Pope Stephen I

Pope Stephen I (Latin: Stephanus I; died 2 August 257) was the Bishop of Rome from 12 May 254 to his death in 257.[1] Of Roman birth but of Greek ancestry, he became bishop after serving as archdeacon of Pope Lucius I, who appointed Stephen his successor.

Pope Saint

Stephen I
23-St.Stephen I
Papacy began12 May 254
Papacy ended2 August 257
PredecessorLucius I
SuccessorSixtus II
Personal details
Birth nameStephanus
BornRome, Roman Empire
Died2 August 257
Rome, Roman Empire
Feast day2 August, 3 August
Venerated inCatholic Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
Other popes named Stephen


Following the Decian persecution of 250–251, there was disagreement about how to treat those who had lapsed from the faith. Stephen was urged by Faustinus, Bishop of Lyon, to take action against Marcian, the Novatianist Bishop of Arles, who denied penance and communion to the lapsed who repented.

The controversy arose in the context of a broad pastoral problem. During the Decian persecution some Christians had purchased certificates attesting that they had made the requisite sacrifices to the Roman gods. Others had denied they were Christians while yet others had in fact taken part in pagan sacrifices. These people were called "lapsi". The question arose that if they later repented, could they be readmitted to communion with the church, and if so, under what conditions.[2]

Stephen held that converts who had been baptized by splinter groups did not need re-baptism, while Cyprian and certain bishops of the Roman province of Africa held rebaptism necessary for admission to the Eucharist. Stephen's view eventually won broad acceptance in the Latin Church.[1] However, in the Eastern Churches this issue is still debated.

He is also mentioned as having insisted on the restoration of the bishops of León and Astorga, who had been deposed for unfaithfulness during the persecution but afterwards had repented.[1]

The Depositio episcoporum of 354 does not speak of Pope Stephen I as a martyr and he is not celebrated as such by the Catholic Church,[3] in spite of the account in the Golden Legend that in 257 Emperor Valerian resumed the persecution of Christians, and Stephen was sitting on his pontifical throne celebrating Mass for his congregation when the emperor's men came and beheaded him on 2 August 257.[4] As late as the 18th century, what was said to be the chair was preserved, still stained with blood.

Stephen I's feast day in the Catholic Church is celebrated on 2 August.[5] In 1839, when the new feast of St Alphonsus Mary de Liguori was assigned to 2 August, Stephen I was mentioned only as a commemoration within the Mass of Saint Alphonsus. The revision of the calendar in 1969 removed the mention of Stephen I from the General Roman Calendar, but, according to the General Instruction of the Roman Missal, the 2 August Mass may now everywhere be that of Stephen I, unless in some locality an obligatory celebration is assigned to that day,[6] and some continue to use pre-1969 calendars that mention a commemoration of Saint Stephen I on that day.

Pope Stephen I is the patron of Hvar and of Modigliana Cathedral.

See also


  1. ^ a b c Mann, Horace (1912). "Pope St. Stephen I" in The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 14. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  2. ^ Hogan, R.M. (2001). Dissent from the Creed: Heresies Past and Present. Our Sunday Visitor. p. 71. ISBN 9780879734084. Archived from the original on 2016-04-17. Retrieved 2016-03-30.
  3. ^ "Calendarium Romanum" (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1969), p. 133
  4. ^ The golden legend: readings on the saints By Jacobus de Voragine, William Granger Ryan
  5. ^ "Martyrologium Romanum" (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2001 ISBN 88-209-7210-7)
  6. ^ "General Instruction of the Roman Missal" Archived 2008-07-20 at the Wayback Machine 355 c

External links

Titles of the Great Christian Church
Preceded by
Lucius I
Bishop of Rome

Succeeded by
Sixtus II

The 250s decade ran from January 1, 250, to December 31, 259.

== Events ==

=== 250 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

A group of Franks penetrate as far as Tarragona in Spain (approximate date).

The Goths under king Cniva invade Moesia. They cross the Danube and lay siege to Novae and Marcianopolis.

Battle of Augusta Traiana. The Romans lose the battle against the Goths

Cniva lays siege to Philippopolis (modern Plovdiv). After a long resistance, Cniva conquers the city and slays its one hundred thousand inhabitants.

The Alamanni drive the Romans from the modern area of Donau-Ries.

An epidemic begins in Ethiopia, moves into Egypt and the Roman colonies in North Africa, and spreads through the Roman Empire. Named the Plague of Cyprian after St. Cyprian, bishop of Carthage.

====== Africa ======

The Kingdom of Aksum (Axum) takes control of commerce on the Red Sea.

====== Asia ======

The earliest Chinese references to a device known as "emperor's south-pointing carriage" date to this period.

====== America ======

Teotihuacán is rebuilt as a four-quartered cosmogram by Zapotec architects brought from Monte Albán in Oaxaca.

Classic period of Mesoamerican civilization begins.

==== By topic ====

====== Arts and sciences ======

Diophantus writes Arithmetica, the first systematic treatise on algebra.

Family Group, traditionally called the Family of Vunnerius Keramus, is made. It was later placed in Brescia Cross. It is now kept at Museo Civico dell'Etá Cristiana, Brescia (approximate date).

Battle between the Romans and the Barbarians, detail of the Ludovisi Battle sarcophagus, found near Rome, is made. It is now kept at Museo Nazionale Romano (approximate date).

Igel Column is erected (approximate date).

====== Religion ======

Emperor Decius institutes the persecution of Christians in an attempt to restore the religion of Rome. Pope Fabian is one of the first martyrs.

Saint Denis, who is a patron saint of France, is beheaded around this time.

=== 251 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

July 1 – In the Battle of Abritus, the Goths defeat emperor Decius and his son Herennius Etruscus on swampy ground in the Dobruja (Moesia).

In Rome, Hostilian, son of Decius, succeeds his father, while Trebonianus Gallus is proclaimed Emperor by the troops. Gallus accepts him as co-emperor, but an outbreak of plague strikes the city and kills the young Hostilian.

The prosperity of Roman Britain declines during this period as the Germanic tribes of the Franks and Saxons, whose homelands are in Friesland and the Low Countries, make raids around the southeast coast.

Gallus makes peace with the Goths, he permits them to keep their plunder, and offers them a bribe not to return.

A fifteen-year plague begins in the Roman Empire.

====== Persia ======

The Sassanid king, Shapur I, orders an invasion of the Roman East with the intent of finally capturing the jewel of Syria, Antioch (251–254).

====== China ======

Wang Ling's rebellion against the Wei regent Sima Yi is quelled.

Sima Yi passes away in Luoyang.

Sima Shi, Sima Yi's eldest son, inherits his father's authority.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

March – Pope Cornelius succeeds Pope Fabian as the 21st pope.

=== 252 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Battle of Barbalissos: King Shapur I defeats a Roman field army at Barbalissos in Syria (probable date, could have been in 253). The size of the Roman field army is claimed by Persian sources to have been 70,000 men strong, yet this is unlikely.

====== Persia ======

Shapur I, king of Persia, puts the revolt in Khorasan (Iran and Turkmenistan) down and rejoins with his army.

He invades Armenia and appoints Artavazd VI as the new Armenian king.

Georgia submits peacefully to Shapur I, and is made a special province in the Persian Empire.

====== Asia ======

Sun Liang succeeds his father Sun Quan as emperor of the Chinese state of Eastern Wu.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Pope Cornelius is exiled to Centumcellae by emperor Trebonianus Gallus.

=== 253 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

The legions who have campaigned against the Goths on the Danube elect Marcus Aemilius Aemilianus as new emperor. He advances on Rome along the Flaminian Way, to meet his opponent emperor Trebonianus Gallus and his son Volusianus. For the most part, generals in the border regions are proclaimed emperor by their armies to halt the invasion of Germanic tribes.

Aemilianus is proclaimed "enemy of the State" by the Roman Senate. Trebonianus Gallus is defeated at Interamna Nahars (Umbria); he flees with Volusianus to the north, but at Foligno they are killed by their own troops.

Aemilianus rules for 3 months the Roman Empire; he promises to fight in Thrace and goes to war against Persia. The Senate gives him the rank of Pontifex Maximus.

Aemilianus is murdered at Spoletium and Publius Valerianus, age 60, is recognised as new emperor by the Rhine legions. He gives his son Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus the title Augustus. Valerianus I dispatches him to the Danube where the Goths have violated the treaty signed with Rome and invaded Moesia.

Valerianus I splits the Roman Empire in two; Gallienus taking control of the West and his father ruling the East, where he faces the Persian threat.

Battle of Barbalissos: King Shapur I, defeats a Roman field army at Barbalissos in Syria 2).

Valerian reforms Legio III Augusta to fight the "five peoples", a dangerous coalition of Berber tribes in Africa.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Pope Cornelius is sent into exile.

June 25 – Pope Lucius I succeeds Pope Cornelius as the 22nd pope.

Lucius is arrested almost immediately following his election and also exiled.

=== 254 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Publius Licinius Valerianus Augustus and Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus become Roman Consuls.

The Roman Empire is threatened by several peoples on their borders: the Germanic confederations, such as the Franks on the Middle Rhine, the Alemanni on the upper Rhine and Danube, and the Marcomanni facing the provinces at Noricum and Raetia. On land the confederation of Goths threaten the lower Danube provinces and on the sea they threaten the shores of Thracia, Bithynia et Pontus, and Cappadocia. In the eastern provinces, the Sassanid Persians had the previous year defeated a Roman field army at Barballisos and afterwards plundered the defenseless provinces. This was the period of time which today is called the crisis of the third century.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

May 12 – Pope Stephen I succeeds Pope Lucius I as the 23rd pope.

=== 255 ===

==== By place ====

====== China ======

Sima Shi quells Guanqiu Jian and Wen Qin's rebellion.

Sima Shi passes away.

Sima Zhao, Sima Shi's younger brother, inherits his brother's authority.

==== By topic ====

====== Science ======

Ma Jun, a Chinese mechanical engineer from Cao Wei, invents the south-pointing chariot, a path-finding directional compass vehicle that uses a differential gear, not magnetics.

=== 256 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Goths invade Asia Minor. Dacia is lost for the Roman Empire and the Goths appear at the walls of Thessalonica.

The Franks cross the Rhine; the Alemanni reach Mediolanum (Milan). (disputed date)

In Africa, the Berbers massacre Roman colonists.

King Shapur I of the Sasanian Empire invades Mesopotamia and Syria. He conquers and plunders Antioch, destroys Dura-Europos and sacks the Anatolian city of Zeugma on the Euphrates. A devastating fire and an earthquake soon follow, causing Zeugma to be abandoned.

Cities in the Roman Empire begin to build walls as the defense of the frontiers begins to crumble; future emperor Aurelian inspectses along the Rhine.

February 28: Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 3035, a warrant for the arrest of a Christian, is written.

====== China ======

Peace and unity are finally restored in China with the victories of the Wei Kingdom in the north. The ruling dynasty is worn out by war, and the kingdom is ruled by ministers on their behalf.

==== By topic ====

====== Medicine ======

The great pandemic of the Roman world strikes violently in Pontus on the Black Sea and causes enormous loss of life in Alexandria, encouraging thousands to embrace Christianity.

====== Religion ======

Emperor Valerian persecutes Christians.

Pope Stephen I threatens to excommunicate Cyprian, bishop of Carthage, and other bishops in Africa and Asia Minor unless they stop rebaptizing heretics. Cyprian attacks the Pope in a treatise that gains support from the Council of Carthage. He sends envoys to Rome, raising the specter of a schism between the Roman and Carthaginian Churches.

A Synod of Carthage is held.

=== 257 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Gallienus enters into a joint consulship with his father Valerianus I, having brought some order to the Danube area.

Future emperor Aurelian defeats the Goths and brings many prisoners back to Rome.

In Bavaria the Limes Germanicus (Upper Raetian Limes) along the river Iller is abandoned by the Romans.

Valerian, under guardianship of Ingenuus, is established at Sirmium (Pannonia) to represent the Roman government in the troubled Illyrian provinces.

Emperor Valerian recovers Antioch in Syria from the Persian king Shapur I.

The Goths build a fleet on the Black Sea.

The Goths separate into the Ostrogoths and the Visigoths.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

August 30 – Pope Sixtus II succeeds Pope Stephen I as the 24th pope.

Valerian's persecution of Christians begins: his edict orders bishops and priests to sacrifice according to the pagan rituals, and prohibits Christians, under penalty of death, from meeting at the tombs of their deceased.

=== 258 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

The Goths ravage Asia Minor and Trapezus.

The amount of silver in the Roman currency of the denarius falls below 10%. The crisis ruins craftsmen, tradesmen, and small farmers. They are forced to bartering; landowners grow larger by buying up cheap land.

Valerian II, eldest son of Gallienus, dies, possibly murdered by Pannonia's governor Ingenuus; Emperor Valerian bestows on another one of Gallienus's sons, Saloninus, the title of Caesar.

A second Imperial edict prohibits Christianity in the Roman Empire. This edict divides Christians into four categories: priests, who are to be put to death; senators and equestrians, who are to be stripped of their positions and their property confiscated; nuns, who are to be exiled; and imperial civil servants, who are condemned to forced labour.

====== Asia ======

Sima Zhao quells Zhuge Dan's rebellion, thereby also ending what are known as the Three Rebellions in Shouchun.

Sun Xiu succeeds his brother Sun Liang as emperor of the Chinese state of Eastern Wu.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Cyprian, the bishop of Carthage, is martyred (decapitation).

Pope Sixtus II is martyred.

====== Education ======

Nanjing University is founded in Nanjing, China.

=== 259 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Valerian leads an army (70,000 men) to relieve Edessa, besieged by the forces of king Shapur I. An outbreak of a plague kills many legionaries, weakening the Roman position in Syria.

Battle of Mediolanum: A Germanic confederation, the Alamanni (300,000 warriors), who crossed the Alps are defeated by Roman legions under Gallienus near Mediolanum (modern Milan).

Postumus revolts against Gallienus in Gaul. The western provinces of Britain and Spain join his independent realm—which is called in modern times the Gallic Empire.

Postumus, governor of Gaul, declares himself Emperor and continues to rule the Gallic Empire until 269 when he was killed by his soldiers.

The Roman fort of Wiesbaden (Germany) is captured by the Alamanni (possibly 260).

The Franks, who invaded the Roman Empire near Cologne in 257, reach Tarraco in Hispania.

====== Persia ======

Mesopotamia: Odaenathus, the ruler of the kingdom of Palmyra, sacks the city of Nehardea, destroying its great yeshiva.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Pope Dionysius is elected as the 25th pope.


Year 256 (CCLVI) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Claudius and Glabrio (or, less frequently, year 1009 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 256 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.


Year 257 (CCLVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Valerianus and Gallienus (or, less frequently, year 1010 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 257 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

August 2

August 2 is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 151 days remain until the end of the year.

Church of St. Stephen (Stari Grad, Hvar)

The Church of St. Stephen (Crkva sv. Stjepana u Starom Gradu) is the parish church of Stari Grad on the island of Hvar in Croatia. It is dedicated to the martyred Pope Stephen I. It stands on the eastern side of a small square, Trg sv. Stjepana (St. Stephen's Square), in the historical centre of Stari Grad.

Faustinus of Lyon

Faustin (Latin: Faustinus) was the fifth bishop of Lyon. He is recognized as a saint by the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church.Faustin succeeds Helios in the middle of the 3rd century as bishop of Lyon. In 254, Faustinus wrote to Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage, and to Pope Stephen I regarding the Novatian tendencies of Marcianus, Bishop of Arles, in refusing to forgive Christians who repented after rejecting the Church during the persecution of Diocletian.The letter of Cyprian to Pope Stephen begins:

Cyprien brother Stephen, Our colleague Faustin, Lyons, a brother who is very dear, wrote me twice, saying that that is Marcianus in Arles, door against Christians repenting the very serious charge of heresy, so that God's servants who repent, suffer and implore the church in tears, groans and pain, are being denied the consolation and help of divine piety and gentleness of the Father; when they are injured, they do not have the right to come relieve their wounds, but without hope of appeasement and communion, they are left to the wolves and thrown prey to diable.At that time, Faustin is not the only Gallic bishop, other dioceses have been created at least in Vienne and Arles, and maybe in other cities of Gaul. However, in the case of Marcian, Faustin is the spokesman of the bishops of Gaul.

In the early 5th century, Castor, bishop of Apt built in his honor a monastery in Nîmes.


Saint Firmilian (died c. 269), Bishop of Caesarea Mazaca from ca. 232, was a disciple of Origen. He had a contemporary reputation comparable to that of Dionysius of Alexandria or Cyprian, bishop of Carthage. He took an active part in the mid-3rd century controversies over rebaptising heretics and readmitting lapsed Christians after the persecutions of Decius and was excommunicated by Pope Stephen I for his position. A single letter of Firmilian to Cyprian survives among Cyprian's correspondence. Jerome omits Firmilian from De viris illustribus. "To his contemporaries his forty years of influential episcopate, his friendship with Origen and Dionysius, the appeal to him of Cyprian, and his censure of Stephanus might well make him seem the most conspicuous figure of his time" (Wace).

Giuseppe Bartolomeo Chiari

Giuseppe Bartolomeo Chiari (10 March 1654 – 8 September 1727), also known simply as Giuseppe Chiari, was an Italian painter of the late-Baroque period, active mostly in Rome.

Lapsi (Christianity)

Lapsi were apostates in the early Christian Church, who renounced their faith under persecution by Roman authorities. The term as refers to those who have lapsed or fallen away from their faith to return later in life.

List of Greek popes

This is a list of Greek popes. Most were pope before or during the Byzantine Papacy (537–752). It does not include all the Sicilian and Syrian popes of Greek extraction from that period.

List of popes who died violently

A collection of popes who have had violent deaths through the centuries. The circumstances have ranged from martyrdom (Pope Stephen I) to war (Lucius II), to a beating by a jealous husband (Pope John XII). A number of other popes have died under circumstances that some believe to be murder, but for which definitive evidence has not been found.

May 12

May 12 is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 233 days remain until the end of the year.


Saint Mellonius (229-314) was an early 4th-century Bishop of Rotomagus (now Rouen) in the Roman province of Secunda Provincia Lugdunensis (now Normandy in France). He is known only from a 17th-century 'Life' of little historical value, meaning the historicity of his existence is uncertain.

Modigliana Cathedral

Modigliana Cathedral, otherwise the Church of Santo Stefano Papa (Italian: Duomo di Modigliana; Concattedrale di Santo Stefano; Chiesa di Santo Stefano papa), is a Roman Catholic cathedral and the principal church of Modigliana in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. It is dedicated to the sainted Pope Stephen I. An ancient church, it was made the seat of the bishops of Modigliana on the creation of the diocese in 1850, and from 1986 has been a co-cathedral in the Diocese of Faenza-Modigliana.

Pope Stephen

Pope Stephen may refer to any of several men who were Pope or who were elected Pope of the Roman Catholic Church. Historically, there have been two regnal numbering systems used when referring to Popes called "Stephen" starting with Pope-elect Stephen. See Pope-elect Stephen for detailed explanation.

Pope Stephen I (died 257), Bishop of Rome from 254–257

Pope-elect Stephen (died 752), also known as Pope Stephen II, elected Pope but died before his consecration

Pope Stephen II (III) (died 757), pope from 752–757

Pope Stephen III (IV) (720–772), pope from 768–772

Pope Stephen IV (V) (died 817), pope from 816–817

Pope Stephen V (VI) (died 891), pope from 885–891

Pope Stephen VI (VII) (died 897), pope from 896–897

Pope Stephen VII (VIII) (died 931), pope from 929–931

Pope Stephen VIII (IX) (died 942), pope from 939–942

Pope Stephen IX (X) (c. 1020–1058), pope from 1057–1058

Roman Catholic Diocese of Astorga

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Astorga (Latin: Asturicensis) is a diocese whose seat is in the city of Astorga, in the province of León, Castile and León, Spain.The diocese is a part of the ecclesiastical province of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Oviedo since 1954. It traces its foundation to the 3rd century, making it one of the oldest in Spain.

San Silvestro in Capite

The Basilica of Saint Sylvester the First, also known as (Italian: San Silvestro in Capite, Latin: Sancti Silvestri in Capite), is a Roman Catholic minor basilica and titular church in Rome dedicated to Pope Saint Sylvester I. It is located on the Piazza San Silvestro, at the corner of Via del Gambero and the Via della Mercede, and stands adjacent to the central Post Office.

Built in the 8th century as a shrine for the relics of the saints and martyrs from the Catacombs, the church is the national church of Great Britain. The Latin words "in capite" refers to the canonical title of Pope Sylvester the First, to which in capite means in First, in Chief, or in Head. The basilica is also famous for a relic, a fragment of a head purported to be that of Saint John the Baptist, kept in a chapel to the left of the entrance. A second Roman church dedicated to Saint Sylvester is San Silvestro al Quirinale.

The current Cardinal-Priest of the titulus S. Silvestri in Capite is Louis-Marie Ling Mangkhanekhoun, Apostolic Vicar of Vientiane.

Stephen I

Stephen I may refer to:

Pope Stephen I, Bishop of Rome from 254 to 257

Stephen I of Antioch, Patriarch of Antioch from 342 to 344

Stephen I of Iberia (died 627), of the Guaramid Dynasty, presiding prince of Iberia from c. 590 to 627

Ecumenical Patriarch Stephen I of Constantinople (867–893), Patriarch of Constantinople

Stephen I, Count of Troyes (died 1020), seventh Count of Meaux

Stephen I of Hungary (967/969/975 – 1038), Grand Prince of the Hungarians and first King of Hungary

Stephen I of Croatia (ruled 1030–1058)

Stephan I, Count of Sponheim (d. ca. 1080)

Stephen I, Count of Burgundy (1065–1102), Count Palatine of Burgundy, Count of Burgundy and Count of Mâcon and Vienne

Stephen of England (c. 1096 – 1154) may be referred to as Stephen I

Stephen I of Sancerre (1133–1190), Count of Sancerre and son of Count Theobald II of Champagne

Stefan Nemanja (1109–1199), Medieval Serb nobleman, Grand Prince of the medieval Serb state of Rascia

Stephen I, Duke of Bavaria (1271–1310), duke of Lower Bavaria as co-regent of his older brothers Otto III and Louis III

Stephen I, Ban of Bosnia (1242–1314), Bosnian Ban

Stephen I of Moldavia (r. 1394–1399)

Stephen Báthory of Poland (1533–1586), Hungarian noble Prince of Transylvania, King consort of Poland and Grand Duke consort of Lithuania.

1st–4th centuries
During the Roman Empire (until 493)
including under Constantine (312–337)
5th–8th centuries
Ostrogothic Papacy (493–537)
Byzantine Papacy (537–752)
Frankish Papacy (756–857)
9th–12th centuries
Papal selection before 1059
Saeculum obscurum (904–964)
Crescentii era (974–1012)
Tusculan Papacy (1012–1044/1048)
Imperial Papacy (1048–1257)
13th–16th centuries
Viterbo (1257–1281)
Orvieto (1262–1297)
Perugia (1228–1304)
Avignon Papacy (1309–1378)
Western Schism (1378–1417)
Renaissance Papacy (1417–1534)
Reformation Papacy (1534–1585)
Baroque Papacy (1585–1689)
17th–20th centuries
Age of Enlightenment (c. 1640-1740)
Revolutionary Papacy (1775–1848)
Roman Question (1870–1929)
Vatican City (1929–present)
21st century
History of the papacy
Virgin Mary
See also

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