Pope Stephen V

Pope Stephen V (Latin: Stephanus V; died 14 September 891) was Pope from September 885 to his death in 891.[1] He succeeded Pope Adrian III, and was in turn succeeded by Pope Formosus. In his dealings with Constantinople in the matter of Photius, as also in his relations with the young Slavic Orthodox church, he pursued the policy of Pope Nicholas I.

Pope

Stephen V
Stephen V
Papacy beganSeptember 885
Papacy ended14 September 891
PredecessorAdrian III
SuccessorFormosus
Personal details
BornRome, Papal States
Died14 September 891
Rome, Papal States
Other popes named Stephen

Biography

His father Hadrian, who belonged to the Roman aristocracy, entrusted his education to his relative, Bishop Zachary, librarian of the Holy See. Stephen was created cardinal-priest of Santi Quattro Coronati by Marinus I, and his obvious holiness was the cause of his being chosen pope.

He was consecrated in September 885 without waiting for the imperial confirmation; but when Charles the Fat found with what unanimity he had been elected he let the matter rest.

Stephen was called upon to face a famine caused by a drought and by locusts, and as the papal treasury was empty he had to fall back on his father's wealth to relieve the poor, to redeem captives, and to repair churches.

Following the death of Saint Methodius, a disciple of Methodius, Gorazd, became his successor.[2] However, due to the influence of the German clergy, Stephen forbade the use of the Slavonic liturgy.[3] Most of the Slavs would then follow under jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate.[4]

To promote order he adopted Guy III of Spoleto "as his son" and crowned him emperor (891). He also recognized Louis the Blind as King of Provence. Since Aurelian, Archbishop of Lyon, would not consecrate Teutbold, who had been canonically elected Bishop of Langres, Stephen himself consecrated him. He had also opposed the arbitrary proceedings of the archbishops of Bordeaux and Ravenna, and resisted the attacks which the Patriarch Photius made on the Holy See. His resistance was successful, and Emperor Leo VI sent him into exile. When writing against Photius, he begged the emperor to send warships and soldiers to enable him to ward off the assaults of the Saracens on papal territory[5] and southern Italy[6] and from 885 to 886 the Byzantines reoccupied southern Italy from the Muslims.[7]

In 887/8 Stephen wrote that Christian slaves of Muslims, who were subsequently mutilated by their captors, could become priests. He also excused them if they murdered during their captivity.[8]

Stephen, who received many English pilgrims and envoys bringing Peterspence, was buried in the portico of the basilica of that Apostle.

See also

References

  1. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope Stephen (V) VI" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  2. ^ Seven Apostles of Bulgaria, Oxford Dictionary of Saints, Ed. David Farmer, (Oxford University Press, 2004), 474.
  3. ^ Richard P. McBrien, Lives of the Popes, (HarperCollins, 2000), 144.
  4. ^ Richard P. McBrien, Lives of the Popes, 143.
  5. ^ Roger Collins (1 Jan 2009). Keepers of the Keys of Heaven: A History of the Papacy. Basic Books. p. 170. ISBN 9780786744183.
  6. ^ Francis Dvornik. The Photian schism: history and legend. CUP Archive. p. 229.
  7. ^ Greville Stewart Parker Freeman-Grenville; Stuart Christopher Munro-Hay (26 January 2006). Islam: An Illustrated History. Bloomsbury Publishing USA. p. 46. ISBN 9781441165336.
  8. ^ David Thomas; Barbara Roggema; Juan Pedro Monferrer Sala (21 March 2011). Christian-Muslim Relations. A Bibliographical History. Volume 3 (1050-1200). BRILL. p. 48. ISBN 9789004195158.

Sources

External links

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Adrian III
Pope
885–891
Succeeded by
Formosus
891

Year 891 (DCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Argrim

Argrim (French: Argrin, Latin: Argrimus) was one of the rival bishops of Langres following the disputed election of 888. He was the uncontested bishop after 899 until his retirement in 910. Before becoming bishop he was a monk of Saint-Bénigne de Dijon.The death of bishop Geilo of Langres on 28 June 888 after the death of the Emperor Charles III in January resulted in the election of the bishop's successor taking place amidst political upheaval. Argrim was elected by the people in accordance with canon law, and was consecrated by archbishop Aurelian of Lyon. Despite the legality of the entire procedure, archbishop Fulk of Reims, a partisan of Carolingian legitimist claimant Charles III, opposed it and tried to install a rival bishop, Theutbald II. Although Pope Stephen V sided with Fulk, Aurelian refused to consecrate Theutbald and Argrim remained in power at Langres. During this time, Argrim had the support of King Odo of France, who issued a diploma to him on 19 December 889.After two years and three months, in the autumn of 890, Argrim was forced to flee Langres and Theutbald was installed as bishop. According to the Annales Vedastini, in late 894 Theutbald was assassinated and Argrim returned to power. Pope Formosus immediately anathematised the assassins, but granted the pallium to Argrim. In 896, Pope Stephen VI, who had been an enemy of Formosus, declared Argrim deposed. Argrim went to Rome to protest, and in 899 John IX revoked the deposition. His successor, Benedict IV, confirmed the revocation. In 910 Argrim resigned and returned to Saint-Bénigne de Dijon. His tombstone is preserved in the museum of Chalon-sur-Saône. It reads:

+ IN HOC SEPVLCRO QVI

ESCIT ARGRIMVS MONV

QVONDAM EP'S LINGONI

QVI OBIIT VII KL' FB'R

Athanasius of Naples

Athanasius (died 898) was the Bishop (as Athanasius II) and Duke of Naples from 878 to his death. He was the son of Gregory III and brother of Sergius II, whom he blinded and deposed in order to seize the throne while he was already bishop.

In this usurpation, Athanasius was originally supported (financially) by Pope John VIII, who desired to break the Neapolitan friendship with the Saracens.In 879, John excommunicated Athanasius, for the latter had not yet broken with the Moslems. He was instead involving himself in the wars over the throne of Capua. He assisted Atenulf against his brothers and cousins. With Byzantine troops, he besieged Capua itself. From about 881, he himself ruled Capua, technically a vassal of Prince Guaimar I of Salerno. He and Guaimar fought an indecisive war while the latter was preoccupied with the Saracen menace Athanasius was ignoring. In 886, Athanasius, since released from excommunication, was allied with the Saracens again and received a threat from Pope Stephen V of a blockade of Naples.

By 887, Atenulf was installed in Capua as count. In 888, Athanasius and Atenulf disputed the region of "Liburnia" and went to war. They fought an indecisive battle at S. Carzio on the Clanio.

In 895, Athanasius fomented a revolt of the Neapolitan populace in the city of Salerno. However, Guaimar's young son, Guaimar II, put it down.

Domestically, Athanasius increased the power and prestige of Naples. He was a hellenophile who worked to preserve many Greek manuscripts and maintain good relations with Byzantium. He had a daughter, Gemma, who married Landulf I of Benevento, son of his former ally Atenulf. He was succeeded as duke by his nephew Gregory IV and as bishop by his brother Stephen.

Bernard (son of Charles the Fat)

Bernard or Bernhard (c. 870 – 891/2) was the only child of Emperor Charles the Fat. He was born of an unknown concubine and was thus considered illegitimate. Charles tried to make him his heir, but failed in two attempts.

Charles tried to have Bernard recognised as his heir in 885, but met the opposition of several bishops. He had the support of Pope Adrian III, whom he invited to an assembly in Worms in October 885, but who died on the way, just after crossing the river Po. Hadrian was going to depose the obstructing bishops, as Charles doubted he could do this himself, and legitimise Bernard. Based on the unfavouring attitude of the chronicler of the Mainz continuation of the Annales Fuldenses, the chief of Charles' opponents in the matter was probably Liutbert, Archbishop of Mainz. Because Charles had called together the "bishops and counts of Gaul" as well as the pope to meet him at Worms, it seems likely that he planned to make Bernard King of Lotharingia. Notker the Stammerer, who considered Bernard as a possible heir, wrote in his Deeds of Charlemagne: "I will not tell you [Charles the Fat] of this [the Viking sack of the Abbey of Prüm] until I see your little son Bernard with a sword girt to his thigh." Perhaps Notker was awaiting Bernard's kingship, when Prüm would be avenged.

After the failure of his first attempt, Charles set about to try again, apparently having given up on having any legitimate children with his wife, Richardis. He had the term proles (offspring) inserted into his charters as it had not been in previous years, probably because he desired to legitimise Bernard. In early 886, Charles met the new Pope, Stephen V, and probably negotiated for the recognition of his son as his heir. When Stephen cancelled a planned meeting at Waiblingen on 30 April 887, Charles probably abandoned his plans for Bernard and instead adopted Louis of Provence as his son at Kirchen in May. It is possible, however, that the agreement with Louis was only designed to engender support for Bernard's subkingship in Lotharingia.

After his father's death, Bernard became the focus of revolt for some Alemannian magnates. In 890, he rebelled against Arnulf of Carinthia and prevented the king from going into Italy as requested by Pope Stephen V. Bernard had the support of Count Ulrich of the Linzgau and Argengau and Bernard, Abbot of Saint Gall. Probably, he fled Alemannia for Italy and the protection of Arnulf's rival, King Guy, as recorded by the late medieval historian Gobelinus, who may have had a lost Carolingian work as his source. By the winter of 891/2, Bernard had returned to Alemannia. The revolt was finally put down by Solomon III, Bishop of Constance, and Hatto, Abbot of Reichenau. Arnulf entered Alemannia in the summer to redistribute lands. Bernard was killed by Rudolf, Duke of Rhaetia, and only then did the unrest in Alemannia cease.These events are not mentioned in the main East Frankish source, the Annals of Fulda, rather they come from brief notices in the Annales Alamannici and Annales Laubacenses, which record that in 890, "Bernard, Charles's son, barely escaped the net", and in 891 (which possibly should be 892), he "was killed by Rudolf", without specifying who Rudolf was.

Frankish Papacy

From 756 to 857, the papacy shifted from the orbit of the Byzantine Empire to that of the kings of the Franks. Pepin the Short (ruled 751–768), Charlemagne (r. 768–814) (co-ruler with his brother Carloman I until 771), and Louis the Pious (r. 814-840) had considerable influence in the selection and administration of popes. The "Donation of Pepin" (756) ratified a new period of papal rule in central Italy, which became known as the Papal States.

This shift was initiated by the Lombards conquering the Exarchate of Ravenna from the Byzantines, strengthened by the Frankish triumph over the Lombards, and ended by the fragmentation of the Frankish Kingdom into West Francia, Middle Francia, and East Francia. Lothair I continued to rule Middle Francia which included much of the Italian peninsula, from 843 to 855.

This period was "a critical time in Rome's transformation from ancient capital to powerful bishopric to new state capital." The period was characterized by "battles between Franks, Lombards and Romans for control of the Italian peninsula and of supreme authority within Christendom."

Guy III of Spoleto

Guy of Spoleto (died 12 December 894), sometimes known by the Italian version of his name, Guido, or by the German version, Wido, was the Margrave of Camerino from 880 (as Guy I or Guy II) and then Duke of Spoleto and Camerino (as Guy III) from 883. He was crowned King of Italy in 889 and Holy Roman Emperor in 891. He died in 894 while fighting for control of the Italian Peninsula.

Guy was married to Ageltrude, daughter of Adelchis of Benevento, who bore him a son named Lambert.

Holy Roman Emperor

The Holy Roman Emperor (also "German-Roman Emperor", German: Römisch-deutscher Kaiser "Roman-German emperor"; historically Imperator Romanorum, "Emperor of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (considered by itself to be the successor of the Roman Empire) during the Middle Ages and the early modern period. The title was, almost without interruption, held in conjunction with title of King of Germany (rex teutonicorum) throughout the 12th to 18th centuries.From an autocracy in Carolingian times (AD 800–924) the title by the 13th century evolved into an elected monarchy chosen by the prince-electors.

Various royal houses of Europe, at different times, became de facto hereditary holders of the title, notably the Ottonians (962–1024) and the Salians (1027–1125). Following the late medieval crisis of government, the Habsburgs kept possession of the title without interruption from 1440–1740. The final emperors were from the House of Lorraine (Habsburg-Lorraine), from 1765–1806. The Holy Roman Empire was dissolved by Emperor Francis II, after a devastating defeat to Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz.

The Holy Roman Emperor was widely perceived to rule by divine right, though he often contradicted or rivaled the Pope, most notably during the Investiture controversy.

In theory, the Holy Roman Emperor was primus inter pares (first among equals) among other Catholic monarchs. In practice, a Holy Roman Emperor was only as strong as his army and alliances, including marriage alliances, made him. There was never a Holy Roman Empress regnant, though women such as Theophanu and Maria Theresa of Austria served as de facto Empresses regnant.

Throughout its history, the position was viewed as a defender of the Roman Catholic faith. Until the Reformation, the Emperor elect (imperator electus) was required to be crowned by the Pope before assuming the imperial title. Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor was the last to be crowned by the Pope in 1530. Even after the Reformation, the elected Emperor always was a Roman Catholic. There were short periods in history when the electoral college was dominated by Protestants, and the electors usually voted in their own political interest.

King of the Slavs

King of the Slavs (Latin: rex Sclavorum, Sclavorum rex) was a title denoting some Slavic rulers, as well as Germanic rulers that conquered Slavs, in the Middle Ages in European sources, such as Papal correspondence.

Papal use is bolded.

SlavicSamo, ruler of Slavs (623–658); in the Frankish Annals

Drogoviz, ruler of the Veleti (789); in Annales Mettenses priores in c. 805

Trpimir I, ruler of Croatia (845–864); erroneously by Gottschalk in the 840s

Svatopluk I of Moravia, ruler of Moravia (870–894); by Pope Stephen V in 885

Michael, ruler of Zahumlje (913–926); erroneously in the Annales Barenses

Mihailo Vojislavljević, ruler of Duklja/Zeta (Montenegro) (1050–1081); by Pope Gregory VII in 1077

Bodin Vojislavljević, ruler of Duklja/Zeta (Montenegro) (1081–1101); by the chronicle of Orderic Vitalis, relating to events of 1096

Stefan Dragutin, ruler of Serbia (1276–1282) and Syrmia (1282–1316); by Pope Nicholas IV in 1288Non-SlavicCanute Lavard, Danish prince (1120–1131); by Abbott Wilhelm after 1129

Liber Pontificalis

The Liber Pontificalis (Latin for 'pontifical book' or Book of the Popes) is a book of biographies of popes from Saint Peter until the 15th century. The original publication of the Liber Pontificalis stopped with Pope Adrian II (867–872) or Pope Stephen V (885–891), but it was later supplemented in a different style until Pope Eugene IV (1431–1447) and then Pope Pius II (1458–1464). Although quoted virtually uncritically from the 8th to 18th centuries, the Liber Pontificalis has undergone intense modern scholarly scrutiny. The work of the French priest Louis Duchesne (who compiled the major scholarly edition), and of others has highlighted some of the underlying redactional motivations of different sections, though such interests are so disparate and varied as to render improbable one popularizer's claim that it is an "unofficial instrument of pontifical propaganda."The title Liber Pontificalis goes back to the 12th century, although it only became current in the 15th century, and the canonical title of the work since the edition of Duchesne in the 19th century. In the earliest extant manuscripts it is referred to as Liber episcopalis in quo continentur acta beatorum pontificum Urbis Romae ('episcopal book in which are contained the acts of the blessed pontiffs of the city of Rome') and later the Gesta or Chronica pontificum.

March of Ivrea

The March of Ivrea was a large frontier county in the northwest of the medieval Italian kingdom from the late 9th to the early 11th century. Its capital was Ivrea in present-day Piedmont, and it was held by a Burgundian family of margraves called the Anscarids. The march was the primary frontier between Italy and France and served as a defense against any interference from that state.

Pope Formosus

Pope Formosus (c. 816 – 896) was Cardinal-bishop and Pope, his papacy lasting from 6 October 891 to his death in 896. His brief reign as Pope was troubled, marked by interventions in power struggles over the Patriarchate of Constantinople, the kingdom of West Francia, and the Holy Roman Empire. Formosus's remains were exhumed and put on trial in the Cadaver Synod.

Pope Stephen

Pope Stephen may refer to any of several men who were Pope or who were elected Pope of the Roman Catholic Church. Historically, there have been two regnal numbering systems used when referring to Popes called "Stephen" starting with Pope-elect Stephen. See Pope-elect Stephen for detailed explanation.

Pope Stephen I (died 257), Bishop of Rome from 254–257

Pope-elect Stephen (died 752), also known as Pope Stephen II, elected Pope but died before his consecration

Pope Stephen II (III) (died 757), pope from 752–757

Pope Stephen III (IV) (720–772), pope from 768–772

Pope Stephen IV (V) (died 817), pope from 816–817

Pope Stephen V (VI) (died 891), pope from 885–891

Pope Stephen VI (VII) (died 897), pope from 896–897

Pope Stephen VII (VIII) (died 931), pope from 929–931

Pope Stephen VIII (IX) (died 942), pope from 939–942

Pope Stephen IX (X) (c. 1020–1058), pope from 1057–1058

Roman Catholic Diocese of Como

The Catholic Diocese of Como (Latin: Dioecesis Comensis) in northern Italy, has existed since the fourth century. It is a suffragan of the archdiocese of Milan. The bishops' seat is in Como Cathedral.Local legend credits the conversion of Como to the apostolate of Hermagoras of Aquileia (died c. 70).The diocese of Como was originally suffragan of Milan, as the consecration of its first bishop by Ambrose of Milan demonstrates. By the mid 6th century the diocese was subject to Aquileia. Pope Stephen V (885-891) twice ordered Patriarch Walpert of Aquileia to consecrate Liutard, the Bishop-elect of Como. Until 1751 Como was, indeed, a suffragan of the patriarchate of Aquileia and followed the Aquileian Rite; the Patriarchate was suppressed by Pope Benedict XIV, who, on 18 April 1752, created the metropolitanate of Gorizia, and made Como subject to Goriza. In 1789 Como was placed under the jurisdiction of the Archbishop of Milan by Pope Pius VI.

Roman Catholic Diocese of Imola

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Imola (Latin: Diocesis Imolensis) is a territory in Romagna, northern Italy. It is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Bologna. The diocese had originally been a suffragan of the metropolitan of Milan, and was then subject to the Archbishop of Ravenna until 1582, when Pope Gregory XIII made Bologna an archbishopric and assigned it two suffragans, Imola and Cervia. In 1604, however, Pope Clement VIII returned them to the metropolitanate of Ravenna. Pope Pius VII transferred Imola back to the metropolitanate of Bologna.

The diocese of Imola is noted for having had a number of its bishops elected to the Papacy, including Cardinal Fabio Chigi (1652), afterwards Pope Alexander VII; Cardinal Barnaba Chiaramonti (1785), afterwards Pope Pius VII; and Cardinal Giovanni Maria Mastai Ferretti (1832), afterwards Pope Pius IX.

The current bishop is Tommaso Ghirelli.

Saint Sava (disciple of Saints Cyril and Methodius)

Saint Sava (died late 9th century/early 10th century AD) was a medieval Slavic saint. He was one of the most prominent disciples of Saints Cyril and Methodius. Along with them and Saint Gorazd, Saint Clement of Ohrid, Saint Naum and Saint Angelar he is venerated as a member of a group known as "Seven Saints". In 868 in Rome he and Saint Angelar were ordained as deacons by the bishops Formosus and Gauderic, while Saint Gorazd, Saint Clement of Ohrid and Saint Naum were by the same bishops ordained as priests. His fate after 885 when Pope Stephen V forbade the use of the Slavic liturgy and Wiching as Methodius' successor exiled the disciples of the two brothers from Great Moravia remains unclear. He may have fled together with other disciples to the First Bulgarian Empire, where they were welcomed and commissioned to establish theological schools.

Stephen

Stephen or Steven is a common English first name. It is particularly significant to Christians, as it belonged to Saint Stephen (Greek Στέφανος Stéphanos), an early disciple and deacon who, according to the Book of Acts, was stoned to death; he is widely regarded as the first martyr (or "protomartyr") of the Christian Church. The name "Stephen" (and its common variant "Steven") is derived from Greek Στέφανος (Stéphanos), a first name from the Greek word στέφανος (stéphanos), meaning "wreath, crown" and by extension "reward, honor, renown, fame", from the verb στέφειν (stéphein), "to encircle, to wreathe". In Ancient Greece, crowning wreaths (such as laurel wreaths) were given to the winners of contests. Originally, as the verb suggests, the noun had a more general meaning of any "circle"—including a circle of people, a circling wall around a city, and, in its earliest recorded use, the circle of a fight, which is found in the Iliad of Homer.The name, in both the forms Stephen and Steven, is commonly shortened to Steve or Stevie. In English, the female version of the name is "Stephanie". Many surnames are derived from the first name, including Stephens, Stevens, Stephenson, and Stevenson, all of which mean "Stephen's (son)". In modern times especially the name has sometimes been given with intentionally nonstandard spelling, such as Stevan or Stevon. A common variant of the name used in English is Stephan ; related names that have found some currency or significance in English include Stefan (pronounced or in English), Esteban (often pronounced ), and the Shakespearean Stephano . Like all biblical names, Stephen has forms in almost all major world languages. Some of these include:

Esteban (Spanish; Spanish pronunciation: [esˈteβan]);

Estêvão (Portuguese);

Esteve (Catalan);

Estève (Occitan);

Étienne (French);

Istifanus (Arabic);

István (Hungarian);

Setefane (Sotho);

Shtjefni (Albanian);

Sītífán (Mandarin Chinese);

Stefan (German, Dutch, Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, Ukrainian, Bulgarian, and Serbian; German pronunciation: [ˈʃteːfan]);

Stefán (Icelandic);

Степан/Stepan (Russian, Ukrainian);

Ștefan (Romanian);

Štefan (Slovak and Slovenian);

Stefana (Malagasy);

Stefano (Italian and Swahili);

Stefanos (modern Greek, modern Hebrew, and Estonian);

Stefans (Latvian and

Afrikaans);

Steffan (Welsh);

Stepan (Armenian);

Štěpán (Czech);

Stepane (Georgian);

Steponas (Lithuanian);

Stiofán (Irish);

Sutepano (Japanese);

Szczepan (Polish); and

Tapani (Finnish).

In the United Kingdom, it peaked during the 1950s and 1960s as one of the top ten male first names (ranking third in 1954) but had fallen to twentieth by 1984 and had fallen out of the top one hundred by 2002. The name was ranked 201 in the United States in 2009, according to the Social Security Administration. The name reached its peak popularity in 1951 but remained very common through the mid-1990s, when popularity started to decrease in the United States.

Stephen V

Stephen V may refer to:

Pope Stephen IV, aka Stephen V, Pope from 816 to 817

Pope Stephen V (885–891)

Stephen V of Hungary (born before 1239 – 1272), King of Hungary and Croatia, Duke of Styria

Stephen V Báthory (1430–1493), Hungarian commander, judge of the Royal Court and Prince of Transylvania

Stephen V of Moldavia (r. 1538–1540)

Svatopluk I of Moravia

Svatopluk I or Svätopluk I, also known as Svatopluk the Great (Latin: Zuentepulc, Zuentibald, Sventopulch; Old Church Slavic: Свѧтопълкъ and transliterated Svętopъłkъ; Polish: Świętopełk; Greek: Σφενδοπλόκος, Sphendoplókos), was a ruler of Great Moravia, which attained its maximum territorial expansion during his reign (870–871, 871–894).Svatopluk's career started in the 860s, when he governed a principality within Moravia, the location of which is still a matter of debate among historians, under the suzerainty of his uncle, Rastislav. In 870 Svatopluk dethroned Rastislav, who was a vassal of Louis the German, and betrayed him to the Franks. Within a year, however, the Franks also imprisoned Svatopluk. After the Moravians rebelled against the Franks, Svatopluk was released and led the rebels to victory over the invaders. Although he was obliged to pay tribute to East Francia under the peace treaty concluded at Forchheim (Germany) in 874, he was able to expand his territories outside the Franks' sphere of interest in the following years. His forces even invaded the March of Pannonia within East Francia in 882.Svatopluk established a good relationship with the popes, and he and his people were formally taken under the protection of the Holy See in 880. Pope Stephen V even addressed him as "King" in a letter written in 885. Svatopluk seems to have wanted to appease the German clergy who opposed the conducting of the liturgy in Old Church Slavonic, and he expelled the disciples of Methodius from Moravia in 886, after their teacher's death.Svatopluk's state was a loose assemblage of principalities and also included conquered territories.Not long after his death Svatopluk's realm of Great Moravia collapsed in the midst of a power struggle between his sons and the intensifying Hungarian raids.Svatopluk, whose empire encompassed parts of the territory of modern Czech Republic (Moravia and Bohemia), Slovakia, Poland and Hungary, has occasionally been inaccurately presented as a "Slovak King" in Slovak literary works since the 18th century, the period of the Slovak national awakening.

Wiching

Wiching or Viching was the first bishop of Nitra, in present-day Slovakia.

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