusades from Rome and Damascus: The Geo-Strategic and Historical Perspectives of Pope Urban II and ʿAlī ibn Ṭāhir al-Sulamī". Oriens. 39 (2): 270–271. JSTOR 23072750.
  34. ^ Loud 2013, p. 231-232.
  35. ^ Matthew 1992, p. 28.
  36. ^ McBrien 2000, p. 192.
  37. ^ http://saints.sqpn.com/saintu05.htm

Bibliography

  • Becker, Alfons (1988). Papst Urban II. (1088-1099) (in German). Stuttgart: A. Hiersemann.
  • Celli-Fraentzel, Anna (January 1932). "Contemporary Reports on the Mediaeval Roman Climate". Speculum. 7 (1).
  • Crozet, R. (1937). "Le voyage d'Urbain II et ses arrangements avec le clergé de France (1095-1096)" : Revue historique 179 (1937) 271-310.
  • Gossman, Francis Joseph (1960. Pope Urban II and Canon Law (The Catholic University of America Canon Law Studies 403) Washington 1960.
  • Loud, Graham (2013). The Age of Robert Guiscard: Southern Italy and the Northern Conquest. Routledge. [a reedition of Pearson Educational Ltd. 2000]
  • Matthew, Donald (1992). The Norman Kingdom of Sicily. Cambridge University Press.
  • McBrien, Robert P. (2000). Lives of the Popes. HarperCollins.
  • Peters, Edward, ed. (1971). The First Crusade. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0812210170.
  • Rubenstein, Jay (2011). Armies of Heaven: The First Crusade and the Quest for Apocalypse. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-01929-8.
  • Kleinhenz, Christopher (2004). Medieval Italy: An Encyclopedia. Routledge.
  • Somerville, Robert (1970). "The French Councils of Pope Urban II: Some Basic Considérations," Annuarium historiae conciliorum 2 (1970) 56-65.
  • Somerville, Robert (1974). "The Council of Clermont (1095), and Latin Christian Society". Archivum Historiae Pontificiae. 12: 55–90. JSTOR 23563638.</
  • Somerville, Robert (2011). Pope Urban II's Council of Piacenza. OUP Oxford. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-19-925859-8.

External links

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Victor III
Pope
1088–99
Succeeded by
Paschal II
1090s

The 1090s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1090, and ended on December 31, 1099.

== Events ==

=== 1090 ===

==== By area ====

====== Africa ======

Béjaïa becomes the capital of the Hammadid Dynasty in Algeria.

====== Europe ======

A third expedition of the Almoravid Army is launched in al-Andalus, designed to finally subdue the Taifa's Kingdoms. Córdoba, Seville, Grenada, Málaga, Almería and Ronda fall to the troops of Yusuf ibn Tashfin.

==== By topic ====

====== Arts and culture ======

Troubadours begin playing in Provence.

====== Science and technology ======

Song Dynasty Chinese author Qin Guan writes the Can Shu (Book of Sericulture), which describes a silk-reeling machine that has the world's oldest known mechanical belt drive.

=== 1091 ===

==== By area ====

====== Europe ======

King William II of England invades Normandy, and gains a foothold in it.

Ladislaus I of Hungary occupies Slavonia.

King Stjepan II of Croatia, the last member of the Trpimirovic Dynasty, dies peacefully without leaving an heir.

====== British Isles ======

October 17 – London Tornado of 1091: A T8/F4 tornado is recorded in St Mary-le-Bow of London, England; the storm destroys London Bridge.

Henry, the third son of William the Conqueror, is forced to surrender his property of Cotentin in Normandy, after his two older brothers, William Rufus and Robert Curthose, make a peace agreement.

King Malcolm III of Scotland makes an unsuccessful attempt to invade English territory, but is finally forced to pay homage to King William II of England.

Cardiff Castle is built.

====== Mediterranean ======

February – With the taking of Noto, the Normans complete the 30-year-long conquest of Sicily from the Islamic rulers.

April 29 – Battle of Levounion: The Pechenegs besiege Constantinople, but are defeated so decisively by Emperor Alexius I, that they fade into oblivion.

June or July – The Norman invasion of Malta takes place.

The Islamic Abbadid dynasty ruling in Spain falls, when the Almoravids storm Seville. Confronted with this new threat, King al-Mutawakkil ibn al-Aftas of Badajoz obtains the support of Castile, in exchange for the Muslim positions on the Tagus River (Sintra, Santarém and Lisbon).

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Athanasius VI bar Khamoro becomes Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch.

=== 1092 ===

April 21 – The Diocese of Pisa is elevated to the rank of metropolitan archdiocese, by Pope Urban II.

May – King William II of England annexes Cumbria from the Scottish Celtic kingdom of Strathclyde, and builds Carlisle Castle.

May 9 – Lincoln Cathedral is consecrated in England.

May 21 – Synod of Szabolcs in Hungary: Its decrees regulate the life of national clergy and laymen, as well as the relation between Christians, Jews and Muslims.

High tides cause great flooding in England and Scotland. The Kentish lands of Earl Godwin are inundated, becoming known as the Goodwin Sands.

The Song Dynasty Chinese scientist and statesman Su Song publishes his Xin Yi Xiang Fa Yao, a treatise outlining the construction and operation of his complex astronomical clocktower, built in Kaifeng, China. It also includes a celestial atlas of five star maps.

=== 1093 ===

April – Sviatopolk II becomes Grand Prince of Kiev, and ruler of Kievan Rus'.

March 6 – The Frankish monk, philosopher and theologian Anselm is nominated as Archbishop of Canterbury; he is consecrated on December 4.

April 8 – Construction of Winchester Cathedral, by Bishop Walkelin in England, is completed.

May 26 – Battle of the Stugna River: The Cuman people defeat the princes of Kievan Rus'.

September – Magnus Barefoot is crowned king of Norway.

August 11 – Construction of Durham Cathedral in England begins.

November 13 – Battle of Alnwick: Malcolm III of Scotland, while attempting to invade England, is defeated and killed by the forces of William II of England. Malcolm's brother Donald takes the Scottish throne.

Normans occupy southern Wales, constructing Cardiff and Pembroke Castles.

Henry of Burgundy becomes Count of Portugal, through his marriage to Theresa, Countess of Portugal.

Saint Canute's Cathedral is built in Odense, Denmark.

Fire causes extensive damage in London.

=== 1094 ===

May – El Cid completes his conquest of Valencia, Spain, and begins his rule of Valencia. The Almoravid campaign to regain the city fails.

May 15 – The Cathedral of Saint Agatha in Catania is consecrated by the Breton Abbot Ansger of Saint Euphemia.

October 8 – St Mark's Basilica is consecrated in Venice.

November 12 – Donald III succeeds Duncan II, as King of Scotland.

The city of Zagreb, Croatia, is first mentioned as a bishopric see.

Raymond IV of Toulouse becomes Count of Toulouse.

Antipope Clement III is deposed, and Urban II becomes pope.

=== 1095 ===

March – Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus sends ambassadors to Pope Urban II, at the Council of Piacenza, to discuss sending mercenaries against the Seljuk Turks.

July – Coloman begins to establish himself as King of Hungary, following the death of his father.

August 5 – The Valence Cathedral is consecrated in Valence, France.

November 19 – The Council of Clermont begins. The council is called by Pope Urban II to discuss sending the First Crusade to the Holy Land.

November 27 – Pope Urban II preaches the First Crusade at the Council of Clermont; Peter the Hermit begins to preach throughout France.

Overpopulation in France, according to Pope Urban II.

November 28 – On the last day of the Council of Clermont, Pope Urban II appoints Bishop Adhemar of Le Puy and Count Raymond IV of Toulouse, to lead the First Crusade to the Holy Land.

The Cumans invade Thrace, to support the pretender Constantine Diogenes.

The Second County of Portugal is established for the second time, by Count Henry of Burgundy. The same year, the Almoravids start pushing back the Christians to the positions they occupied a decade earlier. This offensive begins with the reconquest of Lisbon, which had been given away to Castile four years before.

Pembroke Castle is built in Wales.

=== 1096 ===

Bernard becomes Bishop of Brandenburg.

In Ireland, the Diocese of Waterford is erected.

The first documented teaching at the University of Oxford occurs.

In England, Norwich School is founded as an episcopal Grammar School.

The People's Crusade, the Rhineland massacres, and the First Crusade begin.

On October 21 – Battle of Civetot: Kilij Arslan I, of the Sultanate of Rum, ends the People's Crusade near İznik.

King Peter I of Aragon conquers Huesca.

Phayao, now a province of Thailand, is founded as a kingdom.

Late April – A large band of Crusaders approaches Speyer, and massacres the Jewish population.

The University of Salerno is founded.

=== 1097 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Edgar deposes Donald III and Edmund, to become King of Scotland.

The First Crusade proceeds toward Palestine:

June 3 – The Norman crusaders join the rest of the army, during the siege of Nicaea.

June 19 – The city of Nicaea falls to the Crusaders after a month siege.

July 1 – Battle of Dorylaeum: Crusaders capture Latakia from the Seljuk Turks.

October 21 – The siege of Antioch by the Crusaders begins..

December 31 – Battle of Harenc: The Crusaders defeat troops from Aleppo, which try to come to the relief of besieged Antioch.

Battle of Gvozd Mountain: King Petar Svačić dies as the last Croatian king, against the army of King Coloman of Hungary.

A new Almoravid campaign is launched in al-Andalus.

=== 1098 ===

==== By area ====

====== Asia ======

The First Crusade proceeds towards Palestine:

February 9 – The Crusaders defeat Ridwan of Aleppo.

June 3 – After eight months of the first Siege of Antioch, the Crusaders take the city.

June 5 – Kerbogha, atabeg of Mosul, leader of the Seljuq Turks, arrives at Antioch, beginning the second siege a few days later.

June 28 – Battle of Antioch: Kerbogha is defeated by the Crusaders.

December 12 – After a month's siege, the Crusaders take Ma'arra, and massacre part of the population.

July 14 – Donation of Altavilla: Bohemond I, the new crusader ruler of Antioch, grants commercial privileges, and the right to use warehouses (fondaco) and the church of Saint John, to the Republic of Genoa. This marks the beginning of Italian merchant settlements in the Levant.

August – The Fatimids retake Jerusalem from the Turks.

The Byzantine Empire retakes Smyrna, Ephesus and Sardis.

====== Europe ======

June or July – Battle of Anglesey Sound: A fleet led by Magnus Barefoot, King of Norway, reverses an Anglo-Norman invasion of north Wales. Magnus also conquers the Orkney Islands, the Hebrides and the Isle of Man for Norway.

June 2 - First Crusade: The first Siege of Antioch ends as Crusader forces take the city; the second siege began five days later.

December 12 - Siege of Ma'arrat al-Numan

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

March 21 – Cîteaux Abbey is founded by the Cistercian Order.

Council of Bari discuses relations between Christian East and West.

=== 1099 ===

==== By area ====

====== Asia ======

Siege of Jerusalem during the First Crusade:

January 13 – Crusaders set fire to Mara, Syria.

June 7 – The First Crusade: The Siege of Jerusalem begins.

July 8 – 15,000 starving Christian soldiers march around Jerusalem.

July 15 – Christian soldiers under Godfrey of Bouillon, Robert II of Flanders, Raymond IV of Toulouse and Tancred take Jerusalem at the end of this difficult siege.

July 22 – The Kingdom of Jerusalem is founded in the Middle East.

August 12 – Battle of Ascalon: The Crusaders defeat the Fatimids.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

August 13 – Pope Paschal II succeeds Pope Urban II, as the 160th pope.

1095

Year 1095 (MXCV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

1099 papal election

The papal election of 1099 (held 13 August) took place upon the death of Pope Urban II, the cardinal-electors with the consent of the lower Roman clergy chose Pope Paschal II as his successor.

Adhemar of Le Puy

Adhemar (also known as Adémar, Aimar, or Aelarz) de Monteil (died 1 August 1098) was one of the principal figures of the First Crusade and was bishop of Puy-en-Velay from before 1087. He was the chosen representative of Pope Urban II for the expedition to the Holy Land. Remembered for his martial prowess, he led knights and men into battle and fought beside them, particularly at Dorylaeum and Antioch. Adhemar is said to have carried the Holy Lance in the Crusaders’ desperate breakout at Antioch on 28 June 1098, in which superior Islamic forces under the atabeg Kerbogha were routed, securing the city for the Crusaders. He later died in 1098, due to illness.

Anselm III (archbishop of Milan)

Anselm III (Italian: Anselmo da Rho) was the archbishop of Milan from his consecration on 1 July 1086 to his death on 4 December 1093. He reestablished order in the Ambrosian see after more than a decade of fighting between the pataria and the religious authorities and confusion over the succession to the bishopric.

Anslem was a relative of Arnaldo da Rho. It was more than a year after the death of his predecessor, Tedald, that Anselm was nominated archbishop by Henry IV. He was the last imperially-appointed bishop in Milan and originally opposed to the Gregorian reforms in order to maintain the integrity of the historical Milanese independence of the Holy See. Pope Victor III refused him the pallium, but he made peace with Pope Urban II in 1088, after a brief retirement to a monastery, and received the pallium. He always supported the concurrent Cluniac reforms, however. In his first year in office, he founded a Cluniac nunnery at Cantù. Early in 1093, he renounced control of S. Maria in Calvenazzo after it was donated to Cluny.

The Milanese citizenry strongly opposed the imperial pretensions of and agitated for Conrad the Emperor's son as their own king. Anselm duly crowned Conrad King of Italy in opposition to his father first at Monza then at Milan. He died very soon after the coronation and was buried in S. Nazaro in Brolo.

Arnulf III (archbishop of Milan)

Arnulf III (Italian: Arnolfo di Porta Argentea or di Porta Orientale) (died 1097) was the Archbishop of Milan from his election on 6 December 1093 to his death in 1097. He succeeded Anselm III only two days after his death. Along with Anselm III and Anselm IV, he was one of a trio of successive Ambrosian pontiffs to side with pope against emperor in the late 11th and early 12th century.

Though his election had been valid, he was invested by Conrad II, but the papal legate declared him a simoniac and deposed him. Consequently, he was never consecrated. Arnulf went into a brief retirement of penance at the monastery of S. Pietro di Civate, where Anselm III had gone for a similar reason during his episcopate. After his brief sojourn there, he was reconciled with Pope Urban II and received the pallium. According to Pandulf of Pisa, this was the moment of his consecration. Bernold of Constance places his consecration in March 1095. It was performed by three great bishops of the German Gregorian reform: Thimo of Salzburg, Odalric of Passau, and Gebhard III of Constance.

Arnulf himself became an enthusiastic reformer and opponent of the Emperor Henry IV. He participated in the Council of Piacenza. From 6 to 26 May that same year (1095), the pope was present at Milan for the transferral of the relics of Erlembald to S. Dionigi. In 1096, the pope preached the First Crusade at S. Tecla in Milanese territory. Only two of Arnulf's acts as bishop survive and he is buried in Civate.

Cardinals created by Urban II

Pope Urban II (r. 1088-99) created 71 cardinals in ten consistories that he held throughout his pontificate. He elevated his two successors Gelasius II and Innocent II as cardinals in 1088 and Honorius II in 1099.

Council of Clermont

The Council of Clermont was a mixed synod of ecclesiastics and laymen of the Catholic Church, called by Pope Urban II and held from 18 to 28 November 1095 at Clermont, Auvergne, at the time part of the Duchy of Aquitaine.Pope Urban's speech on November 27 included the call to arms that would result in the First Crusade, and eventually the capture of Jerusalem and the establishment of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. In this, Urban reacted to the request by Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus who had sent envoys to the Council of Piacenza requesting military assistance against the Seljuk Turks.

Several accounts of the speech survive; of these, the one by Fulcher of Chartres, who was present at the council, is generally accepted as the most reliable.

Urban also discussed Cluniac reforms of the Church, and also extended the excommunication of Philip I of France for his adulterous remarriage to Bertrade of Montfort. The council also declared a renewal of the Truce of God, an attempt on the part of the church to reduce feuding among Frankish nobles.

Guy I of Montlhéry

Guy I (died 1095) was the second lord of Bray and the second lord of Montlhéry (Latin: Monte Leterico). He was probably the son of Thibaud of Montmorency, but some sources say that his father was named Milo. Thibaud may instead have been his grandfather.

He married Hodierna of Gometz, daughter of William, lord of Gometz. They had seven children:

Milo I the Great, (also called Milon I) lord of Montlhéry, married Lithuaise, Vicomtesse of Troyes

Melisende of Montlhéry (d. 1097), married Hugh I, Count of Rethel. Mother of Baldwin II of Jerusalem.

Elizabeth (Isabel) of Montlhéry, married Joscelin, lord of Courtenay, mother of Joscelin I, Count of Edessa

Guy II the Red (d. 1108), lord of Rochefort

Beatrice of Rochefort (1069–1117), married Anseau of Garlande

Hodierna of Montlhéry, married Walter of Saint-Valery

Alice of Montlhéry (also called Adele or Alix) (1040–1097), married Hugh I, lord of Le Puiset (1035–1094). Their son was Hugh I of Jaffa and daughter was Humberge of Le Puiset who travelled on the First Crusade with her husband Walo II of Chaumont-en-Vexin. Humberge's cousin (name unknown) was married to Ralph the Red of Pont-Echanfrey who also travelled with her husband on crusade.Guy died in 1095, the same year Pope Urban II launched the First Crusade. Many of his descendants had illustrious careers in the Holy Land, through the Montlhéry, Courtenay, and Le Puiset branches of his family. See the Houses of Montlhéry and Le Puiset.

History of the papacy (1048–1257)

The history of the papacy from 1048 to 1257 was marked by conflict between popes and the Holy Roman Emperor, most prominently the Investiture Controversy, a dispute over who— pope or emperor— could appoint bishops within the Empire. Henry IV's Walk to Canossa in 1077 to meet Pope Gregory VII (1073–85), although not dispositive within the context of the larger dispute, has become legendary. Although the emperor renounced any right to lay investiture in the Concordat of Worms (1122), the issue would flare up again.

The Imperial crown once held by the Carolingian emperors was disputed between their fractured heirs and local overlords; none emerged victorious until Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor invaded Italy. Italy became a constituent kingdom of the Holy Roman Empire in 962, from which point emperors were Germanic. As emperors consolidated their position, northern Italian city-states would become divided by Guelphs and Ghibellines.

Long-standing divisions between East and West also came to a head in the East-West Schism and the Crusades. The first seven Ecumenical Councils had been attended by both Western and Eastern prelates, but growing doctrinal, theological, linguistic, political, and geographic differences finally resulted in mutually denunciations and excommunications. Pope Urban II (1088–99) speech at the Council of Clermont in 1095 became the rallying cry of the First Crusade.

Unlike the previous millennium, the process for papal selection became somewhat fixed during this period. Pope Nicholas II promulgated In Nomine Domini in 1059, which limited suffrage in papal elections to the College of Cardinals. The rules and procedures of papal elections evolved during this period, laying the groundwork for the modern papal conclave. The driving force behind these reforms was Cardinal Hildebrand, who later became Gregory VII.

Lagery

Lagery is a commune in the Marne department in north-eastern France.

Pope Urban II was born in the Château de Lagery in 1042.

List of French popes

Seventeen popes have had French ancestry, all in the second half of the medieval era. The seven popes of the Avignon Papacy were French and are bolded. Since the end of the Avignon Papacy, no French person has been elected pope.

French is the most common non-Italian papal ancestry.

Pope Silvester II, 999–1003: Gerbert of Aurillac

St. Pope Leo IX, 1049–1054: Bruno, Count of Dagsbourg

Pope Stephen IX, 1057–1058: Frederick of Lorraine

Pope Nicholas II, 1058–1061: Gerard of Burgundy

Bl. Pope Urban II, 1088–1099: Otho of Lagery (or Otto or Odo)

Pope Callistus II, 1119–1124: Guido of Vienne

Pope Urban IV, 1261–1264: Jacques Pantaléon

Pope Clement IV, 1265–1268: Guy Foulques

Bl. Pope Innocent V, 1276: Pierre de Tarentaise

Pope Martin IV, 1281–1285: Simon de Brie

Pope Clement V, 1305–1314: Bertrand de Got

Pope John XXII, 1316–1334: Jacques d'Euse

Pope Benedict XII, 1334–1342: Jacques Fournier

Pope Clement VI, 1342–1352: Pierre Roger

Pope Innocent VI, 1352–1362: Stephen Aubert

Bl. Pope Urban V, 1362–1370: Guillaume de Grimoard

Pope Gregory XI, 1370–1378: Pierre Roger de Beaufort

Monarchia Sicula

The monarchia Sicula (Sicilian monarchy) was a historical but unduly inflated right exercised from the beginning of the sixteenth century by the secular authorities of Sicily (presently in Italy), according to which they claimed final jurisdiction in religious matters, independent of the Holy See.

They premised this right on an old Papal privilege. The oldest document advanced in support of their claim was a Papal Bull of 5 July 1098 by Pope Urban II to Count Roger I of Sicily. The Pope agreed not to appoint a Papal legate to Sicily against the will of the Count and declared his intention of permitting the Count to execute ecclesiastical acts in Sicily that were ordinarily executed by a legate (quinimmo quae per legatum acturi sumus, per vestram industriam legati vice exhiberi volumus). Pope Paschal II, in a Bull of 1 October 1117 addressed to Count Roger II of Sicily, confirmed and clarified this privilege. He gave Roger II the same power "in the sense that if a Papal legate be sent thither, that is a representative of the Pope, you in your zeal shall secure the execution of what the legate is to perform" (ea videlicet ratione, ut si quando illuc ex latere nostro legatus dirigitur, quem profecto vicarium intelligimus, quae ab eo gerenda sunt, per tuam industriam effectui mancipentur).

Pope Urban II thus had granted Apostolic legatine authority to the secular authority of Sicily; according to the Bull of Pope Paschal II this meant that, when a Papal legate was appointed to Sicily to exercise jurisdiction in certain ecclesiastical matters as the Papal representative, he was required to communicate the nature of his commission to the secular authority, which then would execute the Papal acts so commissioned in place of the legate (legati vice). In both instances it was a question not of a jurisdiction of the Prince of Sicily independent of the Holy See, but only of the privilege of the secular authority to execute ecclesiastical acts as a deputy of the Church; in other words, the sovereign of Sicily was privileged, but also obligated, to execute Papal regulations in his jurisdiction (of Sicily).

As a result of the feudal relation between the Princes of Sicily and the Pope, ecclesiastical matters there were more political in character than elsewhere, and the Church in Sicily was reduced to the greatest dependence upon secular authority. However, up to the beginning of the sixteenth century, the privilege bestowed by Pope Urban II was never invoked or even mentioned. When Ferdinand II of Aragon became King of Sicily, his secretary, Giovanni Luca Barberi of Noto, Sicily, undertook to collect the documents by which the rights of the Kings of Sicily, both in ecclesiastical and secular matters, were determined. To this collection, denominated the Capibrevio, was joined a collection of documents titled the Liber Monarchiae (Book of the Monarchy), meant to prove that the Sicilian monarchs always had exercised spiritual authority. The Liber Monarchiae first published the legatine privilege conferred by Pope Urban II.

The Kings promoted it as a legal basis of the purported authority that they had long exercised over the local Church. They also used it to extend their pretensions that, by virtue of an old Papal privilege, they possessed ecclesiastical authority in spiritual matters independent of the Pope. Despite doubts expressed concerning the authenticity of the document, Ferdinand declared on 22 January 1515: "As for the Kingdom of Sicily, where we exercise the supervision of spiritual as well as of secular affairs, we have made sure that we do so legitimately". In consequence of such an exorbitant claim, disputes arose between the Popes and the Sicilian monarchs. Pope Clement VII negotiated with Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor concerning the "monarchia Sicula" ("Sicilian monarchy"), but without success. In 1578 Philip II of Spain tried vainly to obtain a formal confirmation of the right from Pope Pius V. In 1597 the King appointed a special permanent judge ("Judex Monarchiae Siculae") to give final decisions in the highest ecclesiastical causes, an appeal from his judgment to that of the Pope being forbidden. The Judex Monarchiae Siculae claimed the general right to visit convents, supreme jurisdiction over the Sicilian Bishops and the Clergy, and the exercise of a number of episcopal rights, such that Papal authority was almost wholly excluded.

When Caesar Baronius, in an excursus on the year 1097 in the eleventh volume of his Annales Ecclesiastici (Rome, 1605), produced good reasons against the genuineness of the bull of Pope Urban II and especially against the legality of the monarchia Sicula, a violent feud arose, and the Court of Madrid, Spain forbid the eleventh volume from the whole of the Spanish Empire. Baronius omitted the excursus in the second edition of the "Annales" (Antwerp, 1608), but published instead a special Tractatus de Monarchia Sicula. During the War of the Spanish Succession another serious conflict arose between the Papal Curia and the Spanish court in regard to this alleged legatine authority. The occasion of the dispute was a question of ecclesiastical immunity, and the differences continued after Count Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia had been made King of Sicily by the Treaty of Utrecht and had been crowned in Palermo in 1713.

On 20 February 1715, Pope Clement XI declared the monarchia Sicula null and void, and revoked the privileges attached to it. The monarchs of Sicily rejected the declaration, and, when a few years later the island came under the rule of Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, Pope Benedict XIII negotiated with him, with the result that the Decree of Pope Clement XI was withdrawn and the monarchia Sicula restored, but in an altered form. The King, through the concession of the Pope, could now appoint the Judex Monarchiae Siculae, who was at the same time to be the delegate of the Holy See and empowered with final jurisdiction of religious matters. On the basis of this concession the Kings of Sicily demanded more and more far reaching rights in ecclesiastical matters, so that fresh struggles with the Holy See constantly arose. The situation grew more unbearable.

Pope Pius IX tried in vain by amicable adjustments to enforce the essential rights of the Holy See in Sicily. Giuseppe Garibaldi, as "Dictator" of Sicily, claimed the rights of the Papal legate, and, during the ceremony in Palermo Cathedral, caused legatine honours to be given him. In the bull Suprema of 28 January 1864, which was not published with the prescriptions for its execution until 10 October 1867, Pope Pius IX permanently revoked the monarchia Sicula. The government of Victor Emmanuel II of Italy protested, and the Judex Monarchiae Siculae, Rinaldi, refused to submit, for which he was excommunicated in 1868. Article 15 of the Italian law of guarantees of 13 May 1871 explicitly revoked the monarchia Sicula and the question was thus finally disposed of.

Nicholas III of Constantinople

Nicholas III Grammatikos or Grammaticus (? – May 1111) was an Eastern Orthodox patriarch of Constantinople (1084–1111).

Educated in Constantinople, Nicholas spent much of his early years in Pisidian Antioch, where it is believed he took his monastic vows. He eventually left the city around 1068 when it was threatened by Seljuk Turkish raids. Moving to Constantinople, he founded a monastery dedicated to John the Baptist. In 1084, Alexios I Komnenos selected him to replace the deposed patriarch Eustratius Garidas.

By nature a conciliarist, Nicholas was immediately presented with a number of delicate and difficult issues. He took the emperor's side in the case of Leo of Chalcedon, who protested over Alexios' confiscation of church treasures to alleviate the financial strain the Byzantine-Norman Wars had caused, which was resolved when he presided over the Council of Blachernae. He was also prominent in the fight against doctrinal heresy, for instance Nicholas condemned as heretical the Bogomil leader Basil the Physician. But he was very cautious in the ongoing conflict between the provincial metropolitans and the Patriarchate. In spite of some hostile opposition from the clergy of Hagia Sophia, he ended up supporting Niketas of Ankyra against the emperor's right to elevate metropolitans, and exerted a great deal of energy trying to restrict the influence of the Chartophylax. Nicholas was also very concerned with ecclesiastical discipline. He wrote a monastic Rule for Mount Athos monastery, while ordering the removal of the Vlachs from Mount Athos. He also rigorously enforced the regulations around fasting.

Meanwhile, the ongoing political situation in the Byzantine Empire especially in Anatolia after the disaster of the Battle of Manzikert forced Nicholas to seek a union with Pope Urban II, though he was firm in his views about the major contentious issues of the day, principally the Filioque, the azymes, and Papal Primacy.

Nicholas died in April or May 1111 at Constantinople.

People's Crusade

The People's Crusade was a popular crusade and a prelude to the First Crusade that lasted roughly six months from April to October 1096. It is also known as the Peasants' Crusade, Paupers' Crusade or the Popular Crusade as it was not part of the official Catholic Church-organised expeditions that came later. Led primarily by Peter the Hermit with forces of Walter Sans Avoir, the army was destroyed by the Seljuk forces of Kilij Arslan at Civetot, northwestern Anatolia.

Historically, there has been much debate over whether Peter was the real initiator of the Crusade as opposed to Pope Urban II. The expedition's independence has been used by some historians such as Hagenmeyer to prove this.

Pierleoni family

The family of the Pierleoni, meaning "sons of Peter Leo", was a great Roman patrician clan of the Middle Ages, headquartered in a tower house in the Jewish quarter, Trastevere. The heads of the family often bore the title consul Romanorum, or "Consul of the Romans," in the early days.

The family descended from the eleventh-century Jewish convert Leo de Benedicto, whose baptismal name comes from the fact that he was baptised by Pope Leo IX himself. They also were bankers and financially backed the reform papacy.While the Pierleoni during their greatness spuriously claimed to be descended from the ancient Roman noble family of the Anicii, their enemies in Rome made much of their Jewish extraction and levelled the usual charges of usury. Leo's son was the Peter Leo (Pierleone) of the name and it is his sons that garnered for the family such fame as protectors of the popes: Pope Urban II died in one of the Pierleoni's castelli, July 1099. The family's territory was expanded to include the Isola Tiberina and a further tower house near the Theater of Marcellus.When Emperor Henry V came to Rome (1111), Petrus Leonis headed the papal legation that effected a reconciliation between the pope and the emperor. Pope Paschal II made Pierleone's son, Peter Peirleone, a cardinal, as well as bestowing the Castel St. Angelo on Petrus. Pierleone's attempt to install one of his sons as Prefect of Rome in 1116, though favoured by Paschal II, was resisted by the opposite party with riot and bloodshed. Peter, would later become Antipope Anacletus II (1131), and another, Giordano Pierleoni, with the revival of the Commune of Rome, became the head of the Republic as Patricius in 1144. The family generally supported the papacy and represented the Guelf faction of the city against the Ghibellines, often under the leadership of the Frangipani.

Two branches of the Pierleoni are still in existence. The first is that of Matelica and Pesaro in the Marche and the second is that of Città di Castello in Umbria. Both are still members of the Italian nobility.

Roger Borsa

Roger Borsa (1060/61 – 22 February 1111) was the Norman Duke of Apulia and Calabria and effective ruler of southern Italy from 1085 until his death. He was the son of Robert Guiscard, the conqueror of southern Italy and Sicily; Roger was not as adept as his father, and most of his reign was spent in feudal anarchy.

Roger was the son of Robert Guiscard and Sikelgaita, an imposing warrior Lombard noblewoman.

His ambitious mother arranged for Roger to succeed his father in place of Robert Guiscard's eldest son by another wife, Bohemund of Taranto. According to English historian John Julius Norwich, his nickname came from "his early-ingrained habit of counting and recounting his money."

In 1073, Sichelgaita had Roger proclaimed heir after Guiscard fell ill at Trani. Roger's cousin Abelard was the only baron to dissent from the election of Roger, claiming that he was the rightful heir to the duchy. Roger accompanied his father on a campaign to Greece in 1084. He was still in Greece when his father died on 17 July 1085 in Kefalonia. While Bohemond was supposed to inherit the Greek possessions and Roger the Italian ones, it was Bohemund who was in Italy (Salerno) and Roger in Greece (Bundicia) at the time of the Guiscard's passing.

Roger rejoined his mother on Cephalonia, his absence causing panic and confusion with his army, according to Goffredo Malaterra. The two quickly returned to the peninsula and with the support of Roger I of Sicily, his uncle, was recognised as duke in September. His Lombard heritage also made him a more attractive candidate than his Norman half-brother, who had fled to Capua. With the support of Jordan I of Capua, Bohemund rebelled against his brother and took Oria, Otranto, and Taranto. Roger, however, made peace in March 1086 and the brothers acted as effective co-rulers. In late Summer 1087, Bohemond renewed the war with the support of some of his brother's vassals. He surprised and defeated Roger at Fragneto and retook Taranto. Though described as a powerful warrior (he took the cities of Benevento, Canosa, Capua, and Lucera by siege), Roger Borsa was never able to check Bohemund's power or bring him under his control. The war was finally resolved by the mediation of Pope Urban II and the award of Taranto and other possessions to Bohemund. Roger also granted him Cosenza and other holdings he desired allodially. In 1089 Roger Borsa was officially invested with the duchy of Apulia by Pope Urban II.

Roger permitted the minting of baronial coinage in at least two instances (Fulco of Basacers and Manso vicedux). He planned to urbanise the Mezzogiorno by granting charters to various towns and encouraging urban planning. In 1090, he and Urban encouraged Bruno of Cologne, founder of the Carthusian Order to accept election to the archbishopric of Reggio di Calabria.

In May 1098, at the request of his first cousin once removed, Prince Richard II of Capua, Borsa and his uncle Count Roger I of Sicily began the siege of Capua, from which the prince had long ago been exiled as a minor. In exchange for his assistance, the duke received the homage of Richard, though he seems to have made no use of it, for Richard's successors paid no heed to Roger Borsa's overlordship. Capua fell after forty days of notable besieging, for Pope Urban II had come to meet Roger of Sicily and Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury had come to meet the pope.

In October 1104, Roger besieged William, Count of Monte Sant'Angelo, who was at that time independent and pledged to the Byzantines, and expelled him from the Gargano, abolishing the county.

Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Pisa

The Archdiocese of Pisa (Latin: Archidioecesis Pisana) is a metropolitan see of the Catholic Church in Italy. It was founded in the 4th century and elevated to the dignity of an archdiocese on 21 April 1092 by Pope Urban II. Its mother church is the cathedral in the Piazza del Duomo. Since 2008 the Archbishop of Pisa has been Giovanni Paolo Benotto.

The Crusades, An Arab Perspective

The Crusades: An Arab Perspective is a four-part series produced by Al Jazeera English, which first aired in December of 2016. It presents the dramatic story of the medieval religious war through an Arab point of view. The series provides a new perspective on the history of the Crusades for a global, English-speaking audience, that has largely read about or studied the famous struggle from a primarily Christian and Western point of view. The series is heavily influenced by the 1984 book The Crusades Through Arab Eyes, by Amin Maalouf.

The series starts with the Catholic church council in Clermont in France in 1095, under Pope Urban II, and continues to the fall of Acre, the last Crusader foothold in the east, in 1291, covering two centuries of bloody battles, massacres, and conquering and reconquering of territories, including Jerusalem. The story also involves many famous names – Saladin, Richard I of England, Frederick II and Louis IX.

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