Pope Siricius

Pope Siricius (334 – 26 November 399) was Pope from December 384[1] to his death in 399. He was successor to Pope Damasus I and was himself succeeded by Pope Anastasius I.

In response to inquiries from Bishop Himerius of Tarragona, Siricius issued decrees of baptism, church discipline and other matters. These are the oldest completely preserved papal decretals.

Pope Saint

Siricius
Pormenor do Retábulo de Santa Auta (Papa Ciríaco Abençoa Santa Auta e o Príncipe Conan), Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga
A detail of the Saint Auta Reredos depicting the Pope (referenced as Cyriacus in the legend of Saint Ursula). National Museum of Ancient Art, Lisbon, Portugal.
Papacy beganDecember 384
Papacy ended26 November 399
PredecessorDamasus I
SuccessorAnastasius I
Personal details
Birth nameSiricius
Born334
Died26 November 399
Sainthood
Feast day26 November
Papal styles of
Pope Siricius
Emblem of the Papacy SE
Reference styleHis Holiness
Spoken styleYour Holiness
Religious styleHoly Father
Posthumous styleSaint

Biography

Siricius was a native of Rome; his father's name was Tiburtius. Siricius entered the service of the Church at an early age and, according to the testimony of the inscription on his grave, was lector and then deacon of the Roman Church during the pontificate of Liberius.[2]

Siricius was elected Bishop of Rome unanimously, despite attempts by the Antipope Ursinus to promote himself. Emperor Valentinian II's confirmation of his election stilled any further objections.[3]

He was an active Pope, involved in the administration of the Church and the handling of various factions and viewpoints within it. In response to a letter from Himerius, Bishop of Tarragona, he issued decisions on fifteen different points, on matters regarding baptism, penance, church discipline and the celibacy of the clergy. His are the oldest completely preserved decretals.[2]

According to the life in the "Liber Pontificalis" (ed. Duchesne, I, 216), Siricius also took severe measures against the Manichæans at Rome. However, as Duchesne remarks (loc. cit., notes) it cannot be assumed from the writings of the converted Augustine of Hippo, who was a Manichæan when he went to Rome (383), that Siricius took any particular steps against them, yet Augustine would certainly have commented on this if such had been the case. The mention in the "Liber Pontificalis" belongs properly to the life of Pope Leo I. Neither is it probable, as Langen thinks (Gesch. der röm. Kirche, I, 633), that Priscillianists are to be understood by this mention of Manichæans, although probably Priscillianists were at times called Manichæans in the writings of that age. The western emperors, including Honorius and Valentinian III, issued laws against the Manichæans, whom they declared to be political offenders, and took severe action against the members of this sect (Codex Theodosian, XVI, V, various laws).

In the East, Siricius interposed to settle the Meletian schism at Antioch; this schism had continued notwithstanding the death in 381 of Meletius at the Council of Constantinople. The followers of Meletius elected Flavian as his successor, while the adherents of Bishop Paulinus, after the death of this bishop (388), elected Evagrius. Evagrius died in 392 and through Flavian's management no successor was elected. By the mediation of St. John Chrysostom and Theophilus of Alexandria an embassy, led by Bishop Acacius of Beroea, was sent to Rome to persuade Siricius to recognize Flavian and to readmit him to communion with the Church.[2]

When the Spanish bishop and ascetic Priscillian, accused by his fellow bishops of heresy, was executed by the emperor Magnus Maximus under the charge of magic, Siricius—along with Ambrose of Milan and Martin of Tours—protested against the verdict to the emperor.[3]

Although sources say that Pope Siricius was the first Bishop of Rome to style himself Pope,[4] other authorities say the title "Pope" was from the early 3rd century an honorific designation used for any bishop in the West.[5] In the East it was used only for the Bishop of Alexandria.[5] Pope Marcellinus (d. 304) is the first Bishop of Rome shown in sources to have had the title "Pope" used of him. From the 6th century, the imperial chancery of Constantinople normally reserved this designation for the Bishop of Rome.[5] From the early 6th century, it began to be confined in the West to the Bishop of Rome, a practice that was firmly in place by the 11th century.[5]

Siricius is also one of the Popes presented in various sources as having been the first to bear the title Pontifex Maximus. Others that are said to have been the first to bear the title are Pope Callistus I, Pope Damasus I, Pope Leo I, and Pope Gregory I. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church indicates instead that it was in the fifteenth century (when the Renaissance stirred up new interest in ancient Rome) that "Pontifex Maximus" became a regular title of honour for Popes.[6]

Siricius is buried in the basilica of San Silvestro.[3] His feast day is 26 November.

See also

References

  1. ^ The date in December—15, 22, or 29—is uncertain. Annuario Pontificio (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2012 ISBN 978-88-209-8722-0), p. 9.
  2. ^ a b c Kirsch, Johann Peter. "Pope St. Siricius." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 14. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. 29 September 2017
  3. ^ a b c "The 38th Pope", Spirituality for Today, Diocese of Bridgeport
  4. ^ Bettenson, Henry; Maunder, Chris (2011). Documents of the Christian Church. Oxford University Press. p. 88. ISBN 9780199568987.
  5. ^ a b c d Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (Oxford University Press 2005 ISBN 978-0-19-280290-3), article Pope
  6. ^ Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (Oxford University Press 2005 ISBN 978-0-19-280290-3), article Pontifex Maximus

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHerbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope St. Siricius". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.

External links

Titles of the Great Christian Church
Preceded by
Damasus I
Pope
384–399
Succeeded by
Anastasius I
380s

The 380s decade ran from January 1, 380, to December 31, 389.

== Events ==

=== 380 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

January or February – Emperor Theodosius I is baptized.

February 27 – Edict of Thessalonica: Theodosius I, with co-emperors Gratian and Valentinian II, declare their wish that all Roman citizens convert to trinitarian Christianity, in accordance with the patriarchs of Rome and Alexandria, implicitly rejecting the Arianism of the patriarch of Constantinople as heretical.

Battle of Thessalonica: The Goths under Fritigern defeat a Roman army in Macedonia. Theodosius I retreats to Thessalonica and leaves Gratian in control of the Western Roman Empire.

Rome's enemies (the Germans, Sarmatians and Huns) are taken into Imperial service; as a consequence, barbarian leaders begin to play an increasingly active role in the Roman Empire.

November 24 – Theodosius I makes his adventus, or formal entry, into Constantinople.

Queen Mavia defeats with her Saracen forces the Roman army in southern Syria.

====== Europe ======

The Visigothic chieftain Fritigern dies after ravaging the Balkans; his rival Athanaric becomes king of the entire Gothic nation.

====== India ======

The annexation of western provinces by Chandragupta II gives him control over commerce with Europe and Egypt.

====== Pacific ======

Easter Island, in the south Pacific Ocean, has been occupied by Neolithic seafarers under Hotu Matu'a ("supreme chief"), who about this time begin to fortify the island.

==== By topic ====

====== Arts and sciences ======

Important works on mathematics and astronomy are written in Sanskrit.

====== Religion ======

Ticonius writes a commentary on the Bible's Book of Revelation.

A cathedral is built in Trier (Germany).

The Council of Saragossa is held; Spanish and Aquitanian bishops condemn the teachings of Priscillianism.

Ambrose introduces popular music into church services.

=== 381 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Gratian moves the capital to Mediolanum (modern Milan). Because of his Christian beliefs, he eliminates Pontifex Maximus as Imperial title. Gratian also refuses the robe of office, insulting the pagan aristocrats of Rome.

The Gallic city of Cularo is renamed Gratianopolis (later Grenoble), in honor of Gratian having created a bishopric.

====== Europe ======

The Visigothic chieftain Athanaric becomes the first foreign king to visit the Eastern Roman capital of Constantinople. He negotiates a peace treaty with emperor Theodosius I that makes his people foederati in a state within a state. Athanaric dies 2 weeks later after an 18-year reign in which he has been undisputed king of all the Goths for just 1 year. The peace will continue until Theodosius's death in 395.

The Scirii ally themselves with the Huns.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

First Council of Constantinople (some authorities date this council to 383): Theodosius I calls a general council to affirm and extend the Nicene creed, and denounce Arianism and Apollinarism. Most trinitarian churches consider this an Ecumenical council.

Council of Aquileia: Ambrose and the council depose the Arian bishops Palladius of Ratiaria and Secundianus of Singidunum.

Flavian succeeds Meletius as Patriarch of Antioch.

Timothy succeeds Peter as Patriarch of Alexandria.

Nectarius succeeds Gregory Nazianzus as Archbishop of Constantinople.

John Chrysostom becomes a deacon.

=== 382 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

October 3 – Emperor Theodosius I commands his general Saturninus to conclude a peace treaty with the Visigoths, allowing them to settle south of the Danube. They are installed as foederati in Moesia and Thrace with the title of "Allies of the Roman People", in exchange for furnishing a contingent of auxiliary troops to defend the borders.

Emperor Gratian refuses the divine attributes of the Imperial cult and removes the Altar of Victory from the Senate.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

The Council of Rome establishes Biblical canon in the Catholic Church. Pope Damasus I commissions a revision of the Vetus Latina, eventually resulting in the Vulgate of Jerome.

The same council adopts Trinitarianism as doctrine, condemning Apollinarism. Theodosius I orders the death of members of Manichaean monks.

The first sermons declaring the virginity of Mary are given by John Chrysostom.

=== 383 ===

==== By place ====

====== Britannia ======

Niall of the Nine Hostages becomes the first High King of Ireland

Hadrian's Wall, the northern Roman frontier in Britain, is overrun by the Picts and falls into ruin.

====== Roman Empire ======

January 19 – Arcadius is elevated to Emperor.

Roman troops in Britain proclaim Magnus Maximus Emperor. He crosses over to the continent and makes Trier his capital. Gaul, the Italian provinces and Hispania proclaim loyalty to him.

August 25 – Emperor Gratian, age 24, is assassinated at Lugdunum (modern Lyon), leaving a young widow Laeta. Pannonia and Africa maintain their allegiance to co-emperor Valentinian II, now 12, whose mother, Justina, rules in his name.

Emperor Theodosius I cedes Dacia and Macedonia to Valentinian II. They recognize Magnus Maximus as Augustus.

Theodosius I sends Flavius Stilicho as an envoy to the Persian court of King Shapur III at Ctesiphon, to negotiate a peace settlement relating to the partition of Armenia.

====== Asia ======

Battle of Feishui: The Jin Dynasty defeats the Former Qin dynasty in Anhui.

King Ardashir II dies after a 4-year reign. He is succeeded by his son Shapur III.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Council of Constantinople (383), was held as a local council of mainly eastern bishops. The Council discussed various doctrinal issues, examining several issues regarding Arianism, and rejected teachings of Eunomius of Cyzicus.

By the order of Emperor Theodosius I, Eunomius of Cyzicus is banished to Moesia.

=== 384 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Magnus Maximus elevates his son Flavius Victor to the rank of Augustus.

Magnus Maximus returns to Britain, to aid the Roman army with the barbarian raids triggered by Maximus' withdrawal of troops to the continent.

The Forum of Theodosius ("Forum of the Bull") is built in Constantinople.

Quintus Aurelius Symmachus becomes urban prefect of Rome.

An edict of Theodosius I closes pagan temples in the Nile Valley (Egypt).

Flavius Stilicho marries Serena, adopted niece of Theodosius I.

====== Persia ======

King Shapur III signs a treaty with Theodosius I. Armenia is divided in two kingdoms, and becomes a vassal state of the Roman Empire and Persia. The friendly relations survive for 36 years.

====== Asia ======

King Chimnyu ascends to the throne of Baekje (Korea); he welcomes the Indian Buddhist monk Marananta into his palace, and later declares Buddhism the official religion.

Gogugyang becomes ruler of the Korean kingdom of Goguryeo.

====== China ======

The Battle of Fei River - Former Qin forces are defeated by the numerically inferior Eastern Jin army, preserving the Jin state in the south and precipitating the destruction of Former Qin in the north.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

December 17 – Pope Siricius succeeds Damasus I as the 38th pope. He takes the title Pontifex Maximus, after it is relinquished by the late emperor Gratian.

Jerome, Christian prophet, writes his celebrated letter "De custodia virginitatis" (vow of virginity) to Eustochium, daughter of the ascetic Paula. He has by this time completed his Vulgate translation of the Gospels.

Ambrosius refuses the request of Empress Justina for a church in Milan, where she can worship according to her Arian belief.

A synod is held in Bordeaux (France).

The Gallaeci or Gallic woman Egeria concludes her Christian pilgrimage to the Holy Land at about this date; her narrative of it, the Itinerarium Egeriae, may be the earliest surviving formal writing by a woman in western European culture.

=== 385 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

The Roman synod exiles the prophet Jerome, who has incorporated ideas first propounded by the Roman statesman Cicero. He departs for Egypt, Bethlehem, and Jerusalem, accompanied by the Christian ascetic Paula, who will edit Jerome's translation of the Bible, which becomes the Latin Vulgate.

====== Asia ======

Jinsa of Baekje becomes the 16th king of the ancient Korean kingdom of Baekje.

====== Africa ======

Copper extraction and casting begins in the mines of Kansanshi in southernmost Africa, at the border of Zaire and Zambia.

==== By topic ====

====== Arts and Sciences ======

Ammianus Marcellinus begins writing a history, in the style of Tacitus, covering the years AD 96–378.

====== Religion ======

The Serapeum in Alexandria, one of the largest Greek temples in Egypt, is destroyed by a Christian mob. The precise date is disputed, with 391 sometimes given as the moment of final destruction.

Theophilus becomes Patriarch of Alexandria.

Pope Siricius issues the Directa Decretal, proclaiming the primacy of Rome and the priestly obligation of celibacy.

Priscillian, Spanish bishop, is accused of Manichaeism and magic, and beheaded at Trier . He becomes the first person in the history of Christianity to be executed for heresy.

====== Sport in the Roman Empire ======

Aurelios Zopyros becomes the last reported athlete at the Ancient Olympic Games. He is a victor in "junior boxing" (pankration).

=== 386 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Theodosius I signs a peace treaty with King Shapur III; they divide Armenia in two kingdoms (vassal states). The treaty establishes friendly relations between the Roman Empire and Persia for the next 36 years.

The Greuthungi cross the Danube to raid the Roman garrisons on the northern frontier. They are met midstream by a well-armed fleet, and their rafts and dugouts sink. Those not drowned are slaughtered.

Magnus Maximus invades Italy; he destroys Novara for supporting his rival Valentinian II.

Theodosius I begins to rebuild the present-day Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls.

A column is constructed at Constantinople in honour of Theodosius I. Reliefs depict the emperor's victory over the "barbarians" in the Balkan.

====== Asia ======

The Northern Wei Dynasty begins in China. The Tuoba clan of the Xianbei tribe (proto-Mongol people) is politically separated from the Chinese dynasties established in Jiankang (modern Nanjing). The Northern Wei rulers are ardent supporters of Buddhism. Prince Dao Wu Di, age 15, becomes the first emperor (see Northern dynasties).

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Saint Ambrose defends the rights of the Catholic Church with respect to those of the State.

Theodosius I is converted to Christianity.

John Chrysostom becomes a presbyter; he also writes eight Homilies entitled "Adversus Iudaeos" ("Against the Jews").

Augustine converts to Christianity. He ends his marriage plans after hearing a sermon on the life of Saint Anthony.

The fight in the Roman Empire against anti-pagan laws becomes increasingly futile.

Sumela Monastery established.

=== 387 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Spring – Emperor Theodosius I increases the taxes in Antioch. A peasant uprising leads to a riot, and public buildings are set afire. Theodosius sends imperial troops to quell the disturbance, and closes the public baths and theatres.

Magnus Maximus, usurping emperor of the West, invades Italy. Emperor Valentinian II, age 16, is forced out of Rome. He flees with his mother Justina and sisters to Thessaloniki (Thrace).

Winter – The widowed emperor Theodosius I takes Valentinian II under his protection, and marries his sister Flavia Galla.

====== Persia ======

Peace of Acilisene: King Shapur III signs a treaty with Theodosius I. Armenia is divided in two kingdoms, and becomes a vassal state of the Roman Empire and Persia.

==== By topic ====

====== Arts and sciences ======

Oribase, Greek doctor, publishes a treatise on paralysis and bleedings.

====== Religion ======

Augustine is baptized on Easter Vigil by Saint Ambrose, Bishop of Milan.

=== 388 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Battle of the Save: Emperor Theodosius I defeats Magnus Maximus near Emona (modern Slovenia). Theodosius is in command of an army including Goths, Huns and Alans. Valentinian II, now 17, is restored as Roman Emperor.

August 28 – Magnus Maximus surrenders at Aquileia and is executed. Theodosius I devotes himself to gluttony and voluptuous living. Maximus' son Flavius Victor is executed at Trier by Valentinian's magister militum Arbogast.

====== Persia ======

King Shapur III dies after a reign in which he has partitioned Armenia with the Roman Empire. He is succeeded by his son Bahram IV, who becomes the twelfth Sassanid king of Persia.

====== India ======

Emperor Chandragupta II, ruler of the Gupta Empire, begins a war against the Shaka Dynasty in West India.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Paternus becomes bishop of the Episcopal see of Braga (Portugal).

Isaac, age 50, is named Catholicos (spiritual head) of the Armenian Apostolic Church.

Jerome moves to Palestine, where he spends the rest of his life as a hermit near Bethlehem.

A group of Christians storms the synagogue of the city Callinicum (Syria), at the Euphrates.

=== 389 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

All pagan buildings in Alexandria, including the library, are destroyed by fire.

384

Year 384 (CCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Ricomer and Clearchus (or, less frequently, year 1137 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 384 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for giving names to years.

399

Year 399 (CCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Eutropius and Theodorus (or, less frequently, year 1152 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 399 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Bassianus of Lodi

Saint Bassianus of Lodi (Italian: San Bassiano; c. 320 – c. 409) was an Italian saint, the patron saint of Lodi and Pizzighettone in Italy.

Bonosus of Sardica

Bonosus was a Bishop of Sardica in the latter part of the fourth century, who taught against the doctrine of the perpetual virginity of Mary. His followers were later labelled "Bonosians" and considered heretical.

Council of Orange (441)

The First Council of Orange (or First Synod of Orange) was held in the diocese of Orange, then part of the Western Roman Empire, in 441. The meeting took place in a church called the ecclesia Justinianensis, under the presidency of Bishop Hilary of Arles. Seventeen bishops attended the meeting, among them Bishop Eucherius of Lyons.The signing of the Canons, which marked the culmination of the synod, took place on 8 November 441.

Directa Decretal

The Directa decretal was written by Pope Siricius in February AD 385. It took the form of a long letter to Spanish bishop Himerius of Tarragona replying to the bishop’s requests for directa on various subjects sent several months earlier to Pope Damasus I. It became the first of a series of documents published by the Magisterium that claimed apostolic origin for clerical celibacy and reminded ministers of the altar of the perpetual continence required of them.

Felix of Trier

Felix of Trier (fl. c. 386–399) was bishop of Trier from around 386 to 398.His episcopate was marked by the trial of Priscillian and his followers and their subsequent execution for heresy and witchcraft, which can be seen as the first inquisitorial action in the Church.

The death sentences against Priscillian and his followers, despite the vigorous opposition of many bishops of the West, including celebrities such as Martin of Tours and Ambrose of Milan, were to have bitter consequences for Felix: Pope Siricius, Martin of Tours, Ambrose of Milan and other bishops broke off fellowship with all the bishops who took part in the trial of Priscillian. Felix was accused of not having campaigned vigorously enough against the verdict.

At a Synod of Bishops in 398 at Turin all bishops were readmitted to communion with Rome, provided that they undertook to have nothing to do with Felix, who was thus largely isolated. In 398 he renounced his bishopric.

Felix returned the relics of Paulinus of Trier from Phrygia to Trier and built a church to house them which is among the predecessors of the present St. Paulinus' Church, in the crypt of which he is buried.

His feast day is 26 March.

Himerius of Tarragona

Himerius of Tarragona (fl. 385) was bishop of Tarragona during the 4th century.

He is most notable as being the recipient of the Directa Decretal, written by Pope Siricius in February 385 AD. It took the form of a long letter to Himerius replying to the bishop’s requests on various subjects sent several months earlier to Pope Damasus I. It became the first of a series of documents published by the Magisterium that claimed apostolic origin for clerical celibacy and reminded ministers of the altar of the perpetual continence required of them.

Jovinian

Jovinian (Latin: Jovinianus; died c. 405), was an opponent of Christian asceticism in the 4th century and was condemned as a heretic at synods convened in Rome under Pope Siricius and in Milan by St Ambrose in 393. Our information about him is derived principally from the work of St. Jerome in two books, Adversus Jovinianum. Jerome referred to him as the "Epicurus of Christianity".

He was a native of Corduene. John Henry Newman called Aerius of Sebaste, Jovinian and Vigilantius the forerunners of Protestantism, likening them to the "Luther, Calvin, and Zwingli of the fourth century".

List of popes (graphical)

This is a graphical list of the popes of the Roman Catholic Church.

While the term pope (Latin: Papa, 'Father') is used in several churches to denote their high spiritual leaders, in English usage, this title generally refers to the supreme head of the Roman Catholic Church and of the Holy See. The title itself has been used officially by the head of the Church since the tenure of Pope Siricius.

There have been 266 popes, as listed by the Annuario Pontificio (Pontifical Yearbook) under the heading 'I Sommi Pontefici Romani' (The Supreme Pontiffs of Rome). Some sources quote a number of 267, with the inclusion of Stephen II, who died four days after his election but before his episcopal consecration. However, only 264 (or 265) men have occupied the chair of Saint Peter, as Benedict IX held the office thrice on separate occasions in the mid–11th century.

The pope bears the titles

Bishop of Rome, Vicar of Jesus Christ, Successor of the Prince of the Apostles, Supreme Pontiff of the Universal Church, Primate of Italy, Archbishop and Metropolitan of the Roman Province, Sovereign of the Vatican City State, Servant of the Servants of Godand is officially styled 'His Holiness'.

Since the Lateran Treaty of 1929, the pope's temporal title has been Sovereign of the Vatican City State.

Priscillian

Priscillian (died c. 385) was a wealthy nobleman of Roman Hispania who promoted a strict form of Christian asceticism. He became bishop of Ávila in 380. Certain practices of his followers (such as meeting at country villas instead of attending church) were denounced at the Council of Zaragoza in 380. Tensions between Priscillian and bishops opposed to his views continued, as well as political maneuvering by both sides. Around 385, Priscillian was charged with sorcery and executed by authority of the Emperor Maximus. The ascetic movement Priscillianism is named after him, and continued in Hispania and Gaul until the late 6th century. Tractates by Priscillian and close followers, which had seemed lost, were discovered in 1885 and published in 1889.

Roman Martyrology

The Roman Martyrology (Latin: Martyrologium Romanum) is the official martyrology of the Catholic Church. Its use is obligatory in matters regarding the Roman Rite liturgy, but dioceses, countries and religious institutes may add to it duly approved appendices. It provides an extensive but not exhaustive list of the saints recognized by the Church.

Sacraments of initiation

The sacraments of initiation (also called the “mysteries of initiation”) are the three sacraments of Baptism, Confirmation and Eucharist As such, they are distinguished from the Sacraments of healing (Anointing of the sick and Sacrament of Penance and from the Sacraments of Service (Marriage and Ordination)

Saint Ursula

Saint Ursula (Latin for 'little female bear') is a Romano-British Christian saint, died on October 21, 383. Her feast day in the pre-1970 General Roman Calendar is October 21. There is little definite information about her and the anonymous group of holy virgins who accompanied her and on some uncertain date were killed at Cologne. They remain in the Roman Martyrology, although their commemoration does not appear in the simplified Calendarium Romanum Generale (General Roman Calendar) of the 1970 Missale Romanum.The earliest evidence of her is a 4th- or 5th-century inscription from the Church of St. Ursula, located on Ursulaplatz in Cologne which states that the ancient basilica had been restored on the site where some holy virgins were killed.

There is only one church dedicated to Saint Ursula in the UK, it is located in Wales at Llangwryfon, Ceredigion.

Her legendary status comes from a medieval story that she was a princess who, at the request of her father King Dionotus of Dumnonia in south-west Britain, set sail along with 11,000 virginal handmaidens to join her future husband, the pagan governor Conan Meriadoc of Armorica. After a miraculous storm brought them over the sea in a single day to a Gaulish port, Ursula declared that before her marriage she would undertake a pan-European pilgrimage. She headed for Rome with her followers and persuaded the Pope, Cyriacus (unknown in the pontifical records, though from late 384 AD there was a Pope Siricius), and Sulpicius, bishop of Ravenna, to join them. After setting out for Cologne, which was being besieged by Huns, all the virgins were beheaded in a massacre. The Huns' leader fatally shot Ursula with a bow and arrow in about 383 AD (the date varies).

Santa Pudenziana

Santa Pudenziana is a church of Rome, a basilica built in the 4th-century, that is dedicated to Saint Pudentiana, sister of Saint Praxedis and daughter of Saint Pudens. It is a national church for Filipinos and is therefore one of the national churches in Rome.

It has been suggested that there was no such person as Pudentiana, the name having originated as an adjective used to describe the house of Pudens, Domus Pudentiana. However, St. Paul refers to Pudens (2 Timothy 4:21), and so it appears that there was a real person with this name.

Santi Marcellino e Pietro al Laterano

Santi Marcellino e Pietro al Laterano is a Roman catholic parish and titular church in Rome on the Via Merulana. It is dedicated to Saints Marcellinus and Peter, 4th century Roman martyrs, whose relics were brought here in 1256.

Theodore of Octodurum

See Theodulus, Théodule, Saint Theodore for disambiguation.

Saint Theodore of Octodurum (also of Sion, of Grammont; German Theodor von Sitten, locally Joder; also known as Theodulus, French Théodule, Latin Theodolus Sedunensis etc.; 4th century) is the first known bishop of Octodurum, Alpes Poeninae province (present-day Martigny, Valais, Switzerland).

He is the patron saint of Valais and of the Walser. His feast day is 16 or 26 August.He is known to have participated in the Council of Aquileia in 381, his presence being preserved on the attendance list as Theodorus Episcopus Octodorensis.

He was also one of the signatories of a letter addressed by the Synod of Milan to Pope Siricius early in 390, informing him of their condemnation of the monk Jovinian and his followers.

He is said to have discovered the tomb of Saint Maurice, at which place he established the Abbey of St. Maurice, Agaunum.

Aloys Lütolf placed the beginning of his episcopate in the 340s, which would amount to a reign of more than forty years. At first he would not have had a fixed seat and in some sources is known as "bishop of the Helvetians".It is possible that three distinct historical bishops with the name Theodulus or Theodorus are venerated as a single saint.

The first would be the late 4th-century bishop recorded as Theodorus (fl. c. 350–400).

The second Theodorus/Theodulus is recorded for the year 515. It was at this time that the seat of the bishopric was moved from Martigny to Sion and the remains of the first Theodorus were transferred there.

A third and possibly legendary Theodore is recorded only in Acts written by a monk called Ruodpertus in the c. the 12th century; he is said to have been installed as secular ruler of the Valais by Charlemagne in 805. The byname "of Grammont" properly only applies to this third Theodorus, who "in certain propria" is said to be a member of thae baronial family of this name. The existence of the third Theodorus/Theodulus, "of Grammont", was first questioned in the Swiss Reformation, by Johann Stumpf (1546).The relics of Theodore, transferred to Sion probably in the 6th century, were lost during the French occupation of 1798. There are also accounts of his relics being moved to Bischofszell and by Ulrich of Augsburg to Ottobeuren.

His attribute is a devil bearing a bell. This represents a legend that the pope gifted a church bell to the saint, who forced the devil to carry the bell across Theodul Pass (formerly Matterjoch, the naming of the pass after the saint is a 17th-century tradition). According to legend, metal particles from this original bell of Sitten were used in the casting of later bells.

Theodulhorn and Theodul Glacier are in turn named for Theodul Pass.

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