Pope Stephen IX

Pope Stephen IX (Latin: Stephanus IX; c. 1020[1] – 29 March 1058) reigned from 3 August 1057 to his death in 1058.

Pope

Stephen IX
Pope Stephen IX
Papacy began3 August 1057
Papacy ended29 March 1058
PredecessorVictor II
SuccessorNicholas II
Personal details
Birth nameFrédéric de Lorraine
Bornc. 1020
Duchy of Lorraine, Holy Roman Empire
Died29 March 1058
Florence, Holy Roman Empire
Other popes named Stephen

Biography

Christened Frederick,[2] he was a younger brother of Godfrey III, Duke of Lower Lorraine,[3] and part of the Ardennes-Verdun dynasty that would play a prominent role in the politics of the period, which included their strong ties to the abbey of St. Vanne.[3]

Frederick would initially be archdeacon of a cathedral church in Liege called St. Lambert.[3] He was appointed Cardinal-Deacon of Santa Maria in Domnica by Pope Leo IX, and later raised to the Cardinal-Presbyter of San Crisogono by Pope Victor II.[4] In 1054, he discharged the function of one of three papal legates at Constantinople, participating in the events that led to the East-West Schism.[5] In 1057, he was appointed abbot of Monte Cassino.[6] Five days after the death of Pope Victor II, he was chosen to succeed him as Pope Stephen IX.[7]

He enforced the policies of the Gregorian Reform as to clerical celibacy. In regional politics, he was planning for the expulsion of the Normans from southern Italy, and in order to achieve that he decided, at the beginning of 1058, to send a delegation to the new Byzantine Emperor Isaac I Komnenos (1057-1059). Papal delegates departed from Rome, but when they reached Byzantine held Bari, news came that Stephen IX has died, and mission was abandoned.[6]

At the beginning of 1058, he was also planning the elevation of his brother to the imperial throne, when he was seized by a severe illness, from which he only partially and temporarily recovered. Stephen IX died at Florence on 29 March 1058 and is considered by the current-day Catholic Church to have been succeeded by Pope Nicholas II, though others consider his successor to be Pope Benedict X, officially regarded as an antipope.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Mittermaier, Karl (2006). Die deutschen Päpste. Benedikt XVI. und seine deutschen Vorgänger. p. 102.
  2. ^ Kelly, Thomas Forrest, The Beneventan Chant, (Cambridge University Press, 1989), 39.
  3. ^ a b c Patrick Healy, The Chronicle of Hugh of Flavigny: Reform and the Investiture Contest in the Late Eleventh Century, (Ashgate Publishing, 2006), 50.
  4. ^ Charles Radding and Francis Newton, Theology, Rhetoric, and Politics in the Eucharistic controversy, 1078–1079, (Columbia University Press, 2003), 89.
  5. ^ Siecienski 2010.
  6. ^ a b Bloch 1986, p. 38.
  7. ^ He explicitly took the name and the number IX. He signed all his official documents Stephanus Nonus Papa (Stephen Ninth Pope), although some lists called him Stephen X from the second half of the 16th century to the first half of 20th.

References

Sources

1058

Year 1058 (MLVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Adelaide II, Abbess of Quedlinburg

Adelaide II (German: Adelheid; 1045 – 11 January 1096), a member of the Salian dynasty, was Abbess of Gandersheim from 1061 and Abbess of Quedlinburg from 1063 until her death.

Antipope Benedict X

Pope/Antipope Benedict X (died 1073/1080) was born Giovanni, a son of Guido (the youngest son of Alberic III, Count of Tusculum), a brother of the notorious Pope Benedict IX (deposed in 1048), a member of the dominant political dynasty in the region at that time. He reportedly later was given the nickname of Mincius (thin) due to his ignorance.

Ardennes-Verdun dynasty

The Ardennes-Verdun dynasty was one of the first documented medieval European noble families, centered on Verdun. The family dominated in the Duchy of Lotharingia (Lorraine) in the 10th and 11th centuries. All members descended from Count Palatine Wigeric of Lotharingia and his wife Cunigunda of France, a granddaughter of the West Frankish king Louis the Stammerer. The House of Ardennes was closely tied to the Counts of Verdun, Bar, and Luxembourg as well as to the House of Salm.

Arialdo

Saint Arialdo (c. 1010 – June 27, 1066) is a Christian saint of the eleventh century. He was assassinated because of his efforts to reform the Milanese clergy.

August 3

August 3 is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 150 days remain until the end of the year.

Beneventan chant

Beneventan chant is a liturgical plainchant repertory of the Roman Catholic Church, used primarily in the orbit of the southern Italian ecclesiastical centers of Benevento and Monte Cassino distinct from Gregorian chant and related to Ambrosian chant. It was officially supplanted by the Gregorian chant of the Roman rite in the 11th century, although a few Beneventan chants of local interest remained in use.

Beno of Santi Martino e Silvestro

Beno or Benno (fl. AD 1082–98), also known as Bruno, was an imperialist Roman Catholic cardinal and priest of Santi Silvestro e Martino ai Monte during the Investiture Controversy. He was one of the bishops who abandoned Pope Gregory VII (Hildebrand) in 1084 and consecrated Antipope Clement III, the candidate of Emperor Henry IV, in Rome. He wrote the Gesta Romanae ecclesiae contra Hildebrandum, an account of the alleged misdeeds of Gregory.

Nothing is known of his date or place of birth, but since the time of Onofrio Panvinio in the 16th century he has been regarded as a German. He may have been from Lorraine. In his writings he praises Duke Godfrey III of Lower Lorraine and according to Alfonso Chacón, also writing in the 16th century, Pope Stephen IX, who was Godfrey's brother, appointed him cardinal of Santa Sabina. In fact all that is known with certainty is that he was the cardinal-priest of Santi Silvestro e Martino before the pontificate of Gregory VII.On 4 May 1082, Beno participated in a meeting of cardinals that found it was illegal to use church property in the fight against the antipope, declaring that "the sacred things of the church are by no means to be expended on a secular army" (sacras res ecclesiarum nullatenus in militia saeculari expendendas) but are to be reserved for charitable use. Since earlier that year Pope Gregory had used the property of the church of Canossa against the antipope, the cardinals decision must be regarded as a direct rebuke of the pontiff. Most of these cardinals, including Beno, abandoned the pope two years later. In 1084, when the emperor came to Rome to have Clement enthroned in the Lateran thirteen cardinals, all deacons or priests, agreed to declare Gregory deposed and confirm the election of Clement. On 4 November, Beno and eleven other cardinals (including two bishops recently created by Clement) witnessed Clement grant a privilege to the church of San Marcello al Corso.Prior to the 19th century, the Gesta Romanae ecclesiae contra Hildebrandum ("Deeds of the Roman Church Against Hildebrand") was widely printed under the misnomer Vita et gesta Hildebrandi ("Life and Deeds of Hildebrand"). The editio princeps was published either at Cologne (1532?) or Basel (1530×34), certainly before a second edition appeared at Cologne in the Fasciculus rerum expetendarum et fugiendarum of Ortwinus Gratius in 1535. Gesta Romanae is actually the title, found in the manuscript, for the first two letters in a collection of eight written by the anti-Gregorian cardinals. This eight-letter document has the collective title Benonis aliorumque cardinalium scripta ("Writings of Beno and the Other Cardinals"). The third letter, Contra decreta Hildebrandi ("Against Hildebrand's Decrees"), was written by the copyist. Beno's two letters are addressed, respectively, to "the most revered mother of the holy Roman church" (reverentissimae matri sanctae Romanae aecclesiae) and to "the venerable fathers of the Roman church" (venerandis aecclesiae Romanae patribus), that is, the cardinals. In the first letter, Beno says that at the time of writing he was the archpriest (cardinalium archipresbyter), the head of the cardinal-priests, and that John of Santa Maria in Domnica was then archdeacon, head of the cardinal deacons. This places the writing later than November 1084, at which time Leo of San Lorenzo in Damaso was archpriest and Theodinus archdeacon. In the second letter, Beno explicitly refers to the pontificate of Urban II (1088–99), whom he nicknames "Turbanus". The anti-Urbanist tract De Albino et Rufino was attributed to Beno on slim evidence by Julius von Pflugk-Harttung in the 19th century.Beno was probably dead by 18 October 1099, when he did not sign a bull issued by Clement in favour of Roman, cardinal-priest of San Marco, and signed by almost the entire college of cardinals loyal to the antipope. His church was next found in the hands of Benedict, a cardinal loyal to Urban.

Godfrey III, Duke of Lower Lorraine

Godfrey III (c. 997–1069), called the Bearded, was the eldest son of Gothelo I, Duke of Upper and Lower Lorraine. By inheritance, he was Count of Verdun and he became Margrave of Antwerp as a vassal of the Duke of Lower Lorraine. The Holy Roman Emperor Henry III authorized him to succeed his father as Duke of Upper Lorraine in 1044, but refused him the ducal title in Lower Lorraine, for he feared the power of a united duchy. Instead Henry threatened to appoint a younger son, Gothelo, as Duke in Lower Lorraine. At a much later date, Godfrey became Duke of Lower Lorraine, but he had lost the upper duchy by that point in time.

Godfrey rebelled against his King and devastated land in Lower Lorraine, as well as the City of Verdun; which, though his by inheritance, Henry had not given him. He was soon defeated by an imperial army, deposed and imprisoned together with his son (Gibichenstein, 1045). When his son died in prison, the war recommenced. Baldwin V of Flanders joined Godfrey and Henry gave Thierry, Bishop of Verdun, the eponymous county. Godfrey surprised the Bishop (who escaped) and sacked Verdun, burning the cathedral. On 11 November 1048 at Thuin, Godfrey fell on Adalbert, his replacement in Upper Lorraine, and defeated him, killing him in battle. Henry immediately nominated the young Gerard of Chatenoy to replace Adalbert at the Diet of Worms. In his subsequent campaigns to take the Moselle region, Godfrey met with stiff resistance from Gerard and was forced to renounce his claims and reconcile with the Bishop. He even assisted in rebuilding the cathedral he had destroyed.

In 1053, his first wife Doda having died, Godfrey remarried Beatrice of Bar, the widow of Boniface III of Tuscany and mother of Matilda, Boniface's heir. Henry arrested Beatrice and her young son Frederick and imprisoned her in Germany, separate from either husband or son, who died within days. The emperor claimed the marriage had been contracted without his consent and was invalid. Young Frederick died a short while later. Nevertheless, Godfrey took over the government of the Tuscany in right of Beatrice and Matilda.

Baldwin V then rebelled, carrying the war to Trier and Nijmegen. Henry responded by devastating Flanders and ravaging Lille and Tournai (1054). In this war, Godfrey captured Frederick of Luxembourg, Duke of Lower Lorraine, who had received that duchy, including Antwerp, from Henry III.

In 1055, Godfrey besieged Antwerp, but Frederick was delivered by the Lorrainers, no longer loyal to Godfrey. Henry died in 1056 and his successor, Henry IV, was only six years old. In that year, Baldwin made peace and did homage to the new King. In 1056 and 1059, by the treaties of Andernach, Baldwin received the March of Ename in the Landgraviate of Brabant, probably in exchange for giving up the March of Valenciennes, which was confiscated by Emperor Henry III in 1045.

In 1057, Godfrey was exiled to Tuscany, where he joined Beatrice and co-governed with her. He was enfeoffed with the Duchy of Spoleto (1057) by Pope Stephen IX, his brother. In January 1058, Leo de Benedicto Christiano threw open the city gates to him and Beatrice after the election of Pope Nicholas II. Possessing the Tiber and assaulting the Lateran, Godfrey succeeded in expelling the antipope Benedict X on 24 January. During the papal reign of his brother and his brother's reforming successors, he played an important role in the politics of central and northern Italy, including Sardinia, where he interfered on behalf of Barisone I of Logudoro against the Republic of Pisa, indicating his authority over both.

In 1065, he was recalled to become Duke of Lower Lorraine after the death of Frederick. He was also given Antwerp again. He installed his court at Bouillon and died on Christmas Eve 1069.

Gothelo I, Duke of Lorraine

Gothelo (or Gozelo) (c. 967 – 19 April 1044), called the Great, was the duke of Lower Lorraine from 1023 and of Upper Lorraine from 1033. He was also the margrave of Antwerp from 1005 (or 1008) and count of Verdun. Gothelo was the youngest son of Godfrey I, Count of Verdun, and Matilda Billung, daughter of Herman, Duke of Saxony. On his father's death, he received the march of Antwerp and became a vassal of his brother, Godfrey II, who became duke of Lower Lorraine in 1012. He succeeded his brother in 1023 with the support of the Emperor Henry II, but was opposed until Conrad II forced the rebels to submit in 1025. When the House of Bar, which ruled in Upper Lorraine, became extinct in 1033, with the death of his cousin Frederick III, Conrad made him duke of both duchies, so that he could assist in the defence of the territory against Odo II, count of Blois, Meaux, Chartres, and Troyes (the later Champagne).

In the battle at Bar on 15 November 1037, Gothelo dealt a decisive blow to Odo, who was trying to create an independent state between France and Germany. Odo died in the battle.

Gothelo died on 19 April 1044 and was buried in the Abbey Church of Bilzen. His son Godfrey succeeded in Upper Lorraine, but the Emperor Henry III refused to give him the duchy of Lower Lorraine as well. When Godfrey showed disagreement with the imperial decision, Henry III threatened to pass the duchy to Godfrey's incompetent brother Gothelo. This caused a long rebellion in Lotharingia between the allies of Godfrey (the counts of Flanders and Leuven) and imperial forces (1044–1056).

Henry I, Count Palatine of Lotharingia

Henry I (also Heinrich I) (d.1061), was Count Palatine of Lotharingia from 1045 until 1060. He was the son of Hezzelin I, Count in Zülpichgau, and a member of the Ezzonid dynasty. Historians have given several nicknames to Heinrich: Furiosus (the Violent/the Insane), because he murdered his wife, and Monachus (the Monk), because he was confined into an abbey to treat his insanity.

History of the papacy (1048–1257)

The history of the papacy from 1048 to 1257 was marked by conflict between popes and the Holy Roman Emperor, most prominently the Investiture Controversy, a dispute over who— pope or emperor— could appoint bishops within the Empire. Henry IV's Walk to Canossa in 1077 to meet Pope Gregory VII (1073–85), although not dispositive within the context of the larger dispute, has become legendary. Although the emperor renounced any right to lay investiture in the Concordat of Worms (1122), the issue would flare up again.

The Imperial crown once held by the Carolingian emperors was disputed between their fractured heirs and local overlords; none emerged victorious until Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor invaded Italy. Italy became a constituent kingdom of the Holy Roman Empire in 962, from which point emperors were Germanic. As emperors consolidated their position, northern Italian city-states would become divided by Guelphs and Ghibellines.

Long-standing divisions between East and West also came to a head in the East-West Schism and the Crusades. The first seven Ecumenical Councils had been attended by both Western and Eastern prelates, but growing doctrinal, theological, linguistic, political, and geographic differences finally resulted in mutually denunciations and excommunications. Pope Urban II (1088–99) speech at the Council of Clermont in 1095 became the rallying cry of the First Crusade.

Unlike the previous millennium, the process for papal selection became somewhat fixed during this period. Pope Nicholas II promulgated In Nomine Domini in 1059, which limited suffrage in papal elections to the College of Cardinals. The rules and procedures of papal elections evolved during this period, laying the groundwork for the modern papal conclave. The driving force behind these reforms was Cardinal Hildebrand, who later became Gregory VII.

Humbert of Silva Candida

Humbert of Silva Candida, O.S.B., also known as Humbert of Moyenmoutier (between 1000 and 1015 – 5 May 1061), was a French Benedictine abbot and later a cardinal. It was his act of excommunicating the Patriarch of Constantinople Michael I Cerularius in 1054 which is generally regarded as the precipitating event of the Great Schism between the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Churches.

List of French popes

Seventeen popes have had French ancestry, all in the second half of the medieval era. The seven popes of the Avignon Papacy were French and are bolded. Since the end of the Avignon Papacy, no French person has been elected pope.

French is the most common non-Italian papal ancestry.

Pope Silvester II, 999–1003: Gerbert of Aurillac

St. Pope Leo IX, 1049–1054: Bruno, Count of Dagsbourg

Pope Stephen IX, 1057–1058: Frederick of Lorraine

Pope Nicholas II, 1058–1061: Gerard of Burgundy

Bl. Pope Urban II, 1088–1099: Otho of Lagery (or Otto or Odo)

Pope Callistus II, 1119–1124: Guido of Vienne

Pope Urban IV, 1261–1264: Jacques Pantaléon

Pope Clement IV, 1265–1268: Guy Foulques

Bl. Pope Innocent V, 1276: Pierre de Tarentaise

Pope Martin IV, 1281–1285: Simon de Brie

Pope Clement V, 1305–1314: Bertrand de Got

Pope John XXII, 1316–1334: Jacques d'Euse

Pope Benedict XII, 1334–1342: Jacques Fournier

Pope Clement VI, 1342–1352: Pierre Roger

Pope Innocent VI, 1352–1362: Stephen Aubert

Bl. Pope Urban V, 1362–1370: Guillaume de Grimoard

Pope Gregory XI, 1370–1378: Pierre Roger de Beaufort

March 29

March 29 is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 277 days remain until the end of the year.

Pataria

The pataria was an eleventh-century religious movement in the Archdiocese of Milan in northern Italy, aimed at reforming the clergy and ecclesiastic government in the province and supportive of Papal sanctions against simony and clerical marriage. Those involved in the movement were called patarini (also patarines or patarenes, from singular patarino), a word chosen by their opponents, which means "ragpickers", from Milanese patee "rags". In general the patarini were tradesmen motivated by personal piety. The conflict between the patarini and their supporters and the partisans of the simoniacal archbishops eventually led to civil war by the mid-1070s, the Great Saxon revolt. It received its most dependable contemporary chronicler in Arnulf of Milan.

Pope-elect Stephen

Pope-elect Stephen (d. 26 March 752) was a Roman priest elected pope in March 752 to succeed Zachary; he died of a stroke a few days later, before being consecrated a bishop. Therefore, he is not listed as a pope in the Annuario Pontificio.

In 745, Pope Zachary had made him a cardinal-priest, with the titulus of San Crisogono, the same titulus later held by Cardinal Frederick of Lorraine, who became Pope Stephen IX.

Pope Stephen

Pope Stephen may refer to any of several men who were Pope or who were elected Pope of the Roman Catholic Church. Historically, there have been two regnal numbering systems used when referring to Popes called "Stephen" starting with Pope-elect Stephen. See Pope-elect Stephen for detailed explanation.

Pope Stephen I (died 257), Bishop of Rome from 254–257

Pope-elect Stephen (died 752), also known as Pope Stephen II, elected Pope but died before his consecration

Pope Stephen II (III) (died 757), pope from 752–757

Pope Stephen III (IV) (720–772), pope from 768–772

Pope Stephen IV (V) (died 817), pope from 816–817

Pope Stephen V (VI) (died 891), pope from 885–891

Pope Stephen VI (VII) (died 897), pope from 896–897

Pope Stephen VII (VIII) (died 931), pope from 929–931

Pope Stephen VIII (IX) (died 942), pope from 939–942

Pope Stephen IX (X) (c. 1020–1058), pope from 1057–1058

Richard I of Capua

Richard Drengot (died 1078) was the count of Aversa (1049–1078), prince of Capua (1058–1078, as Richard I) and duke of Gaeta (1064–1078).

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