Pope Stephen IV

Pope Stephen IV (Latin: Stephanus IV; c. 770 – 24 January 817) was Bishop of Rome and ruler of the Papal States from June 816 to his death in 817.[1]

Stephen belonged to a noble Roman family. He was consecrated pope on or about 22 June 816. The following October, he crowned Louis the Pious, Holy Roman Emperor at Rheims, and persuaded the emperor to release some Roman political prisoners he held in custody. He returned to Rome, by way of Ravenna, sometime in November and died the following January.

Pope Saint

Stephen IV
Papacy began22 June 816
Papacy ended24 January 817
PredecessorLeo III
SuccessorPaschal I
Personal details
Birth nameStephanus
Bornc. 770
Rome, Byzantine Empire
Died24 January 817
Rome, Papal States
Other popes named Stephen


The son of a Roman noble called Marinus, Stephen IV belonged to the same family which also produced the Popes Sergius II and Adrian II.[2] At a young age he was raised at the Lateran Palace during the pontificate of Pope Adrian I, and it was under Stephen's predecessor Pope Leo III that he was first ordained a Subdeacon before he was subsequently made a Deacon. Very popular among the Roman people,[3] within ten days of Leo III's death, he was escorted to Saint Peter's Basilica and consecrated Bishop of Rome on 22 June 816. It has been conjectured that his rapid election was an attempt by the Roman clergy to ensure that the Holy Roman emperor|emperor could not interfere in the election.[3]

Immediately after his consecration he ordered the Roman people to swear fidelity to the Frankish king and Roman emperor Louis the Pious, after which Stephen sent envoys to the emperor notifying him of his election, and to arrange a meeting between the two at the emperor's convenience.[4] With Louis’ invitation, Stephen left Rome in August 816, crossing the Alps together with Bernard, the King of the Lombards, who was ordered to accompany Stephen to the emperor.[5] In early October, the Pope and Emperor met at Rheims, where Louis prostrated himself three times before Stephen.[6] At Mass on Sunday, 5 October 816, Stephen consecrated and anointed Louis as emperor, placing a crown on his head that was claimed to belong to Constantine the Great.[7] At the same time he also crowned Louis’ wife Ermengarde of Hesbaye, and saluted her as Augusta.[8] This event has been seen as an attempt by the papacy to establish a role in the creation of an emperor, which had been placed in doubt by Louis' self-coronation in 813.[9]

While with Louis, the emperor gave Stephen a number of presents, including an estate of land (most likely at Vendeuvre-sur-Barse) granted to the Roman church.[10] They also renewed the pact between the Popes and the kings of the Franks, confirming the privileges of the Roman church, and the continued existence of the recently emerged Papal States.[11] Stephen also raised Bishop Theodulf of Orléans to the rank of Archbishop, and had Louis release from their exile all political prisoners originally from Rome who had been held by the emperor resulting from the conflict that plagued the early part of Pope Leo III's reign.[12] It is also believed that Stephen asked Louis to enforce reforms for the clergy who lived under the Rule of Chrodegang. This included ensuring that the men and women who lived there were to stay in separate convents, and that they were to hold the houses under a title of common property. He also regulated how much food and wine they could consume.[13]

After visiting Ravenna on his way back from Rheims, Stephen returned to Rome before the end of November 816.[14] Here, he apparently discontinued Leo III's policies of favouring clergy over lay aristocracy. After holding the traditional ordination of priests and bishops in December and confirming Farfa Abbey’s possessions on condition that every day the monks would recite one hundred "Kyrie Eleisons" as well as a yearly payment to the Roman Church of ten golden solidi, Stephen died on 24 January 817.[15] He was buried at St. Peter's, and was succeeded by Pope Paschal I. At some point, Stephen was canonized as a saint of the Catholic Church.[16]

See also


  1. ^ Mann, Horace. "Pope Stephen (IV) V." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 14. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. 19 September 2017
  2. ^ Mann, pgs. 111–112
  3. ^ a b Mann, pg. 112
  4. ^ Mann, pgs. 112–113
  5. ^ Mann, pgs. 113–114
  6. ^ Mann, pg. 114
  7. ^ Duffy, pg. 77
  8. ^ Mann, pg. 115
  9. ^ Duffy, pg. 78
  10. ^ Mann, pg. 117–118
  11. ^ Mann, pg. 118
  12. ^ Mann, pgs. 118–119
  13. ^ Louis Marie DeCormenin; James L. Gihon, A Complete History of the Popes of Rome, from Saint Peter, the First Bishop to Pius the Ninth, (1857) pg. 212
  14. ^ Mann, pg. 119
  15. ^ Mann, pgs. 119–120
  16. ^ Artaud de Montor, The lives and times of the Roman Pontiffs, from St. Peter to Pius IX Volume 1 (1867), pg. 94

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHerbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope Stephen (IV) V". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.


Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Paschal I

The 810s decade ran from January 1, 810, to December 31, 819.

== Events ==

=== 810 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Spring – The Venetian dukes change sides again, submitting to King Pepin, under the authority of his father Charlemagne, who then proceeds to take Venice. Emperor Nikephoros I sends a Byzantine fleet to Dalmatia, prompting Pepin to withdraw to the mainland. A legate is dispatched to Venice, where he deposes the turncoat dukes, before continuing on to Aachen, to negotiate a peace with Charlemagne. Charlemagne recognises Byzantine dominance over Venice and Dalmatia in the Adriatic Sea.

====== Europe ======

King Godfred of the Danes leads 200 Viking ships to plunder the Frisian coast, and forces the merchants to pay 100 pounds of silver. He claims Northern Frisia as Danish territory.

Godfred is killed by one of his housecarls, and is succeeded by Hemming. According to Notker of Saint Gall, the bodyguard who murdered Godfred is possibly one of his sons.

Al-Andalus (modern Spain): The city of Mérida rises up against the Umayyad Emirate of Córdoba.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Tikal Temple III, also known as the Temple of the Jaguar Priest, is constructed in Tikal National Park (modern Guatemala).

The Book of Kells (also known as the Book of Colomba), an illuminated manuscript, is completed by Celtic monks (approximate date).

=== 811 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Byzantine–Bulgarian War: Emperor Nikephoros I organises a new campaign against the Bulgarian Empire, gathering an expeditionary force (around 80,000 men) from all parts of the empire. He is accompanied by high-ranking officials and aristocrats, including his son Stauracius and brother-in-law Michael I Rangabe (both later emperors temporarily). Krum, ruler (khan) of Bulgaria, sends envoys to sue for peace. Nikephoros refuses to accept the terms and marches through the Balkan passes towards Pliska, the Bulgarian capital.

July 23 – Nikephoros I reaches Pliska, and destroys a Bulgarian army of 12,000 elite soldiers who guard the stronghold. Another hastily assembled relief force of 50,000 soldiers suffers a similar fate. The Byzantines capture the defenseless capital. Nikephoros plunders the city and captures Krum's treasury. He burns the countryside, slaughters sheep and pigs, as he pursues the retreating Bulgars south-west towards Serdica (modern-day Sofia).

July 26 – Battle of Vărbitsa Pass: Nikephoros I is trapped (probably in the Vărbitsa Pass) and defeated by the Bulgars, who use the tactics of ambush and surprise night attacks to immobilize the Byzantine forces. Nikephoros himself is killed; Krum has the emperor's head carried back in triumph on a pole, where it is cleaned out, lined with silver and made into a jeweled skull cup, which he allows his Slavic princes (archons) to drink from with him.

Stauracius is installed as emperor at Adrianople (the first time a Byzantine emperor is crowned outside Constantinople). Because of a sword wound near his neck (during the Battle of Pliska), Stauracius is paralyzed. The imperial court is split between the noble factions of his wife Theophano and his sister Prokopia.

October 2 – Michael I is declared emperor of the Byzantine Empire; Stauracius is forced by senior officials to retire to a monastery.

====== Europe ======

Treaty of Heiligen: King Hemming of Denmark concludes a peace treaty with Emperor Charlemagne in present-day Rendsburg. The southern boundary of Denmark is established at the Eider River.

====== Abbasid Caliphate ======

Fourth Fitna: Abbasid caliph al-Amin appoints Ali ibn Isa ibn Mahan as governor of Khurasan, in northeast Persia, and sends him with an army of 40,000 men against his half-brother al-Ma'mun. Ibn Mahan's army is defeated by a smaller army under Tahir ibn Husayn, at Rayy. During the fighting Ali ibn Isa ibn Mahan is killed.

=== 812 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

January 11 – Ex-emperor Staurakios, a son of Nikephoros I, dies of putrefaction in his wounds (see 811) in a monastery. He has reigned only two months and eight days, before being exiled by senior officials in Constantinople.

Emperor Michael I re-opens peace negotiations with the Franks, and recognises Charlemagne as emperor (basileus) of the Frankish Empire. In exchange for this recognition, Venice is returned to the Byzantine Empire.

Byzantine–Bulgarian War: The Bulgars, led by Krum, ruler (khan) of the Bulgarian Empire, launch an invasion against the Byzantines. They capture the fortress cities of Develt and Mesembria, near the Black Sea.

====== Europe ======

Charlemagne conquers Catalonia, as far south as the River Ebro and the Balearic Islands. The counties come under the rule of Bera, count of Barcelona. He signs a three-year peace treaty with the Caliphate of Córdoba.

Charlemagne issues the Capitulare de villis, concerning the rights of a feudal landholder and the services owed by his dependents. It also contains the names of some 89 plants, of which most are used medically.

The Republic of Amalfi sends galleys to support the Byzantine general (strategos) of Sicily, Gregorio, against the Aghlabid invaders. It is one of the earliest evidences of the independence of the city.

====== Britain ======

King Sigered of Essex is reduced to the rank of duke, by his Mercian overlords.

====== Abbasid Caliphate ======

Fourth Fitna: Forces loyal to al-Ma'mun, led by Tahir ibn Husayn, blockade Baghdad, which is loyal to al-Ma'mun's brother, Caliph al-Amin, and begin the year-long Siege of Baghdad.

====== China ======

The Chinese government takes over the issuing of paper bank drafts, the ancestor of paper money.

=== 813 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

June 22 – Battle of Versinikia: The Bulgars, led by Krum, ruler (khan) of the Bulgarian Empire, defeat Emperor Michael I near Edirne (modern Turkey). The Byzantine army (26,000 men) is destroyed by a counter-attack of Bulgarian heavy cavalry, while trapped in the valley. Krum captures the Byzantine camp and a rich prize, including gold and weaponry.

July 11 – Michael I, under threat by conspiracies, abdicates in favor of his general Leo the Armenian, and becomes a monk (under the name Athanasius). His sons are castrated to prevent them succeeding the Byzantine throne, and relegated into monasteries. One of them, Niketas (renamed Ignatius), eventually becomes a patriarch of Constantinople.

July 17 – Krum reaches Constantinople, and sets his camp outside the walls. He is given an invitation, and a promise of safe conduct, to meet Leo V. Krum sets out unarmed for the capital with only a small escort, but is ambushed and manages to escape. After this unsuccessful Byzantine murder attempt, the Bulgars ravage much of Eastern Thrace.

Autumn – Siege of Adrianople: Krum captures Adrianople—one of the most important Byzantine fortresses in Thrace—after being attacked with siege engines. The garrison is forced to surrender, due to starvation. On the orders of Krum, the population of the surrounding area (numbering about 10,000) is transferred to Bulgarian territory, north of the Danube.

Ashot I ("the Great") becomes the first Georgian Bagratid prince of Iberia, under Byzantine protection.

====== Europe ======

September 11 — Louis the Pious, king of Aquitaine (and only surviving legitimate son), is crowned co-emperor of the Franks, with his father Charlemagne.

Danish Viking raiders, led by King Horik I, attack Vestfold (modern Norway), due to its insubordination (approximate date).

====== Abbasid Caliphate ======

Autumn – Siege of Baghdad: Caliph al-Amin surrenders Baghdad, after Tahir ibn Husayn accepts his peace terms, but he is captured and executed. His brother al-Ma'mun becomes undisputed ruler of the Abbasid Caliphate.

The Baghdad School of Astronomy is opened by al-Ma'mun (approximate date).

Caliph al Ma’mun founds a school in Baghdad called the House of Wisdom. In this school scholars translated Greek philosophy classics into Arabic.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Third Council of Tours: Priests are ordered to preach in the vernacular (either Vulgar Latin or German).

=== 814 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Byzantine–Bulgarian Wars: Krum, ruler (khan) of the Bulgarian Empire, assembles a huge army (including Slavs and Avars), for a campaign against the Byzantine Empire. He dies of a stroke, before he sets out for a major attack on Constantinople. Krum is succeeded by his son Omurtag.

April 13— Byzantine–Bulgarian Wars: The Byzantines lay siege to Pliska, the Bulgarian capital, bringing an end to the Bulgar threat.

====== Europe ======

January 28 – Charlemagne dies of pleurisy in Aachen, after an almost 14-year reign (since 800) as the first Frankish Emperor (the precursor of the Holy Roman Emperor). He is embalmed and buried in Aachen Cathedral. Charlemagne is succeeded by his son Louis the Pious, as king of the Frankish Empire.

Louis I establishes himself at the imperial court of Aachen. He appoints Benedict of Aniane as his chief advisor on religious matters, and makes him abbot of Kornelimünster Abbey, which is founded by him.

====== Japan ======

Shinsen Shōjiroku, a record of the genealogy of the ancient Japanese noble families, is completed during the reign of Emperor Saga.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Byzantine Iconoclasm: Conflict erupts between Emperor Leo V and Patriarch Nikephoros, on the subject of iconoclasm. The latter is deposed, and Nikephoros excommunicates Leo.

=== 815 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Byzantine–Bulgarian Treaty: Emperor Leo V the Armenian signs a 30-year peace agreement in Constantinople with Omurtag, ruler (khan) of the Bulgarian Empire. The Rhodope Mountains become the Byzantine border again, and Leo regains its lost Black Sea cities, after the Bulgars have them demolished.

====== Europe ======

Hrafna-Flóki Vilgerðarson sets out from the Faroe Islands and discovers Iceland (documented later in the Landnámabók) (approximate date).

====== Britain ======

King Egbert of Wessex ravages the territories of the remaining British kingdom Dumnonia, known as the West Welsh (Cornwall).

====== Asia ======

Emperor Saga of Japan is the first sovereign to drink tea (according to legend), imported from China by monks. The upper classes adopt this beverage for medicinal use.

July 13 – Wu Yuanheng, Chinese chancellor of the Tang Dynasty, is murdered by assassins of warlord Wu Yuanji, in Chang'an.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Synod of Constantinople: A council led by patriarch Theodotus I, in the Hagia Sophia, reinstitutes iconoclasm.

=== 816 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

October 5 – King Louis the Pious (son of Charlemagne) is crowned emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, by Pope Stephen IV at Reims. He also crowns the emperor's wife Ermengarde as Holy Roman Empress. The ceremony in Reims re-establishes the principle of papal supremacy, by recognising the importance of the pope in imperial coronations. Louis gives the pope many gifts, including the estate tax Vendeuvre, near Troyes (Northern France).

Battle of Pancorbo: A Moorish army from the Emirate of Córdoba is sent by Emir Al-Hakam I, to take control of the pass at Pancorbo. They defeat the army of Asturian-Basque Frankish vassals.

Winter – The Basques, supported by the Moors, cross the Garonne River and revolt against the Franks in Gascony (north of the Pyrenees).

====== Britain ======

King Hywel of Gwynedd is attacked by his brother Cynan on Anglesey (modern Wales), who is killed during the fighting (approximate date).

====== Abbasid Caliphate ======

Babak Khorramdin, Persian military leader, revolts against the Abbasid Caliphate in Azerbaijan (approximate date).

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Synod of Aachen: Louis the Pious calls for a council about the regulations (Institutio canonicorum Aquisgranensis) for monastic life in the Frankish Empire.

Synod of Chelsea: King Coenwulf of Mercia calls for a council about his right to appoint abbots and monasteries in England.

June 12 – Pope Leo III dies after a 20-year reign, and is succeeded by Stephen IV as the 97th pope of Rome.

=== 817 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Summer – Emperor Louis I issues an Ordinatio Imperii, an imperial decree that lays out plans for an ordely succession. He divides the Frankish Empire among his three sons: Lothair, the eldest, is proclaimed co-emperor in Aachen, and becomes the overlord of his brothers. He receives the dominion of Burgundy (including German and Gallic parts). Pepin, the second son, is proclaimed king of Aquitaine, and receives Gascony (including the marche around Toulouse and parts of Septimania); Louis (the youngest son) is proclaimed king of Bavaria, and receives the dominions of East Francia.

Prince Grimoald IV is assassinated by a complot of Lombard nobles vying for his throne. He is succeeded by Sico as ruler of Benevento (Southern Italy), who is forced to pay an annual tribute of 7,000 solidi to Louis I.

====== North Africa ======

Ziyadat Allah I becomes the third Aghlabid emir of Ifriqiya (modern Tunisia). During his rule, the relationship between the Aghlabid Dynasty and the Arab troops remains strained.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

January 24 – Pope Stephen IV dies at Rome after a 7-month reign, and is succeeded by Paschal I as the 98th pope of the Catholic Church.

Synod of Aachen: The council adopts a capitulare monasticum, containing the Benedictine rules of monastic life in the Frankish realm.

=== 818 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Vikings known as Rus' (Norsemen) plunder the north coast of Anatolia (modern Turkey), marking the first recorded raid of Rus' people on territory in the Byzantine Empire.

====== Europe ======

April 17 – King Bernard of Italy, illegitimate son of Pepin of Italy, is tried and condemned to death by Emperor Louis I. The Kingdom of Italy is reabsorbed into the Frankish Empire.

The Slavs on the Timok River break their alliance with the Bulgars. Duke Ljudevit of Pannonian Croatia sends emissaries to Louis I, to assert his independence from the Franks.

Al-Andalus: A grave rebellion breaks out in the suburbs of Cordoba, against the Umayyad Caliphate. Andalucian Arab refugees arrive in Fez (modern Morocco).

====== Britain ======

The Anglo-Saxons, led by King Coenwulf of Mercia, raid Dyfed in Wales (approximate date).

====== Asia ======

Beginning of the Lemro period: The Sambawa and Pyinsa Kingdoms are founded in present-day Myanmar.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Theodulf, bishop of Orléans, is deposed and imprisoned, after becoming involved in a conspiracy with Bernard of Italy.

=== 819 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Spring – Emperor Louis I marries Judith of Bavaria in Aachen. She becomes his second wife and Empress of the Franks. Like many of the royal marriages of the time, Judith is selected through a bridal show.

Ljudevit, duke of Pannonian Croatia, allies himself with the Slavs and raises a rebellion against the Frankish Empire. Louis I sends an army led by Cadolah of Friuli, but is defeated by the Pannonian Slavs.

Battle of Kupa: Ljudevit defeats the Frankish forces led by Borna, a vassal of Louis I. He escapes with the help of his elite bodyguard. Ljudevit uses the momentum and invades the Duchy of Croatia.

Nominoe, a noble Briton, is appointed by Louis I as count of Vannes in Brittany (approximate date).

====== Abbasid Caliphate ======

August 11 – Caliph Al-Ma'mun returns to Baghdad, securing the city's place as the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate.


Year 816 (DCCCXVI) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.


Year 817 (DCCCXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Colonna family

The Colonna family, also known as Sciarrillo or Sciarra, is an papal noble family. It was powerful in medieval and Renaissance Rome, supplying one Pope (Martin V) and many other Church and political leaders. The family is notable for its bitter feud with the Orsini family over influence in Rome, until it was stopped by Papal Bull in 1511. In 1571, the heads of both families married nieces of Pope Sixtus V. Thereafter, historians recorded that "no peace had been concluded between the princes of Christendom, in which they had not been included by name".

Ermengarde of Hesbaye

Ermengarde (or Irmingard) of Hesbaye (c. 778 – 3 October 818), probably a member of the Robertian dynasty, was Carolingian empress from 813 and Queen of the Franks from 814 until her death as the wife of the Carolingian emperor Louis the Pious.

Frankish Papacy

From 756 to 857, the papacy shifted from the orbit of the Byzantine Empire to that of the kings of the Franks. Pepin the Short (ruled 751–768), Charlemagne (r. 768–814) (co-ruler with his brother Carloman I until 771), and Louis the Pious (r. 814-840) had considerable influence in the selection and administration of popes. The "Donation of Pepin" (756) ratified a new period of papal rule in central Italy, which became known as the Papal States.

This shift was initiated by the Lombards conquering the Exarchate of Ravenna from the Byzantines, strengthened by the Frankish triumph over the Lombards, and ended by the fragmentation of the Frankish Kingdom into West Francia, Middle Francia, and East Francia. Lothair I continued to rule Middle Francia which included much of the Italian peninsula, from 843 to 855.

This period was "a critical time in Rome's transformation from ancient capital to powerful bishopric to new state capital." The period was characterized by "battles between Franks, Lombards and Romans for control of the Italian peninsula and of supreme authority within Christendom."


Hildebold (died 3 September 818) was the Bishop of Cologne from 787 until 795 and the first Archbishop of Cologne thereafter.

A friend of Charlemagne, in 791 Hildebold was made the archchaplain and chancellor of the Imperial Council. At the request of Charlemagne, Pope Adrian I released Hildebold from the traditional episcopal requirement of residing in one's see. In 795, the pope raised Cologne to archiepiscopal status. The dioceses of Utrecht, Liège, Münster, Minden, Osnabrück, and Bremen were made suffragan. Hildebold began the construction of an extension of Cologne Cathedral that was only completed in 870, which in later times was called the Hildebold Cathedral.

In 805, he met the first bishop of Münster, St Ludgar.

Hildebold was the first witness to Charlemagne's testament of 811. Together with Richulf, he presided over the Synod of Mainz in 813 at St. Alban's Abbey, Mainz, and in the same year he prepared Louis the Pious to succeed his father. When Charlemagne died in 814, Hildebold donated to the construction of his tomb in Aachen. With Pope Stephen IV, he prepared the coronation of Louis in Reims.

Hildebold died on 3 September 818 and was buried in the Abbey of St Geron.

The friendship of Charlemagne and Hildebold has become something of a legend. It is said that they first met when Charlemagne was hunting in the forests outside Cologne. After a long day hunting and in need of a rest, Charlemagne stopped at a small chapel. After a while the chapel filled with worshippers and Hildebold gave his sermon. Charlemagne was so impressed by Hildebold's sermon that he offered a sum of gold to his chapel. Believing Charlemagne was only a hunter and not the king, Hildebold rejected the offer and asked only for a small piece of leather from the next deer killed so he could bind his old prayer book. Charlemagne was so impressed by this modesty that he immediately fostered a friendship with the cleric.

Holy Roman Emperor

The Holy Roman Emperor (also "German-Roman Emperor", German: Römisch-deutscher Kaiser "Roman-German emperor"; historically Imperator Romanorum, "Emperor of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (considered by itself to be the successor of the Roman Empire) during the Middle Ages and the early modern period. The title was, almost without interruption, held in conjunction with title of King of Germany (rex teutonicorum) throughout the 12th to 18th centuries.From an autocracy in Carolingian times (AD 800–924) the title by the 13th century evolved into an elected monarchy chosen by the prince-electors.

Various royal houses of Europe, at different times, became de facto hereditary holders of the title, notably the Ottonians (962–1024) and the Salians (1027–1125). Following the late medieval crisis of government, the Habsburgs kept possession of the title without interruption from 1440–1740. The final emperors were from the House of Lorraine (Habsburg-Lorraine), from 1765–1806. The Holy Roman Empire was dissolved by Emperor Francis II, after a devastating defeat to Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz.

The Holy Roman Emperor was widely perceived to rule by divine right, though he often contradicted or rivaled the Pope, most notably during the Investiture controversy.

In theory, the Holy Roman Emperor was primus inter pares (first among equals) among other Catholic monarchs. In practice, a Holy Roman Emperor was only as strong as his army and alliances, including marriage alliances, made him. There was never a Holy Roman Empress regnant, though women such as Theophanu and Maria Theresa of Austria served as de facto Empresses regnant.

Throughout its history, the position was viewed as a defender of the Roman Catholic faith. Until the Reformation, the Emperor elect (imperator electus) was required to be crowned by the Pope before assuming the imperial title. Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor was the last to be crowned by the Pope in 1530. Even after the Reformation, the elected Emperor always was a Roman Catholic. There were short periods in history when the electoral college was dominated by Protestants, and the electors usually voted in their own political interest.


Ingoald (died 830) was the Abbot of Farfa from 815, succeeding Benedict. At the beginning of his abbacy he vigorously protested the policies of Pope Leo III (795–816), which had resulted in the abbey's loss of property. Ingoald complained about not only the—illegitimate, as he saw it—seizure of Farfa's lands, but also the application of dubious laws of Roman origin in a zone that followed Lombard law. While Ingoald also fostered close contacts with the Carolingian rulers of Francia and Lombardy, he resisted secular encroachments on the abbey's privileges as staunchly as he resisted papal ones. The rate of property transactions at Farfa seems to have peaked under Ingoald, but the surviving documentary evidence is far from complete.In 817 Pope Stephen IV issued a bull claiming that Farfa's lands lay within the Papal patrimonium sabinense (Sabine patrimony) and under Papal ius (jurisdiction), and that therefore the abbey owed the Holy See an annual rent (pensio) of ten gold solidi. Hoping to recover Farfa's lost territories, Ingoald agreed to pay the pensio. When the lands were not returned, he sent a complaint to King Lothair I that the monastery was "constrained under tribute and payment to the Roman pontiffs" and its lands "violently taken away". In 824, on the occasion of the promulgation of the Constitutio Romana, the king and his father, the Emperor Louis I, responded with a privilege for Farfa. In the next pontificate, that of Paschal I (817–24), this claim to an annual rent was withdrawn, but in January 829 Farfa's advocate, Audolf, accused Leo III and the earlier Adrian II of having invaded the monastery's properties with force. By the time of this tribunal, held in the presence of imperial missi dominici and Pope Gregory IV in the Basilica of Saint John Lateran, the complaint of payment had been dropped, so the imperial privilege seems to have had its intended effect. Although Ingoald presented charters from Duke Theodicius of Spoleto and Queen Ansa with confirmations from King Desiderius and Charlemagne, and the tribunal found in Farfa's favour, Gregory IV "refused to do anything" (facere noluit).Ingoald was succeeded by Sichard.

January 24

January 24 is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 341 days remain until the end of the year (342 in leap years).

List of canonised popes

This article lists the Popes who have been canonised or recognised as Saints in the Roman Catholic Church they had led. A total of 83 (out of 266) Popes have been recognised universally as canonised saints, including all of the first 35 Popes (31 of whom were martyrs) and 52 of the first 54. If Pope Liberius is numbered amongst the Saints as in Eastern Christianity, all of the first 49 Popes become recognised as Saints, of whom 31 are Martyr-Saints, and 53 of the first 54 Pontiffs would be acknowledged as Saints. In addition, 13 other Popes are in the process of becoming canonised Saints: as of December 2018, two are recognised as being Servants of God, two are recognised as being Venerable, and nine have been declared Blessed or Beati, making a total of 95 (97 if Pope Liberius and Pope Adeodatus II are recognised to be Saints) of the 266 Roman Pontiffs being recognised and venerated for their heroic virtues and inestimable contributions to the Church.

The most recently reigning Pope to have been canonised was Pope John Paul II, whose cause for canonisation was opened in May 2005. John Paul II was beatified on May 1, 2011, by Pope Benedict XVI and later canonised, along with Pope John XXIII, by Pope Francis on April 27, 2014. Pope Francis also canonised Pope Paul VI on October 14, 2018.

Louis the Pious

Louis the Pious (778 – 20 June 840), also called the Fair, and the Debonaire, was the King of the Franks and co-emperor with his father, Charlemagne, from 813. He was also King of Aquitaine from 781.

As the only surviving adult son of Charlemagne and Hildegard, he became the sole ruler of the Franks after his father's death in 814, a position which he held until his death, save for the period 833–34, during which he was deposed.

During his reign in Aquitaine, Louis was charged with the defence of the empire's southwestern frontier. He conquered Barcelona from the Muslims in 801 and asserted Frankish authority over Pamplona and the Basques south of the Pyrenees in 812. As emperor he included his adult sons, Lothair, Pepin, and Louis, in the government and sought to establish a suitable division of the realm among them. The first decade of his reign was characterised by several tragedies and embarrassments, notably the brutal treatment of his nephew Bernard of Italy, for which Louis atoned in a public act of self-debasement.

In the 830s his empire was torn by civil war between his sons, only exacerbated by Louis's attempts to include his son Charles by his second wife in the succession plans. Though his reign ended on a high note, with order largely restored to his empire, it was followed by three years of civil war. Louis is generally compared unfavourably to his father, though the problems he faced were of a distinctly different sort.

Pope Paschal I

Pope Paschal I (Latin: Paschalis I; born Pascale Massimi; died 824) was Pope from 25 January 817 to his death in 824.

Paschal was a member of one of the aristocratic families of Rome. He was in charge of a monastery that served pilgrims. He was elected pope in January 817. In 823, Paschal crowned Lothair I as King of Italy. He rebuilt a number of churches in Rome, including three basilicas.

Pope Stephen

Pope Stephen may refer to any of several men who were Pope or who were elected Pope of the Roman Catholic Church. Historically, there have been two regnal numbering systems used when referring to Popes called "Stephen" starting with Pope-elect Stephen. See Pope-elect Stephen for detailed explanation.

Pope Stephen I (died 257), Bishop of Rome from 254–257

Pope-elect Stephen (died 752), also known as Pope Stephen II, elected Pope but died before his consecration

Pope Stephen II (III) (died 757), pope from 752–757

Pope Stephen III (IV) (720–772), pope from 768–772

Pope Stephen IV (V) (died 817), pope from 816–817

Pope Stephen V (VI) (died 891), pope from 885–891

Pope Stephen VI (VII) (died 897), pope from 896–897

Pope Stephen VII (VIII) (died 931), pope from 929–931

Pope Stephen VIII (IX) (died 942), pope from 939–942

Pope Stephen IX (X) (c. 1020–1058), pope from 1057–1058

Santi Apostoli, Rome

Santi Dodici Apostoli (Church of the Twelve Holy Apostles; Latin: SS. Duodecim Apostolorum), commonly known simply as Santi Apostoli, is a 6th-century Roman Catholic parish and titular church and minor basilica in Rome, Italy, dedicated originally to St. James and St. Philip whose remains are kept here, and later to all Apostles. Today, the basilica is under the care of the Conventual Franciscans, whose headquarters in Rome is in the adjacent building.

The Cardinal Priest of the Titulus XII Apostolorum is Angelo Scola. Among the previous Cardinal Priests are Pope Clement XIV, whose tomb by Canova is in the basilica, and Henry Benedict Stuart.


Stephen or Steven is a common English first name. It is particularly significant to Christians, as it belonged to Saint Stephen (Greek Στέφανος Stéphanos), an early disciple and deacon who, according to the Book of Acts, was stoned to death; he is widely regarded as the first martyr (or "protomartyr") of the Christian Church. The name "Stephen" (and its common variant "Steven") is derived from Greek Στέφανος (Stéphanos), a first name from the Greek word στέφανος (stéphanos), meaning "wreath, crown" and by extension "reward, honor, renown, fame", from the verb στέφειν (stéphein), "to encircle, to wreathe". In Ancient Greece, crowning wreaths (such as laurel wreaths) were given to the winners of contests. Originally, as the verb suggests, the noun had a more general meaning of any "circle"—including a circle of people, a circling wall around a city, and, in its earliest recorded use, the circle of a fight, which is found in the Iliad of Homer.The name, in both the forms Stephen and Steven, is commonly shortened to Steve or Stevie. In English, the female version of the name is "Stephanie". Many surnames are derived from the first name, including Stephens, Stevens, Stephenson, and Stevenson, all of which mean "Stephen's (son)". In modern times especially the name has sometimes been given with intentionally nonstandard spelling, such as Stevan or Stevon. A common variant of the name used in English is Stephan ; related names that have found some currency or significance in English include Stefan (pronounced or in English), Esteban (often pronounced ), and the Shakespearean Stephano . Like all biblical names, Stephen has forms in almost all major world languages. Some of these include:

Esteban (Spanish; Spanish pronunciation: [esˈteβan]);

Estêvão (Portuguese);

Esteve (Catalan);

Estève (Occitan);

Étienne (French);

Istifanus (Arabic);

István (Hungarian);

Setefane (Sotho);

Shtjefni (Albanian);

Sītífán (Mandarin Chinese);

Stefan (German, Dutch, Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, Ukrainian, Bulgarian, and Serbian; German pronunciation: [ˈʃteːfan]);

Stefán (Icelandic);

Степан/Stepan (Russian, Ukrainian);

Ștefan (Romanian);

Štefan (Slovak and Slovenian);

Stefana (Malagasy);

Stefano (Italian and Swahili);

Stefanos (modern Greek, modern Hebrew, and Estonian);

Stefans (Latvian and


Steffan (Welsh);

Stepan (Armenian);

Štěpán (Czech);

Stepane (Georgian);

Steponas (Lithuanian);

Stiofán (Irish);

Sutepano (Japanese);

Szczepan (Polish); and

Tapani (Finnish).

In the United Kingdom, it peaked during the 1950s and 1960s as one of the top ten male first names (ranking third in 1954) but had fallen to twentieth by 1984 and had fallen out of the top one hundred by 2002. The name was ranked 201 in the United States in 2009, according to the Social Security Administration. The name reached its peak popularity in 1951 but remained very common through the mid-1990s, when popularity started to decrease in the United States.

Stephen IV

Stephen IV may refer to:

Stephen IV, Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch (died 744)

Pope Stephen III, aka Stephen IV, (720–772), native of Sicily

Pope Stephen IV, Pope from June 816 to January 817

Stephen IV of Hungary (c. 1133 – 1165), King of Hungary and Croatia

Stephen IV of Serbia (c. 1285 – 1331), King of Serbia

Stephen Ostojić of Bosnia (died 1421), King of Bosnia

Stephen IV of Moldavia (r. 1517–1527)

Stephen V

Stephen V may refer to:

Pope Stephen IV, aka Stephen V, Pope from 816 to 817

Pope Stephen V (885–891)

Stephen V of Hungary (born before 1239 – 1272), King of Hungary and Croatia, Duke of Styria

Stephen V Báthory (1430–1493), Hungarian commander, judge of the Royal Court and Prince of Transylvania

Stephen V of Moldavia (r. 1538–1540)


Wulfar or Wulfaire (died 816) was the archbishop of Reims from 812 until his death. He was an important administrator in the Carolingian Empire, both before and during his episcopate, under the emperors Charlemagne and Louis the Pious.

In 802 Wulfar was the royal missus (representative) in a missaticum comprising the southeast of the ecclesiastical province of Reims. His term as a missus is only recorded the History of the Church of Reims (Historia Remensis ecclesiae) of Flodoard (died 966), in a section based on the Capitulare missorum specialia of 802. The name of Wulfar's lay associate (since missi always worked in clerical–lay pairs) is unknown. Jacques Stiennon first identified a denier from the reign of Charlemagne bearing the inscription FUIFAR as belonging to the missaticum of Wulfar and recording his name as that of the moneyer in charge. An alternate reading and interpretation of this inscription—FIUFAR or ARFIUF, meaning Strasbourg, the location of the mint—has been put forward.Wulfar also served Charlemagne as a legate in Rhaetia in 807. According to Flodoard, "that Emperor Charlemagne put a great deal of trust in [Wulfar] is proven by the fact that he committed to his safekeeping fifteen noble hostages of the Saxons whom he had brought back from Saxony." As the Saxons were still largely pagan at the time, placing these hostages in an ecclesiastical environment furthered the Christianization of their people. According to Charlemagne's contemporary biographer, Einhard, Wulfar was one of the bishosp who witnessed and signed the emperor's testament of 811, in which he divided his empire between his surviving sons.The archbishops of Reims began issuing a type of document called an ordinatio servitiorum ("ordering of services"), an early form of polyptych, in the eighth century. These documents recorded the estates owned by the archbishopric and reorganized them on a more rational and permanent footing. Wulfar, Flodoard records, "made coloniae of some estates of the church of Reims, properly distributed and described." Wulfar was also responsible for introducing the office of advocatus ecclesiae into the province of Reims. Wulfar's predecessors had used the terms agentes and actores, and the office may not have changed when Wulfar introduced the term advocatus.Wulfar was the hosting archbishop at the Council of Reims of 813. In 814, he held a synod at Noyon for the bishops, abbots and some of the counts of his province. He died in 816, perhaps as early as 18 June. Some sources say that he was alive but gravely ill in October 816, when Pope Stephen IV visited the cathedral of Reims in order to crown the Emperor Louis the Pious. In a letter to Pope Nicholas I in 867, King Charles the Bald refers to the coronation of his father in 816 and to the death of Wulfar "around that time" (eo tempore). The historian of the church of Reims, Flodoard, writing a century later, also placed Wulfar's death shortly after or during the papal visit. Immediately after his death, the people and clergy of the city elected Gislemar as his replacement. When the bishops of the province gathered to confirm him, they found him unable to read the Vulgate Bible in its Latin and the emperor's candidate, Ebbo, was chosen archbishop instead.

1st–4th centuries
During the Roman Empire (until 493)
including under Constantine (312–337)
5th–8th centuries
Ostrogothic Papacy (493–537)
Byzantine Papacy (537–752)
Frankish Papacy (756–857)
9th–12th centuries
Papal selection before 1059
Saeculum obscurum (904–964)
Crescentii era (974–1012)
Tusculan Papacy (1012–1044/1048)
Imperial Papacy (1048–1257)
13th–16th centuries
Viterbo (1257–1281)
Orvieto (1262–1297)
Perugia (1228–1304)
Avignon Papacy (1309–1378)
Western Schism (1378–1417)
Renaissance Papacy (1417–1534)
Reformation Papacy (1534–1585)
Baroque Papacy (1585–1689)
17th–20th centuries
Age of Enlightenment (c. 1640-1740)
Revolutionary Papacy (1775–1848)
Roman Question (1870–1929)
Vatican City (1929–present)
21st century
History of the papacy
Virgin Mary
See also

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