Pope Theodore II

Pope Theodore II (Latin: Theodorus II; 840 – December 897) was Pope for twenty days in December 897. His short reign occurred during a period of partisan strife in the Catholic Church, which was entangled with a period of feudal violence and disorder in central Italy. His main act as pope was to annul the "Cadaver Synod" of the previous January, therefore reinstating the acts and ordinations of Pope Formosus, which had themselves been annulled by Pope Stephen VI. He also had the body of Formosus recovered from the river Tiber and reburied with honour. He died in office in late December 897.

Pope

Theodore II
Pope Theodore II Illustration
Papacy beganDecember 897
Papacy endedDecember 897
PredecessorRomanus
SuccessorJohn IX
Personal details
Birth nameTheodorus
Born840
Rome, Papal States
DiedDecember 897 (aged 56–57)
Rome, Papal States
Other popes named Theodore

Background

Towards the end of the ninth century, due to the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire the Catholic Church had to rely upon powerful European nobles for support. Pope Stephen V approached Arnulf of Carinthia to protect Rome from "pagan and evil Christians". After he refused, Stephen V had to rely upon Guy III of Spoleto instead. Guy agreed to protect Rome as long as he was named as the Holy Roman Emperor, to which Stephen V acceded. After Stephen V's death, Pope Formosus was elected. Formosus and Guy were reluctant allies, and Guy forced Formosus to crown him emperor again and to name his son, Lambert, as co-emperor and successor. Formosus did so, but after Guy's death, he lobbied Arnulf to rescue Rome from the Spoletans. Arnulf agreed, and Formosus subsequently appointed him as the Holy Roman Emperor in 894. Both Arnulf and Formosus died within a few years of the coronation, and the new pope, Stephen VI, crowned Lambert as the new emperor shortly thereafter.[1][2]

In January 897, Stephen VI held what is known as the "Cadaver Synod". He had the body of Formosus exhumed from St. Peter's Basilica and dressed in pontifical vestments. The dead pope was charged with "perjury, violating the canons prohibiting the translation of bishops, and coveting the papacy."[3] Formosus' defence was provided by a deacon, but he was found guilty of all the charges. The synod annulled all of Formosus' acts and ordinations. Formosus' body was reburied in a common grave, and then thrown in the river Tiber. Supporters of Formosus rebelled, and seven months after the synod, Stephen VI was deposed, and died soon after in prison. His replacement, Pope Romanus is generally assumed to have been pro-Formosus, but he was only pope for four months before he was deposed and made a monk.[4]

Theodore II's reign

Little is known of Theodore's background; he is recorded as being born a Roman, and the son of Photios I of Constantinople, who was the Patriarch of Constantinople. His brother Theodosius (or Theosius) was also a bishop.[5][6] He was ordained as a priest by Stephen V.[5] The exact dates of his papal reign are unknown, but modern sources generally agree that he was pope for twenty days during December 897.[5][6] Flodoard, a tenth-century French chronicler, only credited Theodore with a twelve-day reign,[7] while in his history of the popes, Alexis-François Artaud de Montor listed Theodore's reign as being twenty days, from 12 February to 3 March 898.[8]

Like his predecessor, Theodore was a supporter of Formosus. Some historians believe that Romanus had been deposed because he had not acted to restore Formosus' honour quickly enough, though others suggest that he was removed by supporters of Stephen VI. In either case, Theodore immediately threw himself into the task of undoing the "Cadaver Synod". He called his own synod, which annulled the rulings set out by Stephen VI. In so doing, he restored the acts and ordinations of Pope Formosus, including the restoration of a large number of clergy and bishops to their offices.[6] Theodore also ordered Formosus' body to be recovered from the harbour of Portus, where it had been secretly buried, and restored to the original grave at St. Peter's Basilica.[6] Like Romanus before him, Theodore bestowed a privilege upon the See of Grado,[9] and had a coin minted, bearing the name of Lambert on the obverse, and "Scs. Petrus" and "Thedr." on the reverse.[5][a]

Flodoard cast Theodore in a positive light, describing him as "beloved of the clergy, a friend of peace, temperate, chaste, affable and a great lover of the poor."[5] He died in office, though the cause of his death is unknown.[6] Because of this, some writers, such as, Wendy Reardon)[10] suggest the possibility of foul play.[11] Horace Kinder Mann offers a different suggestion in his papal history, noting that it is possible that Popes who were "infirm or even older than [...] their predecessors" might have been elected intentionally.[5] Theodore was buried at St. Peter's Basilica, but his tomb was destroyed during the demolition of the old basilica in the seventeenth century.[10]

Aftermath

After Theodore's death, both Pope John IX and Sergius III claimed to have been elected pope; the latter was excommunicated and driven from the city, though he did later become pope in 904. John IX held synods reaffirming that of Theodore II, and he further banned the trial of people after their death.[12] In turn, Sergius III later annulled the synods of Theodore II and John IX, and reinstated the validity of the "Cadaver Synod".[13]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Scs. Petrus" stands for "Sanctus Peter", the first pope, while "Thedr." was an abbreviated form of Theodore.

References

  1. ^ Dollison (1994), p. 95.
  2. ^ Kelly, Walsh (2010), pp. 113–14.
  3. ^ Kelly, Walsh (2010), p. 114.
  4. ^ Kelly, Walsh (2010), pp. 114–15.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Mann (1902), pp. 88–90.
  6. ^ a b c d e Kelly, Walsh (2010), p. 115.
  7. ^ Gregorovius (2010), p. 230.
  8. ^ Artaud De Montor (1911), pp. 119–20.
  9. ^ "Theodore II – A 20 Day Reign". Sts. Martha and Mary Parish, Mississauga. 3 December 2006. Retrieved 16 September 2015.
  10. ^ a b Reardon (2004), p. 68.
  11. ^ "The 115th Pope", Spirituality.org, Diocese of Bridgeport
  12. ^ Kelly, Walsh (2010), p. 116.
  13. ^ Kelly, Walsh (2010), pp. 118–19.

Bibliography

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Romanus
Pope
897
Succeeded by
John IX
Antipope

An antipope (Latin: antipapa) is a person who, in opposition to the one who is generally seen as the legitimately elected Pope, makes a significantly accepted competing claim to be the Pope, the Bishop of Rome and leader of the Roman Catholic Church. At times between the 3rd and mid-15th centuries, antipopes were supported by a fairly significant faction of religious cardinals and secular or anti-religious monarchs and kingdoms. Persons who claim to be pope, but have few followers, such as the modern sedevacantist antipopes, are not classified with the historical antipopes.

Cadaver Synod

The Cadaver Synod (also called the Cadaver Trial; Latin: Synodus Horrenda) is the name commonly given to the posthumous ecclesiastical trial of Pope Formosus, held in the Basilica of St. John Lateran in Rome during January 897. The trial was conducted by Pope Stephen VI (sometimes called Stephen VII), the successor to Formosus' successor, Pope Boniface VI. Stephen had Formosus' corpse exhumed and brought to the papal court for judgment. He accused Formosus of perjury and of having acceded to the papacy illegally. At the end of the trial, Formosus was pronounced guilty and his papacy retroactively declared null.

Ethiopian Orthodox Coptic Church of North and South America

The Ethiopian Orthodox Coptic Church of North and South America is an independent Oriental Orthodox body which is not recognized by or in communion with any of the autocephalous Oriental Orthodox churches including the Coptic Orthodox Church, the Ethiopian Orthodox Holy Synod in Exile, headed by then-Patriarch in exiled Abuna Merkorios, and the Ethiopian Orthodox Holy Synod in Ethiopia led by Abune Mathias. Instead, it is associated with number of organizations of episcopi vagantes including the Apostolic Episcopal Church, the African Orthodox Church and the Russian True Orthodox Church of North America.

Greece–Zimbabwe relations

Greek-Zimbabwean relations are the bilateral relations between Greece and Zimbabwe. Greece has an embassy in Harare. Due to the economic situation, Zimbabwe has neither an embassy nor an honorary consulate in Greece.

List of popes by country

This page is a list of popes by country of origin. They are listed in chronological order within each section.

As the office of pope has existed for almost two millennia, many of the countries of origin of popes no longer exist, and so they are grouped under their modern equivalents. Popes from Italy are in a separate section, given the very large number of popes from that peninsula.

List of shortest-reigning monarchs

A monarch is the person who heads a monarchy, usually reigning for life, or until abdication or deposition. The reign of some monarchs has been notably short. Many of these monarchs acceded to the throne as a result of being first in an order of succession, while other monarchs claimed the throne as a result of some conflict.

The authenticity of some monarchs has been disputed, especially those who reigned during conflict. One factor in such debates is whether the monarch held the throne in a symbolic or nominal capacity. Two examples are

King Louis XIX of France, who succeeded upon the abdication of Charles X only to abdicate in favour of Henry V instead of assuming the throne, and

Emperor Michael II of Russia, who succeeded on the abdication of Nicholas II only to abdicate himself in favor of nobody.

Papal appointment

Papal appointment was a medieval method of selecting a pope. Popes have always been selected by a council of Church fathers, however, Papal selection before 1059 was often characterized by confirmation or "nomination" by secular European rulers or by their predecessors. The later procedures of the papal conclave are in large part designed to constrain the interference of secular rulers which characterized the first millennium of the Roman Catholic Church, and persisted in practices such as the creation of crown-cardinals and the jus exclusivae. Appointment might have taken several forms, with a variety of roles for the laity and civic leaders, Byzantine and Germanic emperors, and noble Roman families. The role of the election vis-a-vis the general population and the clergy was prone to vary considerably, with a nomination carrying weight that ranged from near total to a mere suggestion or ratification of a prior election.

The institution has its origins in late antiquity, where on more than one occasion the emperor stepped in to resolve disputes over the legitimacy of papal contenders. An important precedent from this period is an edict of Emperor Honorius, issued after a synod he convoked to depose Antipope Eulalius. The power passed to (and grew with) the King of the Ostrogoths, then the Byzantine Emperor (or his delegate, the Exarch of Ravenna). After an interregnum, the Kings of the Franks and the Holy Roman Emperor (whose selection the pope also sometimes had a hand in), generally assumed the role of confirming the results of papal elections. For a period (today known as the "saeculum obscurum"), the power passed from the Emperor to powerful Roman nobles—the Crescentii and then the Counts of Tusculum.

In many cases, the papal coronation was delayed until the election had been confirmed. Some antipopes were similarly appointed. The practice ended with the conclusion of the Investiture Controversy (c.f. confirmation of bishops) due largely to the efforts of Cardinal Hildebrand (future Pope Gregory VII), who was a guiding force in the selection of his four predecessors, and the 1059 papal bull In Nomine Domini of Pope Nicholas II; some writers consider this practice to be an extreme form of "investiture" in and of itself.Although the practice was forbidden by the Council of Antioch (341) and the Council of Rome (465), the bishops of Rome, as with other bishops, often exercised a great deal of control over their successor, even after the sixth century. In addition, most popes from the fourth to twelfth century were appointed or confirmed by a secular power.

Pope Francis

Pope Francis (Latin: Franciscus; Italian: Francesco; Spanish: Francisco; born Jorge Mario Bergoglio; 17 December 1936) is the head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State. Francis is the first Jesuit pope, the first from the Americas, the first from the Southern Hemisphere, the first to visit the Arabian Peninsula, and the first pope from outside Europe since the Syrian Gregory III, who reigned in the 8th century.

Born in Buenos Aires, Argentina, Bergoglio was ordained a Catholic priest in 1969, and from 1973 to 1979 was Argentina's provincial superior of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits). He became the Archbishop of Buenos Aires in 1998 and was created a cardinal in 2001 by Pope John Paul II. He led the Argentine Church during the December 2001 riots in Argentina. The administrations of Néstor Kirchner and Cristina Fernández de Kirchner considered him a political rival. Following the resignation of Pope Benedict XVI on 28 February 2013, a papal conclave elected Bergoglio as his successor on 13 March. He chose Francis as his papal name in honor of Saint Francis of Assisi.

Throughout his public life, Pope Francis has been noted for his humility, emphasis on God's mercy, international visibility as Pope, concern for the poor and commitment to interfaith dialogue. He is credited with having a less formal approach to the papacy than his predecessors, for instance choosing to reside in the Domus Sanctae Marthae guesthouse rather than in the papal apartments of the Apostolic Palace used by previous popes. He maintains that the Church should be more open and welcoming. He does not support unbridled capitalism, Marxism, or Marxist versions of liberation theology. Francis maintains the traditional views of the Church regarding abortion, marriage, ordination of women, and clerical celibacy. He opposes consumerism and overdevelopment, and supports taking action on climate change, a focus of his papacy with the promulgation of Laudato si'. In international diplomacy, he helped to restore full diplomatic relations between the United States and Cuba and supported the cause of refugees during the European migrant crisis. Since 2016, Francis has faced increasingly open criticism, particularly from theological conservatives, on the question of admitting civilly divorced and remarried Catholics to Communion with the publication of Amoris laetitia and on the question of the alleged cover-up of clergy sexual abuse.

Pope John IX

Pope John IX can also refer to Pope John IX of Alexandria.Pope John IX (Latin: Ioannes IX; died January 900) was Pope from January 898 to his death in 900.

Pope Tawadros II of Alexandria

Pope Tawadros II (Coptic: Ⲡⲁⲡⲁ Ⲁⲃⲃⲁ Ⲑⲉⲟ́ⲇⲱⲣⲟⲥ ⲡⲓⲙⲁϩ ⲃ̅', romanized: Papa Abba Theódōrōs II ; Arabic: البابا تواضروس الثاني‎, romanized: al-Bābā Tawāḍurūs al-ṯhānī, lit. 'Pope Theodore II') (born 4 November 1952; 25 Paopi 1668) is the 118th and current Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of the See of St. Mark, succeeding the late Pope Shenouda III as leader of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria. He took office on 18 November 2012 (9 Hathor 1729), two weeks after being selected.

Pope Theodore

Pope Theodore may refer to:

Pope Theodore I (died 649), Palestinian-born Greek

Pope Theodore II, Pope in 897 AD, son of Photius

Antipope Theodore, antipope in 687 AD

Pope Tawadros I of Alexandria (Theodorus or Theodosius), 45th Pope of Alexandria & Patriarch of the See of St. Mark.

Pope Tawadros II of Alexandria or Theodore II, elected Coptic Pope in 2012

Theodore (name)

Theodore is a masculine given name. It comes from the Greek name Θεόδωρος (Theódoros) meaning "God-given" (from the Greek words θεός, (theós) "God" and δώρον (dōron) "gift"). The name was borne by several figures in ancient Greece, such as Theodorus of Samos and Theodorus the Atheist, but gained popularity due to the rise of Christendom.

In any form, it means "God-given", or "gift of God": as do the given names Jonathan, Nathanael, Mattaniah, Matthew, Dosetai, Bogdan (or Bohdan), Ataullah, Adeodatus and Devadatta.

The feminine form of Theodore is Theodora. The names Dorothy and Godiva also mean "gift of God".

Theodore II

Theodore II can refer to:

Theodore II, Exarch of Ravenna in 677–687

Patriarch Theodore II of Alexandria (Coadjutor), Greek Patriarch of Alexandria between the 7th and 8th centuries

Pope Theodore II who reigned for twenty days during December 897

Theodore II of Constantinople, Ecumenical Patriarch in 1214–1216

Theodore II Laskaris, emperor of Nicaea (Byzantine Emperor in exile), 1254–1258

Theodore II Palaiologos (c.1396–1448), Despot of the Morea from 1407 to 1443

Theodore II, Marquess of Montferrat (died 1418), also of the Palaiologos dynasty

Tewodros II of Ethiopia, Theodore II, Emperor of Ethiopia, 1855–1868

Patriarch Theodore II of Alexandria (born 1954), current (since 2004) Eastern Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria

Pope Theodoros II of Alexandria, Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (since 2012)

Year of three popes

A year of three popes is a common reference to a year when the College of Cardinals of the Catholic Church are required to elect two new popes within the same calendar year. Such a year generally occurs when a newly elected pope dies or resigns very early into his papacy. This results in the Catholic Church being led by three different popes during the same calendar year.

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