Pope Sixtus II

Pope Sixtus II (died 6 August 258) was the Pope or Bishop of Rome from 31 August 257 until his death on 6 August 258. He was martyred along with seven deacons, including Lawrence of Rome during the persecution of the Catholic Church by Emperor Valerian.[1]

Pope Saint

Sixtus II
Pope Sixtus II
Papacy began31 August 257
Papacy ended6 August 258
PredecessorStephen I
SuccessorDionysius
Personal details
Birth nameSixtus
BornUnknown
Greece, Roman Empire
Died6 August 258
Rome, Roman Empire
Sainthood
Feast day6/7 August
Other popes named Sixtus

Biography

Saint Pope Sixtus II
PopesixtusII
Martyrdom of Saint Sixtus II, 14th century
Martyr
BornGreece
Died6 August 258
Rome
Venerated inCatholic Church
Feast6 or 7 August

According to the Liber Pontificalis, he was born in Greece and was a philosopher;[2] however, this is uncertain, and is disputed by modern western historians arguing that the authors of Liber Pontificalis confused him with that of the contemporary author Xystus, who was a Greek student of Pythagoreanism.[1] He restored the relations with the African and Eastern churches which had been broken off by his predecessor on the question of heretical baptism raised by the heresy Novatianism.

In the persecutions under Valerian in 258, numerous bishops, priests, and deacons were put to death. Pope Sixtus II was one of the first victims of this persecution, being beheaded on 6 August. He was martyred along with six deacons— Januarius, Vincentius, Magnus, Stephanus, Felicissimus and Agapitus.[1] Lawrence of Rome, his best-known deacon, suffered martyrdom on 10 August, four days after his bishop.[3]

He is thought by some to be the author of the pseudo-Cyprianic writing Ad Novatianum, though this view has not found general acceptance. Another composition written at Rome, between 253 and 258, is generally agreed to be his.

It is this Sixtus who is referred to by name in the Roman Canon of the Mass.[1] The Tridentine Calendar commemorated Sixtus, Felicissimus, and Agapitus on the feast of the Transfiguration of the Lord, 6 August. They remained in that position in the General Roman Calendar until 1969, when, with the abolition of commemorations, the memorial of Sixtus "and his companions" was moved to 7 August, the day immediately after that of their death.[4]

The following inscription honoring Sixtus was placed on his tomb in the catacomb of Callixtus by Pope Damasus I:

At the time when the sword pierced the bowels of the Mother, I, buried here, taught as Pastor the Word of God; when suddenly the soldiers rushed in and dragged me from the chair. The faithful offered their necks to the sword, but as soon as the Pastor saw the ones who wished to rob him of the palm (of martyrdom) he was the first to offer himself and his own head, not tolerating that the (pagan) frenzy should harm the others. Christ, who gives recompense, made manifest the Pastor's merit, preserving unharmed the flock.[5]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope St. Sixtus II" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  2. ^ The Book of Pontiffs (Liber Pontificalis), translated with introduction by Raymond Davies (Liverpool: University Press, 1989), p. 10
  3. ^ Miller, OFM, Don. "Saint Sixtus II and Companions", Franciscan Media
  4. ^ Calendarium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 1969), p. 133
  5. ^ J. P. Migne, Patrologia Latina, XIII, 383–4 [1]

Literature

External links

Titles of the Great Christian Church
Preceded by
Stephen I
Bishop of Rome
Pope

257–258
Succeeded by
Dionysius
257

Year 257 (CCLVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Valerianus and Gallienus (or, less frequently, year 1010 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 257 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

258

Year 258 (CCLVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Tuscus and Bassus (or, less frequently, year 1011 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 258 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

August 10 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)

August 9 - Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar - August 11

All fixed commemorations below are observed on August 23 by Eastern Orthodox Churches on the Old Calendar.For August 10, Orthodox Churches on the Old Calendar commemorate the Saints listed on July 28.

Felicissimus and Agapitus

Felicissimus and Agapitus were two of the six deacons of Pope Sixtus II who were martyred with him on or about 6 August 258, Felicissimus and Agapitus on the same day as the Pope. The seventh deacon, Lawrence of Rome, was martyred on 10 August of the same year.

Felicissimus and Agapitus are venerated particularly at the Catacombs of Praetextatus on the Via Appia, where they were buried.The Tridentine Calendar commemorated Sixtus, Felicissimus, and Agapitus on the feast of the Transfiguration of the Lord, 6 August. They remained in that position in the General Roman Calendar until 1969, when, with the abolition of commemorations, the memorial of Pope Sixtus "and his companions" was moved to 7 August, the day immediately after that of their death.

Gulf of Guinea

The Gulf of Guinea is the northeasternmost part of the tropical Atlantic Ocean between Cape Lopez in Gabon, north and west to Cape Palmas in Liberia. The intersection of the Equator and Prime Meridian (zero degrees latitude and longitude) is in the gulf.

Among the many rivers that drain into the Gulf of Guinea are the Niger and the Volta. The coastline on the gulf includes the Bight of Benin and the Bight of Bonny.

Holy Chalice

The Holy Chalice, also known as the Holy Grail, is in some Christian traditions the vessel that Jesus used at the Last Supper to serve wine. The Synoptic Gospels refer to Jesus sharing a cup of wine with the Apostles, saying it was the covenant in his blood. The use of wine and chalice in the Eucharist in Christian churches is based on the Last Supper story. However, few traditions developed about the Last Supper chalice itself. In the late 12th century, the author Robert de Boron associated the pre-existing story of the Holy Grail, a magical item from Arthurian literature, with the Holy Chalice. This association was continued in many subsequent Arthurian works, including the Lancelot-Grail (Vulgate) cycle, the Post-Vulgate Cycle, and Sir Thomas Malory's Le Morte d'Arthur. Inspired by these works, in later relic veneration, several artifacts became identified as the Holy Chalice. Two artifacts, one in Genoa and one in Valencia, became particularly well known and are identified as the Holy Chalice.

Justin the Confessor

Justin the Confessor (died 269 in Rome) was a Christian martyr in the Roman Empire. He is honoured as a saint by the Roman Catholic Church.

List of Greek popes

This is a list of Greek popes. Most were pope before or during the Byzantine Papacy (537–752). It does not include all the Sicilian and Syrian popes of Greek extraction from that period.

Maximilian of Lorch

Saint Maximilian of Lorch (also: Maximilian of Celeia, Latin: Maximilianus) (died 12 October 288) was a missionary in the Roman province of Noricum. He was martyred in AD 288.Maximilian was born in Celeia in the Roman province of Noricum (in present-day Slovenia). As an adult he made a pilgrimage to Rome. Pope Sixtus II sent him to Lauriacum (Lorch)Lorch in the Roman province of Noricum, where he worked as a missionary during the latter half of the third century. He founded the church of Lorch. Maximilian was beheaded by the Roman Prefect of Emperor Numerian after refusing to abandon Christianity and sacrifice to the pagan gods. He is remembered on 12 October (and in some locations on 29 October).His cult dates at least from the eighth century. In that century, Saint Rupert built a church in his honour at Bischofshofen in the Salzach valley, and brought his relics there. They were later transferred to Passau in 985.

Niccoline Chapel

The Niccoline Chapel (Italian: Cappella Niccolina) is a chapel in the Apostolic Palace in Vatican City. It is especially notable for its fresco paintings by Fra Angelico (1447–1451) and his assistants, who may have executed much of the actual work. The name is derived from its patron, Pope Nicholas V, who had it built for use as his private chapel.

The chapel is located in the Tower of Innocent III, in the most ancient part of the Apostolic Palace. The walls were decorated by Fra Angelico with images of two of the earliest Christian martyrs; the upper level has Episodes from the Life of St. Stephen, and the lower one Scenes from the life of St. Laurence. The vault is painted blue, decorated with stars, and features figures of the Four Evangelists in the corners. The pilasters are decorated with the eight Doctors of the Church.

The chapel is not included in the usual tourist visit, but can be seen by special pre-booked groups.

Peregrine of Auxerre

Saint Peregrine (Peregrinus) of Auxerre (French: Saint Pélérin, Italian: San Pellegrino) (d. ca. 261 AD or ca. 304 AD) is venerated as the first bishop of Auxerre and the builder of its first cathedral. A strong local tradition states that he was a priest of Rome appointed by Pope Sixtus II to evangelize this area at the request of the Christians resident in that part of Gaul. He preached at Marseilles, Lyon, and converted most of the inhabitants of Auxerre to Christianity.At Intaranum –present-day Entrains-sur-Nohain– Peregrine angered the governor after the saint appealed to the populace to abandon pagan idols; the inhabitants had been dedicating a new temple to Jupiter.

The Martyrologium Hieronymianum states that he was tortured and beheaded at vicus Baiacus (Bouhy) (in present-day Nièvre) during the persecutions of Diocletian.

His lector Jovinian, venerated as a saint, was also martyred with him. Other companions included Marsus, his priest; Corcodomus, his deacon; and Jovian his subdeacon.

Saint Lawrence

Saint Lawrence or Laurence (Latin: Laurentius, lit. "laurelled"; 31 December AD 225 – 10 August 258) was one of the seven deacons of the city of Rome, Italy, under Pope Sixtus II who were martyred in the persecution of the Christians that the Roman Emperor Valerian ordered in 258.

Saint Sixtus

Saint Sixtus (or San Sisto in Italian) may refer to:

San Sisto College, Brisbane

San Sisto, Piacenza, a church in Piacenza, Italy

San Sisto, Pisa, a church in Pisa, Italy, consecrated in 1133

San Sisto Vecchio, a fourth-century church in Rome, dedicated to Pope St Sixtus II

San Sisto, Viterbo, a church in Lazio, Italy

San Sisto (Genoa), a church in Genoa, Italy, rebuilt in 1825

San Sisto al Pino, a village in the province of Pisa, Italy

Pope Sixtus I (d. 128)

Pope Sixtus II (d. 258), martyr

Pope Sixtus III (d. 440)

Sixtus of Reims, bishop of Reims

Abbey of Saint Sixtus of Westvleteren, home of Westvleteren Brewery

San Lorenzo Martire, Zogno

San Lorenzo Martire is a Roman Catholic church located in Zogno, region of Lombardy, Italy.

San Pellegrino in Vaticano

The Church of San Pellegrino in Vaticano (English: Saint Peregrine in the Vatican) is an ancient Roman Catholic oratory in the Vatican City, located on the Via dei Pellegrini. The church is dedicated to Saint Peregrine of Auxerre, a Roman priest appointed by Pope Sixtus II who had suffered martyrdom in Gaul in the third century. It is one of the oldest churches in the Vatican City.The church built by Pope Leo III (750 AD - 816 AD) around 800 first received the name of "San Pellegrino in Naumachia", making reference to the naumachia built northwest of the Castel Sant'Angelo and dedicated by Roman emperor Trajan in 109. In the seventeenth century, Pope Clement X granted the church to the Pontifical Swiss Guards, who used it for their religious services in combination with the church of Santi Martino e Sebastiano degli Svizzeri until 1977. Under the name of San Pellegrino degli Svizzeri (English: Saint Peregrine of the Swiss), it became the national church in Rome of Switzerland. The oratory later fell into disrepair but was restored in the 19th century when evidence of the 9th-century frescoes were discovered.

The church now serves as the chapel of the Pontifical Gendarmerie and the firefighters of the Vatican City and is entrusted to the care of the chaplain of the corps —currently Msgr. Giulio Viviani.

Secundian, Marcellian and Verian

Saints Secundian(us), Marcellian and Verian (also known as Secondianus, Marcellianus, and Verianus) (Italian: Secondino, Marcelliano, e Veriano) are venerated as Christian saints. They were martyred in 250 AD near Civitavecchia or Santa Marinella during the persecutions of Decius. Secundian was a senator or some sort of prominent official; Marcellian and Verian were scholars or students. Their feast day is August 9.

The names of these saints appear in Jerome's martyrology under August 9. The Codex Epternacense indicates that the place of their death was Tuscia; the Codex Wissemburgense lists the place of death as "Colonia" (not necessarily Cologne); and the Codex Bernense finally specifies the place of death as in Colon(n)i Tusciae via miliario Aureliax XV. One scholar has identified this as Colonia Iulia Castrumnovurn, a town in Tuscia, situated on the Aurelian Way, situated near the present-day Santa Marinella (which is near Civitavecchia).According to one account, they were baptized by a priest named Timotheus (Timothy) and confirmed by Pope Sixtus II. By order of Decius, they were arrested by the prefect Valerian and decapitated at Civitavecchia and then their bodies were thrown into the sea. In a second account, the place of their martyrdom was appellatur Coloniacum, qui dicitur Colonia ("called Coloniacum, that is to say, Colonia"), which may be Colonia Iulia Castrumnovurn. Their bodies were collected by a man named Deodatus and buried in that place. According to a third account, their cult was localized in the basilica of San Pietro in Tuscania.The Acts of Felinus and Gratian were based on those of Secundian and his companions. Sabine Baring-Gould writes that "the so-called Acts of SS. Gratian and Felinus, used as lections in the Arona Passionale, are extracted from the Acts of SS. Florentinus and Companions, martyrs at Perugia commemorated the same day. But these Acts are in their turn not genuine; they are, in fact, the Acts of SS. Secundianus and Comp. (August 9)."

Sexbierum

Sexbierum (West Frisian: Seisbierrum) is a village in the municipality of Waadhoeke, in the central north of the Netherlands.

Sexbierum is located in the province of Friesland and located about 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) north-east of Harlingen, about 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) north-west of Franeker. Distance to Amsterdam is about 100 kilometres (62.1 mi).

The village consists of approximately 600 houses, with 1744 inhabitants in January 2014..

Sixtus

Sixtus was a Roman name, a corruption of the Greek name "Ξυστος", meaning "polished", and originally Latinized "Xystus". In its Spanish form Sixto it is still used as a personal name. It is not to be confused with the common Roman praenomen "Sextus", meaning "sixth", though not necessarily denoting a sixth child.

Notable people named Sixtus include five Popes of the Roman Catholic Church, the first three of whom are called "Xystus" in the most ancient records:

Pope Sixtus I (115/116–125)

Pope Sixtus II (257–258)

Pope Sixtus III (432–440)

Pope Sixtus IV (1471–1484)

Pope Sixtus V (1585–1590)Other notable people named Sixtus include:

Sixtus of Reims (d. c. 300)

Sixtus of Esztergom (d. 1285/86)

Sixtus of Siena (1520–1569)

Prince Sixtus of Bourbon-Parma (1886–1934)

Edmund Sixtus Muskie (1914–1996)

Prince Sixtus Henry of Bourbon-Parma (born 1940)

Sixtus Leung Chung-hang (born 1986)

Sixtus Dominic Boniface Christopher Rees-Mogg (born 2017)

Sixtus of Reims

Saint Sixtus of Reims (French: Sixte de Reims) (died c. 300) is considered the first bishop of Reims. According to Hincmar, a 9th-century archbishop of Reims, Sixtus was sent from Rome by Pope Sixtus II to Gaul to assist in Christianizing the region. Another tradition makes him, anachronistically, the disciple of Saint Peter.

According to tradition, Sixtus of Reims, along with his companion St. Sinicius (Sinice), established the Christian sees of Reims and Soissons. Sinicius would later succeed Sixtus as bishop of Reims. According to one source, “it would appear that Sixtus did not die as a martyr, despite the severity of the persecution during the era.”

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