Pope Stephen VII

Pope Stephen VII (Latin: Stephanus VII; d. 15 March 931)[1] was Pope from February 929 to his death in 931. A candidate of the infamous Marozia, his pontificate occurred during the period known as the Saeculum obscurum.

Pope

Stephen VII
Stephen VII
Papacy beganFebruary 929
Papacy ended15 March 931
PredecessorLeo VI
SuccessorJohn XI
Created cardinalby Leo VI
Personal details
Birth nameStephanus de Gabrielli
BornRome, Papal States
Diedc. 15 March 931
Rome, Papal States
Previous postCardinal-Priest of Sant'Anastasia (928-929)
Other popes named Stephen

Biography

Stephen was a Roman[2] by birth, the son of Theodemundus.[3] He was elected—probably handpicked—by Marozia from the Tusculani family, as a stop-gap measure until her own son John was ready to assume the chair of Saint Peter. Prior to his election, Stephen had been the cardinal-priest of St Anastasia in Rome.[3]

Very little is known about Stephen’s pontificate. During his two years as pope, Stephen confirmed the privileges of a few religious houses in France and Italy.[3] As a reward for helping free Stephen from the oppression of Hugh of Arles, Stephen granted Cante di Gabrielli the position of papal governor of Gubbio, and control over a number of key fortresses.[4] Stephen was also noted for the severity with which he treated clergy who strayed in their morals.[5] He was also, apparently, according to a hostile Greek source from the twelfth century, the first pope who went around clean shaved whilst pope.[6]

Stephen died around 15 March 931, and was succeeded by Pope John XI.

References

  1. ^ Archibald Bower, The History of the Popes: from the foundation of the See of Rome to A.D. 1758 (1845), pg. 311
  2. ^ Platina, Bartolomeo (1479), The Lives of the Popes From The Time Of Our Saviour Jesus Christ to the Accession of Gregory VII, I, London: Griffith Farran & Co., pp. 247–248, retrieved 2013-04-25
  3. ^ a b c Mann, pg. 189
  4. ^ Collegio araldico, Rivista, Volume 5 (1907), pg. 49
  5. ^ DeCormenin, Louis Marie; Gihon, James L., A Complete History of the Popes of Rome, from Saint Peter, the First Bishop to Pius the Ninth (1857), pg. 287
  6. ^ Mann, pg. 190
  • Mann, Horace K., The Lives of the Popes in the Early Middle Ages, Vol. IV: The Popes in the Days of Feudal Anarchy, 891-999 (1910)
  • Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope Stephen (VII) VIII" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Leo VI
Pope
928–931
Succeeded by
John XI
930s

The 930s decade ran from January 1, 930, to December 31, 939.

== Events ==

=== 930 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Summer – Establishment of the Althing, the parliament of Iceland, at þingvellir ("Thing Fields"). Chieftains from various tribes assemble for 2 weeks (at a thing) to settle disputes, arrange marriages – it continues in existence into the 21st century as the world's oldest parliament of the Icelandic Commonwealth.

====== Arabian Empire ======

Hajj – Qarmatians led by Abu Tahir al-Jannabi sack Mecca, desecrating the Zamzam Well and carrying off the Black Stone.

Mardavij ibn Ziyar is sent by Asfar ibn Shiruya along with his brother Shirzad, to capture the fortress of Shamiran in Tarom (Northern Iran), the capital of the Sallarid ruler Muhammad ibn Musafir. During the siege Mardavij is persuaded to revolt against Asfar, by letters from Makan ibn Kaki. With the help of the sons of the Sallarid, he kills other members of his tribe, including Shirzad. Mardavij founds the Ziyarid Dynasty and becomes the ruler of Asfar's former territories, which includes Rey, Qazvin, Zanjan, Abhar, Qom and Karaj.

====== Asia ======

October 16 – Emperor Daigo, being fatally ill, abdicates in favor of his 7-year-old son Suzaku, after a 33-year reign. He enters the Buddhist priesthood, but dies shortly after. Former Emperor Uda (Daigo's father), remains the power behind the Japanese throne (until 931).

The independent Korean island state of Usan-guk becomes a protectorate of Goryeo.

Yelü Bei, prince and elder brother of the Khitan Emperor Tai Zong, leaves for China.

=== 931 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Spring – Hugh of Provence, king of Italy, cedes Lower Burgundy to Rudolph II in return for Rudolf's renunciation of all claims to the Italian crown. He receives the imperial crown and induces the Italian nobility to recognize his son Lothair II as the co-ruler of Lombardia (Regnum Italiae).

King Harald Fairhair of Norway dies after a 59-year reign as the Scandinavian nation's first ruler. He divides the kingdom among his many sons (about 25 years ago) to bring peace. Unable to travel through the country - and perform his royal duties, Harald hands over power to his favorite son Eric Bloodaxe, who allegedly kills at least two of his brothers to gain the Norwegian throne that he will hold (approximate date).

Rollo, duke of Normandy, dies at Rouen after an 11-year reign. He is the first leader of the Viking settlers to establish an independent dukedom (a vassal of the West Frankish Kingdom). His eldest son, William I Longsword, becomes the second ruler of Normandy (approximate date).

Ramiro II forces the abdication of his brother Alfonso IV and becomes king of León (Northern Spain). He has Alfonso and Fruela's three sons blinded in order to make them incapable of ruling.

====== England ======

King Morgan Hen of Glywysing and Gwent (Wales) submits to the overlordship of King Æthelstan, and attends his court with Kings Hywel Dda of Deheubarth and Idwal Foel of Gwynedd.

====== Asia ======

Emir Mardavij ibn Ziyar defeats and kills his rival Asfar ibn Shiruya. He conquers in rapid succession the Abbasid cities of Hamadan, Dinavar, and Kashan, and finally the entire region of Isfahan, which becomes his capital. Mardavij appoints his brother Vushmgir as the governor of Amol (modern Iran).

==== By topic ====

====== Literature ======

Nómina Leonesa, an account of the kings of Asturias and León, is published (approximate date).

====== = Religion = ======

March – Pope Stephen VII dies after a three-year reign. He is succeeded by John XI (at the age of 20) as the 125th pope of the Catholic Church. His mother Marozia is the powerful senatrix and patricia of Rome.

=== 932 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Summer – Alberic II leads an uprising at Rome against his stepfather Hugh of Provence, king of Italy, after he is insulted at the wedding of his mother, Marozia. Alberic seizes the Lateran Palace, and Hugh escapes with an escort out of the city. Marozia is captured and put in prison. Alberic takes control of the city and appoints himself as the ruler (princeps) of Rome.

Doge Orso II Participazio retires voluntarily to a monastery, marking the end of the Participazio dominance of the Venetian dogeship. He is succeeded by Pietro II Candiano, the son and namesake of the earlier doge Pietro I.

Pietro II and Capodistria make a trade agreement without imperial authorization, the self-proclaimed "Marquis" Wintkar forbids repaying any debts to Venice. Pietro begins an economic blockade of Istrian cities.

====== Asia ======

Emir Mardavij ibn Ziyar invades Tabaristan and captures the city of Gorgan. The Daylamite military leader Makan ibn Kaki tries to reclaim his territories, but fails. He seeks refuge among the Samanids and enters the service of their ruler Nasr II. He appoints him as governor of Kirman (modern Iran).

October 31 – Abbasid caliph al-Muqtadir is killed while fighting against the forces of general Mu'nis al-Muzaffar. Al-Muqtadir's brother al-Qahir is chosen to succeed him.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Summer – Pope John XI is forced to grant power over Rome to his half-brother Alberic II, who is invested as "Prince and Senator of all Romans". John is to resign himself to spiritual leadership of the Catholic Church.

=== 933 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Spring – Hugh of Provence, king of Italy, launches an expedition to Rome to remove the Roman ruler (princeps) Alberic II and avenge his humiliation (see 932). It fails, however, as Roman civic militias repel the Lombard army. Hugh ravages the Italian countryside before he withdraws to Pavia.

March 15 – Battle of Merseburg: King Henry I ("the Fowler") defeats the Magyars near Merseburg after his refusal to pay the annual tribute. During Henry's lifetime they never raid the East Frankish Kingdom again.

William I ("Longsword"), duke of Normandy, recognizes King Rudolph as his overlord. In turn he gives William the Cotentin Peninsula and the Channel Islands.

====== England ======

Prince Edwin, the youngest son of the late King Edward the Elder, is drowned en route to the West Frankish Kingdom and buried at Saint Bertin.

====== Africa ======

Fatimid forces fail to seize the Maghreb al-Aqsa (modern Morocco) from the local Berber tribes allied to the Spain-based Caliphate of Córdoba.

=== 934 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Summer – The Hungarians make an alliance with the Pechenegs and fight their way through Thrace to Constantinople. They kill the inhabitants, inflict severe damage on the countryside and force both the Byzantine Empire and Bulgaria to pay them tribute. Emperor Romanos I signs a peace treaty with the Hungarians.

====== Europe ======

King Henry I ("the Fowler") pacifies the territories to the north, where the Danish Vikings have been harrying the Frisians by sea. He defeats the Danes petty King Gnupa, and conquers Hedeby.

Summer – Caliph Abd-al-Rahman III invades Navarra and forces Queen Toda to submit to him. Her son the 15-year-old King García Sánchez I becomes a vassal of the Caliphate of Córdoba.

Haakon I ("the Good"), a son of the late King Harald Fairhair, once again reunites the kingdom after he has deposed his half-brother Eric Bloodaxe. Haakon is installed as king of Norway.

The Eldgjá volcanic eruption is the largest basalt flood in history (first documented).

====== England ======

King Tewdwr of Brycheiniog attends the court of King Æthelstan and signs the English Land Charters. Kings Hywel Dda of Deheubarth, Idwal Foel of Gwynedd and Morgan Mwynfawr ("the Old") of Morgannwg are compelled to accompany Æthelstan on his campaign against King Constantine II of Scotland.

====== Abbasid Caliphate ======

April 24 – Abbasid caliph al-Qahir is deposed and blinded; he is succeeded by his nephew ar-Radi.

Summer – Ali ibn Buya, a Samanid governor, takes advantage of the anarchy in Persia and conquers Fars (modern Iran). He founds the Buyid Dynasty, and makes Shiraz his capital. Ali seeks the recognition of the Abbasid caliph Ar-Radi, who confirms him later as his viceroy.

====== Asia ======

March 16 – Meng Zhixiang, a military governor (jiedushi), declares himself emperor (formally called "Gaozu") and establishes Later Shu as a new Chinese state, independent of Later Tang. He dies after a short-lived five-month reign and is succeeded by his son Meng Chang.

Goryeo forces push the army of Hubaekje back into its heartland and defeat them finally at Hongseong (modern South Korea).

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Einsiedeln Abbey, a Benedictine monastery, is founded (modern Switzerland).

=== 935 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Spring – Arnulf I ("the Bad") of Bavaria invades Italy, crossing through the Upper Adige (modern Tyrol). He proceeds towards Verona to join his supporters. King Hugh of Provence takes a Burgundian army against him, and defeats Arnulf at Gossolengo, forcing him to return to Bavaria.

Summer – Caliph Al-Qa'im bi-Amr Allah dispatches a Fatimid naval expedition under Ya'qub ibn Ishaq al-Tamimi to raid the coast of Provence and Liguria, sacking Genoa and Pisa. Ya'qub also raids Corsica and Sardinia before returning to Mahdia with some 8,000 prisoners.

September 28 – Duke Wenceslaus I of Bohemia, the subject of the 1853 Christmas carol "Good King Wenceslas", is murdered by a group of nobles led by his brother Boleslaus I ("the Cruel"), who succeeds him.

Córdoba, capital of Al-Andalus, becomes the largest city of the world, taking the lead from Baghdad, capital of the Abbasid Caliphate.

====== Africa ======

Summer – Muhammad ibn Tughj al-Ikhshid is appointed governor and becomes the ruler of Egypt and parts of Syria (or the Levant). He launches a campaign against his rival Ahmad ibn Kayghalagh by land and sea: the naval forces take Tinnis, and ibn Kayghalagh is forced to retreat. Ibn Tughj enters Fustat, making it his capital, and founds the Ikhshidid Dynasty.

Ziri ibn Manad is installed as governor of central Maghreb. He initiates the construction of the fortress of Ashir, near Médéa (modern Algeria). It symbolises the rise of the Zirid Dynasty in the Western Mediterranean region.

====== Arabian Empire ======

Emir Mardavij ibn Ziyar is murdered by Turkish slaves. He is succeeded by his brother and general Vushmgir, who is crowned as the new Ziyarid ruler in Rey (modern Iran).

====== Asia ======

King Gyeongsun, the last ruler of the Kingdom of Silla, formally surrenders and abdicates in favour of Taejo of Goryeo. This completes Taejo's unification of Korea, bringing the Silla Dynasty to an end.

Ki no Tsurayuki returns to Kyoto from Tosa Province, a journey that becomes the basis of the earliest surviving Japanese poetic diary, called the Tosa Nikki (Tosa Diary).

King Gyeon Hwon of Hubaekje is overthrown by his eldest son Gyeon Singeom and put in prison, but he is able to escape.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Winter – Pope John XI, the son of de facto Roman ruler Marozia, dies at Rome after a four-year reign.

=== 936 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

June 19 – At Laon, Louis IV, the 14-year old son of the late King Charles the Simple, is crowned as the King of France after being recalled from Wessex by Hugh the Great, count of Paris. Hugh, whose father, King Robert I, was killed in battle near Soissons in 923, is given the title Duke of the Franks and becomes the second most powerful man in the West Frankish Kingdom. The crowning of Louis IV follows the death of King Rudolph I at Auxerre earlier in the year.

Summer – Hugh of Provence, king of Italy, dispatches his son and co-ruler Lothair II with a third expedition to Rome to dislodge Alberic II. Assault after assault is repulsed by the Roman civic militia. At length, weakened by an epidemic, the Lombard nobles press on Hugh to accept a peace treaty mediated by Odo of Cluny.

July 2 – King Henry I ("the Fowler") dies at his royal palace in Memleben, Thuringia, after a 17-year reign. He is succeeded by his 23-year-old son Otto I, who is married to Eadgyth, a daughter of the late King Edward the Elder. Otto is the first German king to be crowned in Charlemagne's former capital of Aachen.

A Hungarian army invades Franconia and occupies Fulda. They are attacked by East Frankish forces and forced to go westwards. Otto I moves against the rebellious Elbe Slavs.

Gorm the Old becomes the first historically recognised king of Denmark.

====== England ======

King Æthelstan sets the border between the Kingdom of England and Cornwall as the east bank of the River Tamar.

====== Africa ======

Spring – Muhammad ibn Tughj al-Ikhshid, ruler of Egypt and Syria, defeats the Fatimid forces near Alexandria. He drives them out of the city, forcing the Fatimids to retreat from Egypt to their base at Cyrenaica.

====== Arabian Empire ======

Summer – Ibn Muqla, an Abbasid official and vizier, is disgraced after his failed campaign against Muhammad ibn Ra'iq, the rebellious governor of Wasit. He is arrested and imprisoned in Baghdad.

====== China ======

November 28 – Shi Jingtang is enthroned as the first emperor of the Later Jin by Tai Zong, ruler of the Khitan-led Liao Dynasty, following a revolt against his rival, emperor Fei of Later Tang.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

January 3 – Pope Leo VII succeeds John XI (who died last year) as the 126th pope of the Catholic Church.

=== 937 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

A Hungarian army invades Burgundy and burns the city of Tournus. Then they go southwards to Italy, pillaging the environs of Naples, Benevento and Monte Cassino. When the Hungarians return home, they are attacked in the Apennine Mountains by Lombard forces, losing their plunder (approximate date).

July 11 – King Rudolph II of Burgundy dies after a 25-year reign and is succeeded by his 12-year-old son Conrad I ("the Peaceful"). His wife, Queen Bertha takes effective control of unified Burgundy, transferring its capital to Arles (the Burgundian kingdom is also known as the Kingdom of Arles).

King Otto I refuses to give land to his older (illegitimate) half-brother Thankmar, who gains the support of Eberhard III (duke of Franconia) and Wichmann the Elder, and seizes the fortress of Eresburg. Otto assumes direct rule over Franconia and dissolves it into smaller counties.

King Hugh of Arles travels to Colombier (Switzerland) and marries Rudolph's widow Bertha. He takes Conrad I under his tutelage and betroths Rudolph's 6-year-old daughter Adelaide with his own son and co-ruler Lothair II.

Winter – Gero succeeds his brother Siegfried after his death. King Otto I appoints him as count and margrave of a vast border region around Merseburg that abuts the Wends on the River Saale (Lower Saxony).

Magdeburg becomes the capital of the East Frankish Kingdom, after a Diet held by King Otto I (approximate date).

====== England ======

Battle of Brunanburh: King Æthelstan defeats a combined Northern Army under the kings Olaf of Dublin, Constantine II of Scotland and Owain of Strathclyde. Though none of the British monarchs appear to have taken part, the people of Strathclyde were a major contingent under their Scottish king.

====== Asia ======

November 10 – Li Bian usurps the throne and deposes Emperor Yang Pu. The Wu State is replaced and Li (called "Xu Zhigao") becomes the first emperor of Southern Tang, one of the Ten Kingdoms in southern China.

Winter – The Later Tang falls to the Later Jin (during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period) founded by Emperor Shi Jingtang (posthumously known as "Gaozu of Jin").

=== 938 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Summer – The Hungarian army invades Northern Italy with the permission of King Hugh of Arles. They cross the Apennines, and sack the Lombard lands in Tuscany, Lazio and Campania. Finally, the Hungarians are defeated at Wolfenbüttel by a Saxon army.

July – King Otto I besieges the fortress of Eresburg. He defeats his half-brother Thankmar and kills him as he tries to find sanctuary. Eberhard III, duke of Franconia, is banished and replaced by his uncle Berthold.

Fall – Otto I defeats in two campaigns a series of uprisings in Saxony, Franconia and Lotharingia. He signs a "friendship pact" with King Louis IV ("d'Outremer") of the West Frankish Kingdom.

====== Asia ======

Battle of Bach Dang: Vietnamese forces defeat an invading force of the Southern Han state at the Bach Dang River. This put an end to Chinese imperial domination in Vietnam after nearly 1,000 years.

The Sixteen Prefectures, which includes the area around modern-day Beijing, are absorbed in the Khitan Empire.

=== 939 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Hugh the Great, count of Paris, rebels against King Louis IV ("d'Outremer") and gains support from William I, duke of Normandy. Hugh, along with Herbert II, count of Vermandois, Arnulf I, count of Flanders and William pays homage to King Otto I (ruler of the East Frankish Kingdom), and supports him in his struggle against Louis.

July 19 – Battle of Simancas: Caliph Abd-al-Rahman III of Córdoba claims a Jihad ('Holy War') and raises an army of 100,000 men to end the Kingdom of León. He razes the cities of Medina del Campo, Ìscar and Alcazarén (previously abandoned by their population) and finally, reaches the city of Simancas (near modern-day Valladolid), where Christian forces under King Ramiro II wait for him. After three days, Ramiro defeats the Moorish army with an alliance of Castile and Navarre. Abd-al-Rahman orders a retreat along the Duero River, and is almost killed, due, most likely, to treason by Arab elements in the Moorish army.

August 5 - Battle of Alhandic: Abd-al-Rahman III defeats the garrison of those loyal to Ramiro II at Zamora, in the context of the Spanish Reconquista.

October 2 – Battle of Andernach: Otto I crushes a rebellion against his rule, by a coalition of Eberhard III, duke of Franconia, and other Frankish dukes, in Andernach on the Rhine River. Otto prevails, with support from Odo of Wetterau. Eberhard is killed while Gilbert, duke of Lotharingia (or Lorraine) drowns when trying to escape.

====== England ======

October 27 – King Æthelstan dies at Gloucester after a 15-year reign. He is buried at Malmesbury Abbey and succeeded by his half-brother, Edmund I ("the Magnificent"). After Æthelstan's death Olaf Guthfrithson (or his cousin, Anlaf Cuaran) a Viking leader who rules Dublin, is proclaimed king of York (south of Northumbria).

====== Asia ======

Taira no Masakado, a Japanese nobleman, leads one of the largest insurgent forces in the Heian period against the imperial court at Kyoto. Masakado has acquired enough power to govern the Kantō region (northwest of Edo) and calls himself the 'new emperor' (shinnō).

Ngô Quyền, who the previous year defeats the Chinese at the Battle of Bạch Đằng (938) thereby regaining Vietnamese independence after 1000 years, becomes king of Vietnam.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

July 13 – Pope Leo VII dies at Rome after a 3½-year reign. He is succeeded by Stephen VIII as the 127th pope of the Catholic Church.

The Major Occultation (or Al-Ghaybah al-Kubra) of Muhammad al-Mahdi occurs (approximate date).

931

Year 931 (CMXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Gabrielli (Gabrielli di Gubbio)

The Gabrielli (sometimes known as "Gabrielli di Gubbio") are an Italian feudal family from Gubbio, a town in Umbria.

Some historians trace their origins back to the Roman age, and claim they descend from the emperor Caracalla, however the first historical documents mentioning the family appear in the 10th century only, when Cante Gabrielli was awarded by Pope Stephen VII (according to some genealogists a family member himself), a few castles in central Italy, and especially the castle at Luceoli, which was renamed Cantiano (i.e. belonging to Cante) after him.

The family grew in power and many of its members had remarkable lives:

Forte Gabrielli was a hermit in the mountains around Gubbio, and later on joined the Benedectines at Fonte Avellana. He died on 9 May 1040 and was beatified by Pope Benedict XIV on 17 March 1756. His body is still exposed in the Cathedral of Gubbio.

Saint Rodolfo Gabrielli was born in 1034; in 1051 he bequeathed his castle at Camporeggiano to Saint Peter Damian and became a Benedictine monk at the Monastery of Fonte Avellana. He was appointed bishop of Gubbio in 1061 and died on 17 October 1064. He was later canonized. Saint Peter Damian described Rodolfo's life in his Vita Sancti Rodulphi Episcopi Eugubini (Life of St Rudolph Bishop of Gubbio).

His brother Pietro Gabrielli was also beatified.

Girolamo Gabrielli was the leader of 100 knights during the First Crusade. According to an undocumented tradition he was the first Crusader to enter the Holy Sepulchre when Jerusalem was seized (1099).

Aldo (or Addo) Gabrielli was bishop of Piacenza from 1095 to 1121.

Ermanno Gabrielli was consul et rector comunis et civitatis Eugubii in 1181.

Cante Gabrielli was Commander in Chief of the Guelph League in Central Italy and Podestà (Lord-Mayor) of Florence. He condemned Dante Alighieri, the famous poet, for barratry, and exiled him from Florence. Dante took vengeance on Cante by giving the allusive name of Rubicante to the furious devil that Dante himself encounters in the Divine Comedy, in the bolgia of barratry (cantos XXI and XXII). Giosuè Carducci, the famous Italian poet and Nobel Prize winner in 1906, also dedicated a sonnet to Cante Gabrielli.

Ubaldo Gabrielli was bishop of Treviso from 1323 to 1336. .

Blessed Castora Gabrielli joined the Franciscan order as a tertiary. She died on 14 June 1391 and was later beatified.

Giovanni Gabrielli, count of Borgovalle was lord of Gubbio from 1350 to 1354.

Paolo Gabrielli was bishop of Lucca from 1374 to 1380. He died in Perugia and was buried in the cathedral of that city.

Gabriello Gabrielli was lord and bishop of Gubbio from 1381 to 1384.

Cecciolo Gabrielli, self-styled Duca di Gubbio, tried without success to reconquer the city.

Gabriele Gabrielli (1445-1511), called Il Cardinal d'Urbino (the Cardinal of Urbino), was bishop of Urbino from 1504 until his death. He was created Cardinal in 1505, and died in the Apostolic Palace in Rome.

Francesco Gabrielli, count of Baccaresca, served as General of Italian troops during the Portugal war and died at the battle of Alcazarquivir in 1578.

Giulio Gabrielli the Elder (1604-1677) was created Cardinal in 1641.

Domenico Gabrielli (1651-1690) composer and virtuoso violoncello player.

Giovanni Maria Gabrielli (1654-1711) was created Cardinal in 1699.

Giulio Gabrielli the Younger (1746-1822) served as Cardinal Secretary of State from 26 March 1808 to 25 July 1814.

Pompeo Gabrielli (1780-1861) was Minister of War in 1848, the first layman to sit in the Pontifical States' Government ever.

Luigi Gabrielli (1790-1854) was a soldier and military writer.

Rodolfo Gabrielli di Montevecchio (1802-1855), considered a hero of the Italian Risorgimento, fought in the First Independence War, distinguishing himself at Santa Lucia (1848) and Sforzesca (1849), where he commanded the Piemonte Reale Cavalleria regiment. Deployed in Crimea as a General of the Piedmont-Sardinia army, he was mortally wounded at Cernaia on 16 August 1855 and died two months later at the Balaclava hospital.

Count Nicolò Gabrielli (1814-1891) was a well known musician at the court of the French Emperor Napoleon III.

Placido Gabrielli, Prince of Prossedi and Roccasecca, Duke of Pisterzo, was the son of Charlotte Bonaparte Gabrielli and the husband of Augusta Bonaparte Gabrielli. Between 1880 and 1885 he served as the first president of the Banco di Roma.The family divided over the centuries in many branches, the most famous of which was the one that settled in Rome and obtained the title of Prince of Prossedi. Two members of this branch married two princesses of the Bonaparte family. In 1749 the counts of Carpegna extinguished in the male line and the marquesses Gabrielli inherited their fief, with the principality of Carpegna-Gattara-Scavolino following in 1817. The line is currently continuing in the family of the princes di Carpegna-Falconieri-Gabrielli .

A branch that settled in Fano was styled Gabrielli-Wiseman, and was related to Cardinal Nicholas Wiseman. Another branch settled in Fano was styled Gabrielli di Montevecchio, and bears the titles of Duke and Count.The branch that settled in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies bears the title of Count Gabrielli and Baron of Quercita.

A branch bears the title of Count of Baccaresca and Corraduccio since 1581. It settled in Comtat Venaissin at the end of the 16th century when Bartolomeo de Gabrielli de Gubbio became Governor of Cavaillon then Carpentras. The line is continuing today in France.

All the branches bear the title of Patrizio di Gubbio (Patrician of Gubbio).

List of cardinals created between 904–985

List of the cardinals attested in the contemporary sources during the period of pornocracy (904 – 964) and later until the election of Pope John XV in August 985. It certainly contains only small part of all cardinals living at that time because only small number of documents and other accounts useful for the reconstruction of that list have been preserved to our times.

The dates in the parentheses mark the first and last time when the cardinal appears in the sources.

List of popes by country

This page is a list of popes by country of origin. They are listed in chronological order within each section.

As the office of pope has existed for almost two millennia, many of the countries of origin of popes no longer exist, and so they are grouped under their modern equivalents. Popes from Italy are in a separate section, given the very large number of popes from that peninsula.

Pope Leo VI

Pope Leo VI (880 – 12 February 929) was Pope for just over seven months, from June 928 to his death in February 929. His pontificate occurred during the period known as the Saeculum obscurum.

Pope Stephen

Pope Stephen may refer to any of several men who were Pope or who were elected Pope of the Roman Catholic Church. Historically, there have been two regnal numbering systems used when referring to Popes called "Stephen" starting with Pope-elect Stephen. See Pope-elect Stephen for detailed explanation.

Pope Stephen I (died 257), Bishop of Rome from 254–257

Pope-elect Stephen (died 752), also known as Pope Stephen II, elected Pope but died before his consecration

Pope Stephen II (III) (died 757), pope from 752–757

Pope Stephen III (IV) (720–772), pope from 768–772

Pope Stephen IV (V) (died 817), pope from 816–817

Pope Stephen V (VI) (died 891), pope from 885–891

Pope Stephen VI (VII) (died 897), pope from 896–897

Pope Stephen VII (VIII) (died 931), pope from 929–931

Pope Stephen VIII (IX) (died 942), pope from 939–942

Pope Stephen IX (X) (c. 1020–1058), pope from 1057–1058

Saeculum obscurum

Saeculum obscurum (Latin: the Dark Age) is a name given to a period in the history of the Papacy during the first two-thirds of the 10th century, beginning with the installation of Pope Sergius III in 904 and lasting for sixty years until the death of Pope John XII in 964. During this period, the popes were influenced strongly by a powerful and corrupt aristocratic family, the Theophylacti, and their relatives.

Stephen

Stephen or Steven is a common English first name. It is particularly significant to Christians, as it belonged to Saint Stephen (Greek Στέφανος Stéphanos), an early disciple and deacon who, according to the Book of Acts, was stoned to death; he is widely regarded as the first martyr (or "protomartyr") of the Christian Church. The name "Stephen" (and its common variant "Steven") is derived from Greek Στέφανος (Stéphanos), a first name from the Greek word στέφανος (stéphanos), meaning "wreath, crown" and by extension "reward, honor, renown, fame", from the verb στέφειν (stéphein), "to encircle, to wreathe". In Ancient Greece, crowning wreaths (such as laurel wreaths) were given to the winners of contests. Originally, as the verb suggests, the noun had a more general meaning of any "circle"—including a circle of people, a circling wall around a city, and, in its earliest recorded use, the circle of a fight, which is found in the Iliad of Homer.The name, in both the forms Stephen and Steven, is commonly shortened to Steve or Stevie. In English, the female version of the name is "Stephanie". Many surnames are derived from the first name, including Stephens, Stevens, Stephenson, and Stevenson, all of which mean "Stephen's (son)". In modern times especially the name has sometimes been given with intentionally nonstandard spelling, such as Stevan or Stevon. A common variant of the name used in English is Stephan ; related names that have found some currency or significance in English include Stefan (pronounced or in English), Esteban (often pronounced ), and the Shakespearean Stephano . Like all biblical names, Stephen has forms in almost all major world languages. Some of these include:

Esteban (Spanish; Spanish pronunciation: [esˈteβan]);

Estêvão (Portuguese);

Esteve (Catalan);

Estève (Occitan);

Étienne (French);

Istifanus (Arabic);

István (Hungarian);

Setefane (Sotho);

Shtjefni (Albanian);

Sītífán (Mandarin Chinese);

Stefan (German, Dutch, Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, Ukrainian, Bulgarian, and Serbian; German pronunciation: [ˈʃteːfan]);

Stefán (Icelandic);

Степан/Stepan (Russian, Ukrainian);

Ștefan (Romanian);

Štefan (Slovak and Slovenian);

Stefana (Malagasy);

Stefano (Italian and Swahili);

Stefanos (modern Greek, modern Hebrew, and Estonian);

Stefans (Latvian and

Afrikaans);

Steffan (Welsh);

Stepan (Armenian);

Štěpán (Czech);

Stepane (Georgian);

Steponas (Lithuanian);

Stiofán (Irish);

Sutepano (Japanese);

Szczepan (Polish); and

Tapani (Finnish).

In the United Kingdom, it peaked during the 1950s and 1960s as one of the top ten male first names (ranking third in 1954) but had fallen to twentieth by 1984 and had fallen out of the top one hundred by 2002. The name was ranked 201 in the United States in 2009, according to the Social Security Administration. The name reached its peak popularity in 1951 but remained very common through the mid-1990s, when popularity started to decrease in the United States.

Sword of Peter

The Sword of Saint Peter (Polish: Miecz świętego Piotra) is allegedly the sword with which the Apostle Peter cut off the right ear of the high priest's servant at the time of Jesus' arrest in Gethsemane.

The sword is wide-tipped, similar in shape to a dussack or machete. It is in the Poznań Archdiocesan Museum.

An exact copy of the sword, made by Bogdan Puchalski, is displayed on the wall of the Poznań Archcathedral Basilica.

Year of three popes

A year of three popes is a common reference to a year when the College of Cardinals of the Catholic Church are required to elect two new popes within the same calendar year. Such a year generally occurs when a newly elected pope dies or resigns very early into his papacy. This results in the Catholic Church being led by three different popes during the same calendar year.

1st–4th centuries
During the Roman Empire (until 493)
including under Constantine (312–337)
5th–8th centuries
Ostrogothic Papacy (493–537)
Byzantine Papacy (537–752)
Frankish Papacy (756–857)
9th–12th centuries
Papal selection before 1059
Saeculum obscurum (904–964)
Crescentii era (974–1012)
Tusculan Papacy (1012–1044/1048)
Imperial Papacy (1048–1257)
13th–16th centuries
Viterbo (1257–1281)
Orvieto (1262–1297)
Perugia (1228–1304)
Avignon Papacy (1309–1378)
Western Schism (1378–1417)
Renaissance Papacy (1417–1534)
Reformation Papacy (1534–1585)
Baroque Papacy (1585–1689)
17th–20th centuries
Age of Enlightenment (c. 1640-1740)
Revolutionary Papacy (1775–1848)
Roman Question (1870–1929)
Vatican City (1929–present)
21st century
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