Pope Sixtus III

Pope Sixtus III (d. 18 August 440) was Pope from 31 July 432 to his death in 440.[2] His ascension to the papacy is associated with a period of increased construction in the city of Rome. His feast day is celebrated by Catholics on March 28th.

Pope Saint

Sixtus III
Sixtus III
Papacy began31 July 432
Papacy ended28 March 440[1]
PredecessorCelestine I
SuccessorLeo I
Personal details
Birth nameSixtus
Died18 August 440 (aged 50)
Rome, Western Roman Empire
Feast day28 March
Other popes named Sixtus
Papal styles of
Pope Sixtus III
Emblem of the Papacy SE
Reference styleHis Holiness
Spoken styleYour Holiness
Religious styleHoly Father
Posthumous styleSaint


Sixtus was born in Rome and before his accession he was prominent among the Roman clergy,[3] and frequently corresponded with Augustine of Hippo.[4]

Peter Brown says that prior to being made Pope, Sixtus was a patron of Pelagius, who was later condemned as a heretic,[5] although Butler disagrees and attributes the charge to Garnier.[1] Nicholas Weber also disputes this, "...it was probably owing to his conciliatory disposition that he was falsely accused of leanings towards these heresies."[3]

Sixtus was consecrated Pope on 31 July, 432. He attempted to restore peace between Cyril of Alexandria and John of Antioch. He also defended the rights of the Pope over Illyria and the position of the archbishop of Thessalonica as head of the local Illyrian church against the ambition of Proclus of Constantinople.[3]

His name is often connected with a great building boom in Rome: Santa Sabina on the Aventine Hill was dedicated during his pontificate. He built the Liberian Basilica as Santa Maria Maggiore, whose dedication to Mary the Mother of God reflected his acceptance of the Ecumenical council of Ephesus which closed in 431. At that council, the debate over Christ's human and divine natures turned on whether Mary could legitimately be called the "Mother of God" or only "Mother of Christ". The council gave her the Greek title Theotokos (literally "God-bearer", or "Mother of God"), and the dedication of the large church in Rome is a response to that.

His feast is kept on 28 March.[3]

See also


  1. ^ a b Butler, Alban. “Saint Sixtus III, Pope”. Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Principal Saints, 1866. CatholicSaints.Info. 22 March 2013
  2. ^ Monks of Ramsgate. “Xystus III”. Book of Saints, 1921. CatholicSaints.Info. 15 March 2017
  3. ^ a b c d Weber, Nicholas. "Pope St. Sixtus III." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 14. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. 15 September 2017
  4. ^ "St. Sixtus III, Pope", Catholic News Agency, March 28, 2017
  5. ^ Brown, Peter. "Pelagius and his Supporters." Journal of Theological Studies. 1968.XIX.1(93–114).

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHerbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope St. Sixtus III". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.


External links

Titles of the Great Christian Church
Preceded by
Celestine I
Succeeded by
Leo I

The 430s decade ran from January 1, 430, to December 31, 439.

== Events ==

=== 430 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Spring – The Vandals under king Genseric extend their power in North Africa along the Mediterranean Sea, and lay siege to Hippo Regius (where Augustine has recently been bishop).

Flavius Aetius gains appointment as master of both services (magister utriusque militiae), after gaining victories in Gaul over Visigoth and Frankish forces.

The Huns led by Octar attack the Burgundians, who occupied territory on the Rhine near the city of Worms (Germany). During the fighting Octar dies and his army is destroyed.

Flavius Felix, his wife and a deacon are accused of plotting against Aetius. They are arrested in Ravenna and executed. Aetius is granted the title of patricius (Roman nobility).

====== Asia ======

Feng Ba abdicates as emperor of the Northern Yan, one of the states vying for control of China. He is succeeded by his brother Feng Hong.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

August 28 – Augustine dies during the siege of Hippo Regius at age 75, leaving behind his monumental work The City of God and other works that will have influence on Christianity.

Saint Patrick reaches Ireland on his missionary expedition (approximate date).

Peter the Iberian founds a Georgian monastery near Bethlehem.

=== 431 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Flavius Aetius, Roman general (magister militum), fights a campaign in Rhaetia (Switzerland) and Noricum (Austria). He is attested in the city of Vindelicia (modern Augsburg), reestablishing Roman rule on the Danube frontier.

Aetius pushes the Salian Franks back across the River Somme. King Chlodio signs a peace treaty and becomes a foederati of the Western Roman Empire.

====== Africa ======

Hippo Regius becomes the capital of the Vandal Kingdom. After 14 months of hunger and disease, the Vandals ravage the city. Emperor Theodosius II sends an imperial fleet with an army under command of Aspar, and lands at Carthage.

Aspar is routed by the Vandals and Flavius Marcian, future Byzantine emperor, is captured during the fighting. He negotiates a peace with King Genseric and maintains imperial authority in Carthage.

====== Mesoamerica ======

K'uk' B'alam I, the first known ruler of the Mayan city of Palenque, comes to power.

==== By topic ====

====== Arts and Sciences ======

Greek Neoplatonist philosopher Proclus begins studying at the Academy in Athens.

====== Religion ======

June – First Council of Ephesus: Nestorianism is rejected, the Nicene creed is declared to be complete. Nestorius is deposed from his see.

October 1 – Maximianus is enthroned as Patriarch of Constantinople.

Pope Celestine I dispatches Palladius to serve as bishop to the Irish.

=== 432 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Battle of Ravenna: Roman forces under command of Flavius Aetius are defeated near Rimini (Italy). His rival comes Bonifacius is mortally wounded and dies several days later. Aetius flees to Dalmatia and seeks refuge with the Huns.

Sebastianus, son-in-law of Bonifacius, becomes supreme commander (magister militum) of the Western Roman army. Empress Galla Placidia gives him considerable influence over imperial policy.

====== Europa ======

The Huns are united by King Rugila (also called Rua) on the Hungarian Plain. He exacts annual peace payments from the Eastern Roman Empire.

==== By topic ====

====== Art ======

The Basilica of Saint Sabina at the Aventine (Rome) is finished by Priest Petrus of Illyria.

Assembly begins on The Parting of Lot and Abraham, a mosaic in the nave arcade of the Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore.

====== Religion ======

July 27 – Pope Celestine I dies after a 10-year reign in which he led a vigorous policy against Nestorianism. He is succeeded by Sixtus III as the 44th pope.

Saint Patrick, Scottish-born missionary, is consecrated a bishop and converts the Irish to Christianity until his death around 460.

December 25 – Christmas is celebrated for the first time in Alexandria (approximate date).

=== 433 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Flavius Aetius returns, with the support of the Huns, back to Italy. He gains control over emperor Valentinian III, age 14, and becomes his "protector".

Petronius Maximus is appointed consul of the Western Roman Empire.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Pope Sixtus III helps to settle a Christological dispute between the patriarchs Cyril of Alexandria and John of Antioch, that has continued since the First Council of Ephesus, two years ago. They sign the "Formula of Reunion", thus ending their conflict over Nestorianism.

=== 434 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Flavius Aetius, Roman general (magister militum) in the service of emperor Valentinian III, begins to hold power in Rome. This will continue for twenty years. He allows the Huns to settle in Pannonia, along the Sava River.

Justa Grata Honoria, older sister of Valentinian, becomes pregnant from an officer in her household. The liaison shakes the foundations of the Western Roman Empire. Circles in the court at Ravenna assume inevitably that Honoria is planning to raise her paramour to imperial rank and challenge her brother. Valentinian then has him executed.

Summer – The Huns under Rugila devastate Thrace and move steadily towards Constantinople. The citizens prepare themselves for a long siege, depending on the strength of the Theodosian Walls.

Emperor Theodosius II bribes the Huns (after the death of Rugila) to keep the peace in the Eastern Roman Empire.

====== Africa ======

The Vandals in North Africa defeat the Roman general Aspar and force him to withdraw. He serves as consul at Constantinople.

====== Europe ======

Attila, king of the Huns, consolidates his power in the Hungarian capital, probably on the site of Buda (modern Budapest). He jointly rules the kingdom with his brother Bleda.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

April 12 – Maximianus dies on Great and Holy Thursday. He is succeeded by Proclus, who becomes archbishop of Constantinople.

=== 435 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Roman general (magister militum) Flavius Aetius begins, in Gaul, a campaign against the Burgundians, following their raids into neighbouring Gallia Belgica by King Gunther.

November 14 – Emperor Theodosius II orders a new edict for the death penalty of all heretics and pagans in the Empire. Judaism is considered a legal non-Christian religion.

====== Africa ======

King Genseric concludes a peace treaty with the Romans, under which the Vandals retain Mauretania and a part of Numidia as foederati (allies under a special treaty) of Rome.

The Vandals use Hippo Regius (modern Annaba) as a port for their expeditions. Genseric establishes a merchant fleet to transport goods between Africa and the Italian mainland.

Huneric, eldest son of Genseric, is sent as a child hostage to the court at Ravenna to secure the alliance with the Western Roman Empire.

====== Mesoamerica ======

August 10 – A figure known to Mayanist scholars as "Casper" begins a 52-year reign in Palenque.

December 8 marks the beginning of the 9th Baktun in Mesoamerica. There is a change in political alliances just preceding the event when royal personages from the Mexican highland city of Teotihuacan consolidate power individually as Mayan kings.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

August 3 – Theodosius II exiles Nestorius, archbishop of Constantinople, to a monastery in the Libyan desert at the behest of his sister Pulcheria.

Ibas is elected bishop of Edessa. He becomes associated with the growth of Nestorianism and openly preaching heretical doctrines in public.

=== 436 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Flavius Aetius, Roman general (magister militum), attempts to put an end to Burgundian raids in Gaul. He calls in Hun mercenaries under command of Attila and his brother Bleda, which plunder Augusta Vangionum, killing some 20,000 Burgundians. The Kingdom of the Burgundians is destroyed; King Gunther and his family are killed (this epic disaster will later provide the source for the Nibelungenlied).

King Theodoric I besieges the city of Narbonne; the Visigoths obtain access to the Mediterranean Sea and the roads to the Pyrenees.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

The Buddhist Srimala Sutra is translated into Chinese by Gunabhadra.

=== 437 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Flavius Aetius, Roman general (magister militum), secures the besieged city of Narbonne (Southern Gaul) against king Theodoric I. He concludes a peace treaty with the Visigoths, and becomes consul for the second time.

July 2 – Valentinian III, age 18, rules as emperor over the Western Roman Empire. His mother Galla Placidia ends her regency, but continues to exercise political influence until her death in 450.

October 29 – Valentinian III cements an alliance with the eastern emperor, Theodosius II, by marrying his daughter Licinia Eudoxia in Constantinople. This marks the reunion of the two branches of the House of Theodosius.

====== Britannia ======

Battle of Wallop: Ambrosius Aurelianus, leader of the Romano-British, defeats the Anglo Saxons under King Vortigern. He is given all the kingdoms of the western side of Britain (according to Historia Brittonum).

====== Mesoamerica ======

K'inich Yax K'uk' Mo' dies after an 11-year reign. He is the founder and first ruler of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization centered at Copán (modern Honduras).

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

A synod at Constantinople attempts to impinge on the Pope's rights in Illyria. Proclus tries to implement the synod's decisions, and Pope Sixtus III reminds the Illyrian bishops of their obligations to his vicar at Thessaloniki.

=== 438 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Theodosius II forbids the divulging of secrets of naval carpentry, probably to avoid its spread to the rising Vandal power in North Africa.

February 15 – The Codex Theodosianus, a collection of edicts of Roman law, is published.

Aelia Eudocia, wife of Theodosius II, goes on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, bringing back with her holy relics to prove her faith.

The last gladiatorial fights are held in the Colosseum (Rome). Animal hunts continue until at least 523.

====== Europe ======

King Hermeric of the Suebic Kingdom of Galicia is forced after a seven-year illness to retire. He hands the government over to his son Rechila.

====== Persia ======

Bahram V dies after an 18-year reign. He is succeeded by his son Yazdegerd II, who becomes the fifteenth Sassanid king of the Persian Empire.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Relics of John Chrysostom are transported to Constantinople.

=== 439 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

====== = Britain = ======

Battle of Guoloph: Vitalinus (possibly Vortigern) is defeated at the hands of Ambrosius Aurelianus and a combined force of Romano-British forces from across southern Britain.

====== = Roman Empire = ======

Litorius, Roman general (Magister militum per Gallias), lays siege to Toulouse. During the decisive battle before the walls he suffers a severe defeat and is killed, and only the heavy loss of Visigoths makes King Theodoric I decide to agree to a provisional restoration of the status quo.

Licinia Eudoxia, wife of emperor Valentinian III, is granted the title of Augusta following the birth of their daughter Eudocia.

Greek becomes an official language in the Eastern Roman Empire.

====== Balkans ======

Winter – Hun and Roman envoys meet at Margum (modern Bosnia and Herzegovina), an important market town on the Sava River. After negotiations, Attila and his brother Bleda, who are present, accept a four-point peace plan. Trading rights between the two states are confirmed and emperor Theodosius II pays an annual tribute of 700 pounds of gold.

====== Africa ======

King Genseric breaks his treaty with the Western Roman Empire and invades Africa Proconsularis.

October 19 – Carthage falls to the Vandals. Genseric makes it his capital and establishes the Vandal Kingdom.

The Vandals establish a North African granary that enables them to enforce their will on other nations, who are dependent on North Africa for grain and other food staples.

Winter – The Vandals conquer Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica and the Balearic Islands.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Isaac the Great, Armenian apostolic patriarch, dies at Ashtishat. He helped to develop a Greek-inspired alphabet, and translate the Bible, along with various Christian writings, into Armenian.

The monastery of Mar Saba is founded near Bethlehem (Palestine).


Year 433 (CDXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Theodosius and Maximus (or, less frequently, year 1186 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 433 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.


Year 437 (CDXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Aetius and Sigisvultus (or, less frequently, year 1190 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 437 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.


Year 440 (CDXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Valentinianus and Anatolius (or, less frequently, year 1193 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 440 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Anicius Auchenius Bassus (consul 431)

Flavius Anicius Auchenius Bassus (fl. 425–435) was a high official of the Western Roman Empire. He was appointed as consul by the Western court with Antiochus Chuzon as a colleague. In 435 he held for the second time the office of praetorian prefect of Italy.

Aventine Hill

The Aventine Hill (; Latin: Collis Aventinus; Italian: Aventino [avenˈtiːno]) is one of the Seven Hills on which ancient Rome was built. It belongs to Ripa, the twelfth rione, or ward, of Rome.

Avitus Marinianus

Flavius Avitus Marinianus (fl. 423–448) was a politician of the Western Roman Empire during the reign of Honorius.


In Christian architecture the baptistery or baptistry (Old French baptisterie; Latin baptisterium; Greek βαπτιστήριον, 'bathing-place, baptistery', from βαπτίζειν, baptízein, 'to baptize') is the separate centrally planned structure surrounding the baptismal font. The baptistery may be incorporated within the body of a church or cathedral, and provided with an altar as a chapel. In the early Church, the catechumens were instructed and the sacrament of baptism was administered in the baptistery.

Casius (see)

Casius was a residential episcopal see in the Roman province of Augustamnica Prima in Lower Egypt, and is now a titular see of the Catholic Church.The article about it in the Catholic Encyclopedia of 1908 calls the see "Casium", but the official yearbook of the Holy See gives "Casius" as the Latin form (and "Casio" in Italian).

Dedication of the Basilica of St Mary Major

The Dedication of the Basilica of St Mary Major (In Dedicatione basilicae S. Mariae) is a feast day in the General Roman Calendar, optionally celebrated annually on 5 August with the rank of memorial.

In earlier editions of the General Roman Calendar, down to that of 1960, it is called the Dedication of the Basilica of St Mary of the Snows (In Dedicatione basilicae S. Mariae ad Nives), a reference to the legendary story about the foundation of the basilica. For the same reason the feast is also known popularly as Our Lady of the Snows. The reference to the legend was removed in the 1969 revision of the General Roman Calendar.

Eutherios of Tyana

Eutherius of Tyana, metropolitan bishop of Tyana (site near Niğde, Turkey) in Cappadocia II, features in the context of the 431 Council of Ephesus, where he belonged to the eastern delegation led by John of Antioch. Dismayed by the deposition of his fellow exponent of the School of Antioch, Nestorius, precipitated by Cyril of Alexandria's vigorous objection to the Christotokos (instead of Theotokos) expression which Nestorius used, Eutherius writes a lively text of protest, which in turn brings about his own deposition and exile, initially at Scythopolis in Palestine. John of Antioch, in the Act of Union of 433, reconciled with Cyril and pursued a policy of abandoning some of the positions he had once held and repression of those who continued to express them. His successor and nephew, Domnus II of Antioch, however, advocated conciliation, and Eutherius was able to escape from Scythopolis and take refuge with Irenaeus, the new bishop of Tyre (who as a senior civil servant (comes) had been involved at a key level in the organisation of the Ephesus council and as go-between for the delegations and Emperor Theodosius II, and whose pro-oriental sympathies had led to a term of exile in Petra).

The text of the Protest appears to have survived largely through attribution to Athanasius of Alexandria. In the way of attestation Patriarch Photios I of Constantinople in his Bibliotheca is closer to the mark in ascribing it to Theodoret. Euthymios Zigabenos cites without naming an author, but Severus of Antioch in his Contra Impium Grammaticum quotes from with attribution to Eutherius of Tyana. (Both the latter authors are referring to chapter 20, which together with 21 may well constitute a slightly later addition by Eutherius to his original text).

The Protest (Antilogia) against those who advocate a suffering God (Theopaschism) is written in a clear and vigorous style using various rhetorical devices (formulae, punch-lines, diatribe, metaphor - e.g.,in chapter 20, reaching a safe harbour after the risk of piracy) and attempting to expose the absurdity of his Alexandrian school opponents' arguments. He uses the terminology derived from Theodore of Mopsuestia and Nestorios, e.g. sunapheia. Minor incoherences (e.g.in referencing scriptural quotations) do not essentially compromise the high quality of his expression. Coherence, or rather the incoherence of the opposition's reasoning, is a recurring theme. Such qualities ensure that this work is no ordinary pamphlet.

Eutherius' attitude to the Jews is interesting: like John Chrysostom, he rejects Judaism and he reproaches Jews for failing to discern the signs of divinity performed by Christ, but this very ignorance clears them of the charge of deicide, and in any case, he states that Christ has pronounced forgiveness.

Eutherius' other surviving work consists of five letters preserved in Latin in the Collectio Casinensis (Letters 162, 163, 204, 205, 291), 4 addressed to fellow Antiochene theologian bishops, John of Antioch, Helladius of Tarsus, Alexander of Hierapolis together with Theodoret of Cyrrhus, Alexander of Hierapolis individually, and one to Pope Sixtus III in Rome.

Fountain of Life

The Fountain of Life, or in its earlier form the Fountain of Living Waters, is a Christian iconography symbol associated with baptism and/or eucharist, first appearing in the 5th century in illuminated manuscripts and later in other art forms such as panel paintings.


Genazzano is a town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Rome, located on a tuff spur at 375 metres (1,230 ft) above sea level that, starting from the Monti Prenestini, ends on the Sacco River valley.

Lateran Baptistery

The domed octagonal Lateran Baptistery stands somewhat apart from the Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano, Rome, to which it has become joined by later construction. This baptistery was founded by Pope Sixtus III in 440, perhaps on an earlier structure, for a legend grew up that Constantine the Great had been baptized there and enriched the structure. However it is more likely that if he was baptized it was in the Eastern part of the Roman Empire and possibly by an Arian bishop. This baptistry was for many generations the only baptistery in Rome, and its octagonal structure, centered upon the large octagonal basin for full immersions, provided a model for others throughout Italy, and even an iconic motif of illuminated manuscripts, "The fountain of Life".

Around the central area, where is the basin of the font, an octagon is formed by eight porphyry columns, with marble Corinthian capitals and entablature of classical form. On the ceiling of the Baptistry is the story of the Battle of the Milvian Bridge (312). An ambulatory surrounds the font and outer walls form a larger octagon. Attached to one side, towards the Lateran basilica, is a fine porch with two porphyry columns and richly carved capitals, bases and entablatures.

The Baptistery was subject to an elaborate restoration during the pontificate of Urban VIII. While its interior architecture was consolidated and embellished after plans of Gian Lorenzo Bernini, a fresco cycle with scenes from the life of Constantine was added by Andrea Sacchi on the walls of the ambulatory. In the meantime the early Christian liturgy of Easter baptisms was reanimated by the baroque popes, baptizing adult "turchi ed ebrei" ["Turks and Jews"] in a public ceremony on Easter eve. Its plain brick exterior was later on embellished with a frieze designed by Francesco Borromini in 1657, incorporating the arms of Pope Alexander VII.

Maximianus of Constantinople

Maximianus (? – 12 April 434) was the archbishop of Constantinople from 25 October 431 until his death on 12 April 434.

Midnight Mass

In many Western Christian traditions Midnight Mass is the first liturgy of Christmastide that is celebrated on the night of Christmas Eve, traditionally beginning at midnight when Christmas Eve gives way to Christmas Day. This popular Christmas custom is a jubilant celebration of the Mass or Service of Worship in honour of the Nativity of Jesus; even many of those Christian denominations that do not regularly employ the word "Mass" uniquely use the term "Midnight Mass" for their Christmas Eve liturgy.

Misa de Gallo

Misa de Gallo (Spanish for "Rooster's Mass", also Misa de los Pastores, "Shepherds' Mass;" Portuguese: Missa do Galo) is a name for the Roman Catholic Mass celebrated around midnight of Christmas Eve and sometimes in the days immediately preceding Christmas.

Saint Sixtus

Saint Sixtus (or San Sisto in Italian) may refer to:

San Sisto College, Brisbane

San Sisto, Piacenza, a church in Piacenza, Italy

San Sisto, Pisa, a church in Pisa, Italy, consecrated in 1133

San Sisto Vecchio, a fourth-century church in Rome, dedicated to Pope St Sixtus II

San Sisto, Viterbo, a church in Lazio, Italy

San Sisto (Genoa), a church in Genoa, Italy, rebuilt in 1825

San Sisto al Pino, a village in the province of Pisa, Italy

Pope Sixtus I (d. 128)

Pope Sixtus II (d. 258), martyr

Pope Sixtus III (d. 440)

Sixtus of Reims, bishop of Reims

Abbey of Saint Sixtus of Westvleteren, home of Westvleteren Brewery


Sixtus was a Roman name, a corruption of the Greek name "Ξυστος", meaning "polished", and originally Latinized "Xystus". In its Spanish form Sixto it is still used as a personal name. It is not to be confused with the common Roman praenomen "Sextus", meaning "sixth", though not necessarily denoting a sixth child.

Notable people named Sixtus include five Popes of the Roman Catholic Church, the first three of whom are called "Xystus" in the most ancient records:

Pope Sixtus I (115/116–125)

Pope Sixtus II (257–258)

Pope Sixtus III (432–440)

Pope Sixtus IV (1471–1484)

Pope Sixtus V (1585–1590)Other notable people named Sixtus include:

Sixtus of Reims (d. c. 300)

Sixtus of Esztergom (d. 1285/86)

Sixtus of Siena (1520–1569)

Prince Sixtus of Bourbon-Parma (1886–1934)

Edmund Sixtus Muskie (1914–1996)

Prince Sixtus Henry of Bourbon-Parma (born 1940)

Sixtus Leung Chung-hang (born 1986)

Sixtus Dominic Boniface Christopher Rees-Mogg (born 2017)

1st–4th centuries
During the Roman Empire (until 493)
including under Constantine (312–337)
5th–8th centuries
Ostrogothic Papacy (493–537)
Byzantine Papacy (537–752)
Frankish Papacy (756–857)
9th–12th centuries
Papal selection before 1059
Saeculum obscurum (904–964)
Crescentii era (974–1012)
Tusculan Papacy (1012–1044/1048)
Imperial Papacy (1048–1257)
13th–16th centuries
Viterbo (1257–1281)
Orvieto (1262–1297)
Perugia (1228–1304)
Avignon Papacy (1309–1378)
Western Schism (1378–1417)
Renaissance Papacy (1417–1534)
Reformation Papacy (1534–1585)
Baroque Papacy (1585–1689)
17th–20th centuries
Age of Enlightenment (c. 1640-1740)
Revolutionary Papacy (1775–1848)
Roman Question (1870–1929)
Vatican City (1929–present)
21st century
History of the papacy
Virgin Mary
See also

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.