Pope Sixtus I

Pope Sixtus I (42 – 124, 125, 126 or 128), a Roman of Greek descent,[1] was the Bishop of Rome from c. 115 to his death c. 124.[2] He succeeded Pope Alexander I and was in turn succeeded by Pope Telesphorus. His feast is celebrated on 6 April.[2]

Pope Saint

Sixtus I
7-St.Sixtus I
Papacy beganc. 115
Papacy endedc. 124
PredecessorAlexander I
Personal details
Birth nameSixtus or Xystus
Rome, Roman Empire
Rome, Roman Empire
Feast day6 April
Title as SaintMartyr
Other popes named Sixtus
Papal styles of
Pope Sixtus I
Emblem of the Papacy SE
Reference styleHis Holiness
Spoken styleYour Holiness
Religious styleHoly Father
Posthumous styleSaint


The Holy See's Annuario Pontificio (2012) identifies him as a Roman who served from 117 or 119 to 126 or 128.[2] According to the Liberian Catalogue of popes, he served the Church during the reign of Hadrian "from the consulate of Niger and Apronianus until that of Verus III and Ambibulus", that is, from 117 to 126.[2] Eusebius states in his Chronicon that Sixtus I was pope from 114 to 124, while his Historia Ecclesiastica, using a different catalogue of popes, claims his rule from 114 to 128. All authorities agree that he reigned about ten years.[2]

Sixtus I instituted several Catholic liturgical and administrative traditions. Like most of his predecessors, Sixtus I was believed to have been buried near Saint Peter's grave on Vatican Hill, although there are differing traditions concerning where his body lies today. In Alife, there is a Romanesque crypt, which houses the relics of Pope Sixtus I, brought there by Rainulf III.

He was a Roman by birth, and his father's name was Pastor. According to the Liber Pontificalis (ed. Duchesne, I.128), he passed the following three ordinances:

  • that none but sacred ministers are allowed to touch the sacred vessels;
  • that bishops who have been summoned to the Holy See shall, upon their return, not be received by their diocese except on presenting Apostolic letters;
  • that after the Preface in the Mass the priest shall recite the Sanctus with the people.[2]

Alban Butler (Lives of the Saints, 6 April) states that Clement X gave some of his relics to Cardinal de Retz, who placed them in the Abbey of St. Michael in Lorraine. The Xystus who is commemorated in the Catholic Canon of the Mass is Xystus II, not Xystus I.


In the oldest documents, Xystus (from the Greek word for "polished") is the spelling used for the first three popes of that name. Pope Sixtus I is also the sixth Pope after Peter, leading to questions as to whether the name "Sixtus" (meaning "sixth") might be fictitious.[3]

See also


  1. ^ George L. Williams, "Papal Genealogy: The Families and Descendants of the Popes", p. 9. 2004
  2. ^ a b c d e f Ott, Michael. "Pope St. Sixtus I" in The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 14. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912.
  3. ^ PBS video, "Saints and Sinners."


  • Benedict XVI. The Roman Martyrology. Gardners Books, 2007. ISBN 978-0-548-13374-3.
  • Chapman, John. Studies on the Early Papacy. Port Washington, NY: Kennikat Press, 1971. ISBN 978-0-8046-1139-8.
  • Fortescue, Adrian, and Scott M. P. Reid. The Early Papacy: To the Synod of Chalcedon in 451. Southampton: Saint Austin Press, 1997. ISBN 978-1-901157-60-4.
  • Jowett, George F. The Drama of the Lost Disciples. London: Covenant Pub. Co, 1968. OCLC 7181392
  • Loomis, Louise Ropes. The Book of Popes (Liber Pontificalis). Merchantville, NJ: Evolution Publishing. ISBN 1-889758-86-8.
  • This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHerbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope St. Sixtus I" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.

External links

Titles of the Great Christian Church
Preceded by
Alexander I
Bishop of Rome

Succeeded by

The 110s decade ran from January 1, 110, to December 31, 119.

== Events ==

=== 110 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

The Roman Empire has more than 75,000 kilometers (47,000 mi) of roads.

The Forum of Trajan is constructed in Rome by the Syrian architect Apollodorus of Damascus.

====== Asia ======

Caravans make regular departures from Luoyang with Chinese ginger, cassia (a type of cinnamon), and silk to be bartered in Central Asia for gold, silver, glassware, pottery, cloth, and intaglio gems from Rome.

==== By topic ====

====== Arts and sciences ======

Suetonius publishes Of illustrious men (De viris illustribus).

=== 111 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Trajan sends Pliny the Younger as governor (legatus Augusti) to Bithynia.

====== Asia ======

The Indian Emperor Senguttuvan invades the Kushan Empire and defeats Kanishka and his brother Vijaya at Quilaluvam (near Mathura).

=== 112 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Trajan and Titus Sextius Cornelius Africanus become Roman Consul.

Hadrian succeeds Gaius Julius Cassius Steirieus as archon of Athens.

Publius Cornelius Tacitus is Governor of the Roman province of Asia, Anatolia.

Salonina Matidia receives the title of Augusta.

Tacitus is named proconsul of the province of Asia (112–113).

====== Asia ======

King Jima succeeds King Pasa as ruler of the Korean kingdom of Silla.

=== 113 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Trajan's Column near the Colosseum in Rome is completed to commemorate the Emperor's victory over the Dacians in the Second Dacian War.

Osroes I of Parthia violates the treaty with Rome by installing a puppet ruler in Armenia. The 60-year-old emperor, Trajan, marches east without first attempting to use diplomacy to resolve the disagreement.

Emperor Trajan sails from Rome to begin his expedition against Parthia. He arrives in Athens where Parthian envoys greets him with olive branches, a sign of peace.

Trajan declares Armenia to be annexed and becomes a Roman province.

Basilica Ulpia is dedicated.

====== Asia ======

Last (7th) year of Yongchu era of the Chinese Eastern Han Dynasty.

"Pattini dheivam" worship is inaugurated in Kannagi Temple in Chera Kingdom in South India, by Emperor Cenkuttuvan; the function is attended by GajaBahu, king of Central Sri Lanka (Mahavamso).

=== 114 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Construction begins on the Arch of Trajan in Benevento.

The kingdom of Osroene becomes a vassal kingdom of the Roman Empire.

Emperor Trajan defeats the Parthians and overruns Armenia and northern Mesopotamia.

A monument to Philopappos, prince-in-exile of old Commagene (a buffer-state between Rome and Parthia) is erected in Athens.

====== Asia ======

First year of Yuanchu era of the Chinese Eastern Han Dynasty.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Change of Patriarch of Constantinople from Patriarch Sedecion to Patriarch Diogenes.

=== 115 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Trajan is cut off in southern Mesopotamia after his invasion of that region.

Trajan captures the Parthian capital of Ctesiphon.

Jews in Egypt and Cyrene ignite a revolt (Kitos War) against the rule of the Roman Empire, which spreads to Cyprus, Judea, and the Roman province of Mesopotamia.

Alexandria in Egypt is destroyed during the Jewish-Greek civil wars. Marcus Rutilius Lupus, the Roman governor, sends Legio XXII Deiotariana to protect the inhabitants of Memphis.

A revolt breaks out in Britain; the garrison at Eboracum (York) is massacred.

The Pantheon of Agrippa is reconstructed in Rome.

Lusius Quietus, Trajan's governor of Judea, begins a brutal campaign to maintain the peace in the region.

====== Asia ======

An earthquake destroys Apamea and Antioch in Syria. The local bishop is held responsible (he will be martyred and remembered as St. Ignatius).

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Pope Sixtus I succeeds Pope Alexander I as the seventh pope according to Catholic biographies.

=== 116 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Trajan completes his invasion of Parthia by capturing the cities of Seleucia, Babylon, Ctesiphon and Susa, marking the high-water mark of the Roman Empire's eastern expansion.

Trajan makes Syria a province of Rome and crosses the Tigris to annex Adiabene. He proceeds with his army to the Persian Gulf and conquers territory that becomes the province of Parthia.

Trajan removes Osroes I as king of Parthia, and appoints his son Parthamaspates in his place. Parthamaspates Romanizes his name to Parthicus.

Trajan sends two expeditionary forces. One, consisting of elements of Legio III Cyrenaica, to suppress the revolt in Judea and the other Legio VII Claudia to restore order on Cyprus.

Trajan sends laureatae to the Roman Senate on account of his victories and being conqueror of Parthia.

Quintus Marcius Turbo sails to Alexandria and defeats the Jews in several pitched battles.

Jewish uprising against Rome fails.

=== 117 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Trajan subdues a Jewish revolt (the Kitos War), then falls seriously ill, leaving Hadrian in command of the east.

On his death bed, Trajan adopts Hadrian and designates him as his successor.

August 9 – Emperor Trajan dies of a stroke at Selinus in Cilicia, age 63, while en route from Mesopotamia to Italy, leaving the Roman Empire at its maximal territorial extent.

Hadrian, who will reign until 138, succeeds him.

Hadrian, a Spaniard like Trajan, as Emperor inaugurates a policy of retrenchment and cultural integration, giving up the policy of conquest of his predecessor in order to consolidate the empire.

Hadrian returns large parts of Mesopotamia to the Parthians as part of a peace settlement.

Construction begins on the Pantheon in Rome.

The Roman Empire reaches its greatest extent.

==== By topic ====

====== Commerce ======

The silver content of the Roman denarius falls to 87 percent under emperor Hadrian, down from 93 percent in the reign of Trajan.

====== Religion ======

John I becomes the 7th Bishop of Jerusalem.

=== 118 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Trajan's Forum commissioned by the late Emperor Trajan is completed with triumphal arches, columns, a market complex, and an enormous basilica that all of which replace hundreds of dwellings.

Emperor Hadrian is also a Roman Consul.

Rome has a population exceeding 1 million, making it the largest city in the world.

Osroene is returned to native rule by the Roman Empire.

Plot of the consuls: Hadrian executes four senators, all former consuls, who had been shown to have plotted against him. His relations with the Senate are strained.

Pantheon, in Rome, is started to be built (approximate date).

118–128 – Battle of Centaurs and Wild Beasts, from Hadrian's Villa, Tivoli, Italy, is made (approximate date). It may be a copy of painting done by the late 5th century BC Greek artist Zeuxis. It is now kept at Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Antikensammlung.

====== Asia ======

The north-south feud between the Hun dynasty ends.

The oldest known painted depiction of a wheelbarrow is found in a Chinese tomb of Chengde, Sichuan province, dated to this year.

=== 119 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Hadrian stations Legio VI Victrix in Roman Britain, to assist in quelling the resistance of a local rebellion. The legion is a key in securing the victory, and eventually replaces Legio IX Hispana at Eboracum.

Hadrian also visits Britain in this year at the request of Governor of Britain Quintus Pompeius Falco.

Salonina Matidia (a niece of Trajan) dies. Hadrian delivers her funeral oration and grants her a temple in Rome.

====== Asia ======

Reign in Northern India by Nahapana, Scythian king. He attacks the kingdom of Andhra and annexes Southern Rajputana.


Year 115 (CXV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Messalla and Vergilianus (or, less frequently, year 868 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 115 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.


The 120s decade ran from January 1, 120, to December 31, 129.


Year 124 (CXXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Glabrio and Flaccus (or, less frequently, year 877 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 124 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.


Year 125 (CXXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Paullinus and Titius (or, less frequently, year 878 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 125 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.


== Events ==

=== AD 40 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

The emperor Caligula is consul without colleague.

Caligula starts on a campaign to conquer Britain, which fails miserably. He declares himself victorious regardless.

Noricum and Mauretania are incorporated into the Roman Empire.

Caligula reforms the principatus into a Hellenistic Autocracy. He distributes honors carelessly, declares himself a god and orders that all the heads of the Greek deity statues be replaced by his. He also appoints his horse, Incitatus, a senator.

Approximate date of start of construction on the Pont du Gard aqueduct in Gallia Narbonensis.

====== Europe ======

The Germanic Quadi tribe begin settling in present-day Moravia and Slovakia.

====== Asia ======

Vardanes I becomes king of Parthia, opposed by his brother Gotarzes II.

The Vietnamese Trưng Sisters rebel against the rule of the Chinese Emperor Guangwu of Han.

==== By topic ====

====== Arts and sciences ======

Philo teaches that all men are born free.

====== Religion ======

Christianity comes to Egypt as a church is founded in Alexandria. Mark the Evangelist founds the Coptic Church as the first Patriarch.

An early Christian church is erected at Corinth (most probable date).

=== AD 41 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Consuls are the emperor Caligula and Gnaeus Sentius Saturninus.

January 24

Caligula, known for his eccentricity and cruel despotism, is assassinated by his disgruntled Praetorian Guards.

Claudius succeeds his nephew Caligula as Emperor.

January 25 – After a night of negotiation, Claudius is accepted as Emperor by the Senate.

Claudius makes Agrippa king of Judea.

Messalina, wife of Claudius, persuades Claudius to have Seneca the Younger banished to Corsica on a charge of adultery with Julia Livilla.

Claudius restores religious freedom to Jews throughout the empire, but prohibits Jews in Rome from proselytising.

An attack across the Rhine by the Germans is stopped by the Romans.

====== Asia ======

Emperor Guangwu of the Han dynasty deposes his wife, Guo Shengtong, as empress, and creates his consort Yin Lihua empress in her place.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

The disciples of Jesus form communities after the Diaspora, especially in Damascus and Antioch. For the first time they are called Christians.

The death of Caligula saves the Jewish people from being punished for resisting orders to worship his statue in the Temple of Jerusalem.

=== AD 42 ===

==== By places ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Consuls are Emperor Claudius and Gaius Caecina Gargus.

Romans take control of Ceuta, a port city on the North African side of the Strait of Gibraltar.

The territories of the current Algeria and Morocco become a Roman province.

The Dalmatian legate, Lucius Arruntius Camillus Scribonianus, revolts but his troops defect and his rebellion quickly withers.

Claudius begins construction of Portus, a harbour bearing a lighthouse on the right bank of the Tiber.

====== Asia ======

Suro becomes the first king of Geumgwan Gaya in the Korean Peninsula.

The Chinese General Ma Yuan represses the rebellions of the Trưng Sisters in Tonkin.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

25 January – Conversion of the Apostle Paul to Christianity. The exact date is not provided in texts, but the Roman Catholic Church chooses to commemorate this date.

Traditional date of foundation of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria by the apostle Mark the Evangelist.

=== AD 43 ===

==== By place ====

====== Britain ======

The Roman conquest of Britain begins. Aulus Plautius lands with four legions (20,000 men) and the same number of auxiliaries at Rutupiae (modern Richborough, on the east coast of Kent) and defeats the Britons, led by Caratacus and Togodumnus, in battles on the rivers Medway and Thames. He halts at the Thames and sends for emperor Claudius, who leads the march on Camulodunum. Eleven British kings, probably including those of the Iceni and Brigantes, submit without a fight. Meanwhile, the future emperor Vespasian begins to subdue the south-west. The Romans begin to construct forts, such as at Peterborough, and a road that later becomes Ermine Street.

The Romans capture a Brythonic settlement at Kent, and rename it Durovernum Cantiacorum (modern Canterbury). They establish a Roman fort to guard the crossing of the River Stour.

Roman London (Londinium) is established.

====== Roman Empire ======

Consuls are the emperor Claudius (his second consulship as emperor, third in total) and Lucius Vitellius.

Claudius annexes Lycia in Asia Minor, combining it with Pamphylia as a Roman province.

The Romans now have complete control of the Mediterranean.

====== Asia ======

Warfare begins between the northern and southern Huns.

The warrior Trung Sisters commit suicide after their resistance is defeated at Nam Viet in Vietnam.

Vietnam is designated a province of China.

Vardanes I of Parthia forces the city of Seleucia on the Tigris to surrender.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

In Coptic Orthodox Christianity, Mark the Evangelist becomes the first Pope of Alexandria, thus establishing the Christian Church in Africa.

====== Arts and sciences ======

Pomponius Mela, Roman geographer, writes De situ orbis libri (probable date).

=== AD 44 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

The emperor Claudius returns from his British campaign in triumph, the southeast part of Britannia now held by the Roman Empire, but the war will rage for another decade and a half.

Boudicca marries Prasutagus, king of the British Celtic tribe the Iceni.

Mauretania becomes a Roman province.

The Isle of Rhodes returns to the Roman Empire.

Judaea is controlled by Roman governors.

Cuspius Fadus, governor of Judea (44–46), suppress the revolt of Theudas who is decapitated.

====== Asia ======

Minjung becomes ruler of the Korean kingdom of Goguryeo.

==== By topic ====

====== Arts and sciences ======

Pomponius Mela writes De situ orbis, a geography of the Earth.

=== AD 45 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Marcus Vinicius and Titus Statilius Taurus Corvinus become Roman consuls.

Galba becomes the commander of Legio III Augusta.

Salzburg (Juvavum) is awarded the status of a Roman municipium.

The emperor Claudius expels the Jews from Rome.

Emperor Claudius founds Savaria, today the Hungarian city of Szombathely.

The Senate holds consultations regarding real estate speculation in Rome.

====== Asia ======

Expedition of Chinese general Ma Yuan against the Xiongnu and the Xianbei (in Manchuria).

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Paul of Tarsus begins his missionary travels, according to one traditional dating scheme.

=== AD 46 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Consuls are Decimus Valerius Asiaticus and Marcus Junius Silanus Torquatus.

The settlement at Celje gets municipal rights and is named municipium Claudia Celeia.

Dobruja is annexed into Roman Moesia.

A census shows that there are more than 6,000,000 Roman citizens.

After the death of its king, Thracia becomes a Roman province.

Rome and its northeast border are reunited by the Danube Road.

====== Asia ======

According to Orosius, there was a serious famine in SyriaA drought and an invasion of locusts hit the Mongolian steppes, causing a famine and a revolt at Xiongnu.

=== AD 47 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Consuls are the emperor Claudius and Lucius Vitellius. Claudius revives the censorship and ludi saeculares and organises the order of the Haruspices with sixty members.

Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo is made commander of the Roman army in Germania Inferior. He conquers the Chauci and fights against the Cherusci and Frisians.

Cauci pirates led by the Roman deserter Gannascus ravage the Gallic coast; Corbulo uses the Rhine fleet against them. The Frisian revolt is suppressed.

Publius Ostorius Scapula becomes governor of Britain, in place of Aulus Plautius. The south-east of the island is now a Roman province, while certain states on the south coast are ruled as a nominally independent client kingdom by Tiberius Claudius Cogidubnus, whose seat is probably at Fishbourne near Chichester. Ostorius immediately faces incursions from unconquered areas, which he puts down.

Corbulo orders the construction of the canal Fossa Corbulonis, between the Rhine and Meuse in the Netherlands, which connects the city Forum Hadriani (Voorburg).

Romans build the Traiectum fortification near the mouth of the Rhine, which will later grow to be the city of Utrecht.

Claudius founds the city Forum Claudii Vallensium (modern Martigny) in the Alpes Poeninae (Switzerland).

Musselburgh is founded in Roman Britain (Scotland).

Pliny the Elder sees military service in Germany.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Ananias becomes high priest in Judaea.

Paul starts his evangelistic work.

=== AD 48 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Consuls are Aulus Vitellius and Lucius Vipstanus Poplicola.

The emperor Claudius invests Agrippa II with the office of superintendent of the Temple in Jerusalem.

After the execution of his wife Messalina, Claudius gets senatorial approval to marry his niece, Agrippina the Younger.

Publius Ostorius Scapula, governor of Britain, announces his intention to disarm all Britons south and east of the Trent and Severn. The Iceni, an independent, allied kingdom within that area, revolt but are defeated. Ostorius then moves against the Deceangli in north Wales, but is forced to abandon the campaign to deal with a revolt among the allied Brigantes.

Gallic nobles are admitted to the Roman Senate. Claudius grants the rights of citizenship to the Aedui.

====== Asia ======

The Hsiung-nu empire dissolves.

The emperor of China, Guang Wudi (Kouang Wou-Ti), restores Chinese domination of Inner Mongolia. The Xiongnu are made confederates and guard the Northern border of the empire.

Mobon becomes ruler of the Korean kingdom of Goguryeo.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Probable date of the Apostolic Council. Paul of Tarsus begins his first mission (approximate date, see AD 47).

According to Christian legend, Martha travels to Avignon.

=== AD 49 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Claudius marries his niece Agrippina the Younger (approximate date).

Seneca the Younger becomes Nero's tutor.

Melankomas is the boxing champion at the 207th Olympic Games.

Likely date for the expulsion of the Jews from Rome.

Nero becomes engaged to Claudia Octavia, daughter of Claudius.

Agrippina the Younger charges Octavia's first fiancé Lucius Junius Silanus Torquatus with incest. He is brought before the Senate and sentenced to death.

In Britain, governor Publius Ostorius Scapula founds a colonia for Roman veterans at Camulodunum (Colchester). Verulamium (St Albans) is probably established as a municipium the same year. A legion is stationed on the borders of the Silures of South Wales in preparation for invasion.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

New Testament book Paul's Epistle to the Galatians is probably written.

Christianity spreads into Europe, especially at Rome and at Philippi (probable date according to chronology derived from the Acts of the Apostles).

AD 42

AD 42 (XLII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Caesar and Piso (or, less frequently, year 795 Ab urbe condita). The denomination AD 42 for this year has been used since the Early Middle Ages, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Alatri Cathedral

Alatri Cathedral, otherwise the Basilica of Saint Paul (Italian: Duomo di Alatri; Basilica concattedrale di San Paolo apostolo), is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Alatri, Lazio, Italy, dedicated to Saint Paul. It was formerly the cathedral of the Diocese of Alatri. Since 30 September 1986 it has been a co-cathedral of the Diocese of Anagni-Alatri. Pope Pius XII declared it a basilica minor on 10 September 1950.

Alife, Campania

Alife is a town and comune in the Province of Caserta (Campania), Italy. It is located in the Volturno valley, and is a flourishing centre of agricultural production.

Alife Cathedral

Alife Cathedral (Italian: Duomo di Alife, Cattedrale di Santa Maria Assunta) is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Alife in the province of Caserta, Campania, Italy. Dedicated to the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, it is the seat of the Bishop of Alife-Caiazzo.

Alife Cathedral, first built in 1132, was formerly dedicated to Pope Sixtus I, later Saint Sixtus, the patron saint of the city. After the severe earthquakes of 1456 and 1688, the cathedral was largely rebuilt in Baroque style, and reopened in 1692.

The interior has however maintained noteworthy elements of the Lombard-Norman building, including two arcades decorated with sculptures of animals (including the elephant, heraldic symbol of the city established by the d'Aquino family, who ruled Alife from 1121 to 1269) and saints. Also interesting is the Romanesque crypt, which houses the relics of Saint Sixtus, brought here by Ranulf, Count of Alife: it has a rectangular plan and columns from the ancient Roman theatre. Some of the capitals are ancient, while others are mediaeval copies of the Roman originals.

April 6

April 6 is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 269 days remain until the end of the year.

Easter controversy

The controversy over the correct date for Easter began in Early Christianity as early as the 2nd century AD. Discussion and disagreement over the best method of computing the date of Easter Sunday has been ongoing and unresolved for centuries. Different Christian denominations continue to celebrate Easter on different dates, with Eastern and Western Christian churches being a notable example.

First Council of Nicaea

The First Council of Nicaea (; Greek: Νίκαια [ˈnikεa]) was a council of Christian bishops convened in the Bithynian city of Nicaea (now İznik, Bursa province, Turkey) by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in AD 325.

This ecumenical council was the first effort to attain consensus in the Church through an assembly representing all of Christendom. Hosius of Corduba, who was probably one of the papal legates, may have presided over its deliberations.Its main accomplishments were settlement of the Christological issue of the divine nature of God the Son and his relationship to God the Father, the construction of the first part of the Nicene Creed, establishing uniform observance of the date of Easter, and promulgation of early canon law.

List of canonised popes

This article lists the Popes who have been canonised or recognised as Saints in the Roman Catholic Church they had led. A total of 83 (out of 266) Popes have been recognised universally as canonised saints, including all of the first 35 Popes (31 of whom were martyrs) and 52 of the first 54. If Pope Liberius is numbered amongst the Saints as in Eastern Christianity, all of the first 49 Popes become recognised as Saints, of whom 31 are Martyr-Saints, and 53 of the first 54 Pontiffs would be acknowledged as Saints. In addition, 13 other Popes are in the process of becoming canonised Saints: as of December 2018, two are recognised as being Servants of God, two are recognised as being Venerable, and nine have been declared Blessed or Beati, making a total of 95 (97 if Pope Liberius and Pope Adeodatus II are recognised to be Saints) of the 266 Roman Pontiffs being recognised and venerated for their heroic virtues and inestimable contributions to the Church.

The most recently reigning Pope to have been canonised was Pope John Paul II, whose cause for canonisation was opened in May 2005. John Paul II was beatified on May 1, 2011, by Pope Benedict XVI and later canonised, along with Pope John XXIII, by Pope Francis on April 27, 2014. Pope Francis also canonised Pope Paul VI on October 14, 2018.

List of popes who died violently

A collection of popes who have had violent deaths through the centuries. The circumstances have ranged from martyrdom (Pope Stephen I) to war (Lucius II), to a beating by a jealous husband (Pope John XII). A number of other popes have died under circumstances that some believe to be murder, but for which definitive evidence has not been found.

Saint Peter's tomb

Saint Peter's tomb is a site under St. Peter's Basilica that includes several graves and a structure said by Vatican authorities to have been built to memorialize the location of Saint Peter's grave. St. Peter's tomb is near the west end of a complex of mausoleums that date between about AD 130 and AD 300. The complex was partially torn down and filled with earth to provide a foundation for the building of the first St. Peter's Basilica during the reign of Constantine I in about AD 330. Though many bones have been found at the site of the 2nd-century shrine, as the result of two campaigns of archaeological excavation, Pope Pius XII stated in December 1950 that none could be confirmed to be Saint Peter's with absolute certainty. Following the discovery of bones that had been transferred from a second tomb under the monument, on June 26, 1968, Pope Paul VI claimed that the relics of Saint Peter had been identified in a manner considered convincing.The grave claimed by the Church to be that of Saint Peter lies at the foot of the aedicula beneath the floor. The remains of four individuals and several farm animals were found in this grave. In 1953, after the initial archeological efforts had been completed, another set of bones were found that were said to have been removed without the archeologists' knowledge from a niche (loculus) in the north side of a wall (the graffiti wall) that abuts the red wall on the right of the aedicula. Subsequent testing indicated that these were the bones of a 60- to 70-year-old man. Margherita Guarducci argued that these were the remains of Saint Peter and that they had been moved into a niche in the graffiti wall from the grave under the aedicula "at the time of Constantine, after the peace of the church" (313). Antonio Ferrua, the archaeologist who headed the excavation that uncovered what is known as Saint Peter's Tomb, said that he wasn't convinced that the bones that were found were those of Saint Peter.The upper image shows the area of the lower floor of St. Peter's Basilica that lies above the site of Saint Peter's tomb. A portion of the aedicula that was part of Peter's tomb rose above level of this floor and was made into the Niche of the Pallium which can be seen in the center of the image.

Saint Sixtus

Saint Sixtus (or San Sisto in Italian) may refer to:

San Sisto College, Brisbane

San Sisto, Piacenza, a church in Piacenza, Italy

San Sisto, Pisa, a church in Pisa, Italy, consecrated in 1133

San Sisto Vecchio, a fourth-century church in Rome, dedicated to Pope St Sixtus II

San Sisto, Viterbo, a church in Lazio, Italy

San Sisto (Genoa), a church in Genoa, Italy, rebuilt in 1825

San Sisto al Pino, a village in the province of Pisa, Italy

Pope Sixtus I (d. 128)

Pope Sixtus II (d. 258), martyr

Pope Sixtus III (d. 440)

Sixtus of Reims, bishop of Reims

Abbey of Saint Sixtus of Westvleteren, home of Westvleteren Brewery


Sixtus was a Roman name, a corruption of the Greek name "Ξυστος", meaning "polished", and originally Latinized "Xystus". In its Spanish form Sixto it is still used as a personal name. It is not to be confused with the common Roman praenomen "Sextus", meaning "sixth", though not necessarily denoting a sixth child.

Notable people named Sixtus include five Popes of the Roman Catholic Church, the first three of whom are called "Xystus" in the most ancient records:

Pope Sixtus I (115/116–125)

Pope Sixtus II (257–258)

Pope Sixtus III (432–440)

Pope Sixtus IV (1471–1484)

Pope Sixtus V (1585–1590)Other notable people named Sixtus include:

Sixtus of Reims (d. c. 300)

Sixtus of Esztergom (d. 1285/86)

Sixtus of Siena (1520–1569)

Prince Sixtus of Bourbon-Parma (1886–1934)

Edmund Sixtus Muskie (1914–1996)

Prince Sixtus Henry of Bourbon-Parma (born 1940)

Sixtus Leung Chung-hang (born 1986)

Sixtus Dominic Boniface Christopher Rees-Mogg (born 2017)


Zadar (Croatian: [zâdar] (listen); see also other names) is the oldest continuously-inhabited Croatian city. It is situated on the Adriatic Sea, at the northwestern part of Ravni Kotari region. Zadar serves as the seat of Zadar County and of the wider northern Dalmatian region. The city proper covers 25 km2 (9.7 sq mi) with a population of 75,082 in 2011, making it the second-largest city of the region of Dalmatia and the fifth-largest city in the country.

The area of present-day Zadar traces its earliest evidence of human life from the late Stone Age, while numerous settlements date as early as the Neolithic. Before the Illyrians, an ancient Mediterranean people of a pre-Indo-European culture inhabited the area. Zadar traces its origin to its 9th-century BC founding as a settlement of the Illyrian tribe of Liburnians known as Iader.

In 59 BC it was renamed Iadera when it became a Roman municipium. In 48 BC it became a Roman colonia. During Roman rule Zadar acquired the characteristics of a traditional Ancient Roman city with a regular road network, a public square ( forum), and an elevated capitolium with a temple.

After the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and the destruction of Salona by the Avars and Croats in 614, Zadar became the capital of the Byzantine theme of Dalmatia. In the beginning of the 9th century, Zadar came briefly under Frankish rule, but the Pax Nicephori returned it to the Byzantines in 812. The first Croatian rulers gained brief control over the city in 10th century. In 998 Zadar swore allegiance to Doge Pietro Orseolo II and became a vassal of the Republic of Venice. In 1186 it placed itself under the protection of Béla III, King of Hungary.

In 1202 the Venetians, with the help of Crusaders, reconquered and sacked Zadar. Hungary regained control over the city in 1358, when it was given to king Louis I of Hungary. In 1409 king Ladislaus I sold Zadar to the Venetians. When the Turks conquered the Zadar hinterland at the beginning of the 16th century, the town became an important stronghold, ensuring Venetian trade in the Adriatic, the administrative center of the Venetian territories in Dalmatia and a cultural center. This fostered an environment in which arts and literature could flourish, and between the 15th and 17th centuries Zadar came under the influence of the Renaissance, giving rise to many important Italian Renaissance figures like Giorgio da Sebenico, Giorgio Ventura, Andrea Meldolla and Giovanni Francesco Fortunio, who wrote the first Italian grammar book, and many famous Croatian writers, such as Petar Zoranić, Brne Krnarutić (1515-1573), Juraj Baraković and Šime Budinić, who wrote in the Croatian language.

After the fall of Venice in 1797 Zadar came under the Austrian rule until 1918, except for the period of short-term French rule (1805–1813), still remaining the capital of Dalmatia. During French rule the first newspaper in the Croatian language, Il Regio Dalmata – Kraglski Dalmatin, was published in Zadar (1806–1810). During the 19th century Zadar functioned as a center of the Croatian movement for cultural and national revival in a context of increasing polarization and politicization of ethnic identities between Croats and Dalmatian Italians.

With the 1920 Treaty of Rapallo Zadar was given to the Kingdom of Italy. During World War II, it was bombed by the Allies and witnessed the evacuation of ethnic Italians. Partisans captured the city on 1 November 1944; in 1947 it officially became part of SR Croatia, a federal constituent of the SFR Yugoslavia, whose armed forces defended it in October 1991 from the Serb forces who aimed to capture it.

Today, Zadar is a historical center of Dalmatia, Zadar County's principal political, cultural, commercial, industrial, educational, and transportation centre. Zadar is also the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Zadar. Because of its rich heritage, Zadar is today one of the most popular Croatian tourist destinations, named "entertainment center of the Adriatic" by The Times and "Croatia's new capital of cool" by The Guardian. In 2016 the Belgian portal Europe's Best Destinations.com named Zadar the "Best European Destination" after a three-week period of online voting involving more than 288,000 votes.UNESCO's World Heritage Site list included the fortified city of Zadar as part of Venetian Works of Defence between 15th and 17th centuries: Stato da Terra – western Stato da Mar in 2017.

1st–4th centuries
During the Roman Empire (until 493)
including under Constantine (312–337)
5th–8th centuries
Ostrogothic Papacy (493–537)
Byzantine Papacy (537–752)
Frankish Papacy (756–857)
9th–12th centuries
Papal selection before 1059
Saeculum obscurum (904–964)
Crescentii era (974–1012)
Tusculan Papacy (1012–1044/1048)
Imperial Papacy (1048–1257)
13th–16th centuries
Viterbo (1257–1281)
Orvieto (1262–1297)
Perugia (1228–1304)
Avignon Papacy (1309–1378)
Western Schism (1378–1417)
Renaissance Papacy (1417–1534)
Reformation Papacy (1534–1585)
Baroque Papacy (1585–1689)
17th–20th centuries
Age of Enlightenment (c. 1640-1740)
Revolutionary Papacy (1775–1848)
Roman Question (1870–1929)
Vatican City (1929–present)
21st century
History of the papacy
Virgin Mary
See also

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