Pope Sabinian

Pope Sabinian (Latin: Sabinianus, d. 22 February 606) was Pope from 13 September 604 to his death in 606, during the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) domination of the Papacy; he was the fourth former apocrisiarius to Constantinople to be elected pope.

Pope

Sabinian
Sabinian
Papacy began13 September 604
Papacy ended22 February 606
PredecessorGregory I
SuccessorBoniface III
Personal details
Birth nameSabinian
BornBlera, Eastern Roman Empire
Died22 February 606 (aged 76)
Rome, Eastern Roman Empire
Previous postCardinal-Deacon of the Holy Roman Church (15 October 590 - 13 September 604)

Biography

Sabinian was born at Blera (Bieda) near Viterbo. He had been sent by Pope Gregory I as Apostolic nuncio, to Constantinople, but he apparently was not entirely satisfactory in that office. He returned to Rome in 597.[1] He was probably consecrated pope on 13 September 604.

The erudite Italian Augustinian Onofrio Panvinio (1529–1568), in his Epitome pontificum Romanorum (Venice, 1557), attributes to him the introduction of the custom of ringing bells at the canonical hours and the celebration of the Eucharist.[2] The first attribution of this was in Guillaume Durand's thirteenth-century Rationale Divinorum Officiorum.[1]

During his reign, Sabinian was seen as a counterfoil to his predecessor Pope Gregory I. He incurred unpopularity by his unseasonable economies,[2] although the Liber Pontificalis states that he distributed grain during a famine at Rome under his pontificate. Whereas Gregory distributed grain to the Roman populace as invasion loomed, when the danger had passed Sabinian sold it to them. Because he was unable or unwilling to allow the people to have the corn for little or nothing, there grew up in later times a number of idle legends in which his predecessor was represented punishing him for avarice. Sabinian died 22 February 606. His funeral procession through the city had to change course to avoid hostile Romans.[3]

The Liber Pontificalis praises him for "filling the church with clergy," in contrast to Gregory, who tended to fill ecclesiastical positions with monks rather than the diocesan clergy.[1]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope Sabinianus" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  2. ^ a b Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Sabinianus" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 23 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 966.
  3. ^ "The 65th Pope", Spirituality.org, Diocese of Bridgeport

References

  • Duffy, Eamon. Saints and Sinners: A History of the Popes, Yale University Press, 2001, p. 72–73. ISBN 0-300-09165-6
  • Ekonomou, Andrew J. 2007. Byzantine Rome and the Greek Popes: Eastern influences on Rome and the papacy from Gregory the Great to Zacharias, A.D. 590–752. Lexington Books.
  • Maxwell-Stuart, P. G. Chronicle of the Popes: The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Papacy from St. Peter to the Present, Thames & Hudson, 2002, p. 54. ISBN 0-500-01798-0.

External links

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Gregory I
Pope
604–606
Succeeded by
Boniface III
606

Year 606 (DCVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. The denomination 606 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

7th century

The 7th century is the period from 601 to 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Common Era. The Muslim conquests began with the unification of Arabia by Muhammad starting in 622. After Muhammad's death in 632, Islam expanded beyond the Arabian Peninsula under the Rashidun Caliphate (632–661) and the Umayyad Caliphate (661–750). The Islamic conquest of Persia in the 7th century led to the downfall of the Sassanid Empire. Also conquered during the 7th century were Syria, Palestine, Armenia, Egypt, and North Africa.

The Byzantine Empire continued suffering setbacks during the rapid expansion of the Muslim Empire.

In the Iberian Peninsula, the 7th century was the Siglo de Concilios, that is, century of councils, referring to the Councils of Toledo.

In China, the Sui dynasty was replaced by the Tang dynasty, which set up its military bases from Korea to Central Asia, and was next to the Umayyad's later. China began to reach its height. Silla allied itself with the Tang Dynasty, subjugating Baekje and defeating Goguryeo to unite the Korean Peninsula under one ruler.

The Asuka period persisted in Japan throughout the 7th century.

Harsha united Northern India, which had reverted to small republics and states after the fall of the Gupta Empire in the 6th century.

Bell tower

A bell tower is a tower that contains one or more bells, or that is designed to hold bells even if it has none. Such a tower commonly serves as part of a church, and will contain church bells, but there are also many secular bell towers, often part of a municipal building, an educational establishment, or a tower built specifically to house a carillon. Church bell towers often incorporate clocks, and secular towers usually do, as a public service.

The Italian term campanile (; Italian pronunciation: [kampaˈniːle]), deriving from the word campana meaning "bell", is synonymous with bell tower; though in English usage Campanile tends to be used to refer to a free standing bell tower. A bell tower may also in some traditions be called a belfry, though this term may also refer specifically to the substructure that houses the bells and the ringers rather than the complete tower.

The tallest free-standing bell tower in the world, 113.2 metres (371 ft) high, is the Mortegliano Bell Tower, in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, Italy.

Blera

Blera is a small town and comune in the northern Lazio region of Italy. It was known during the Middle Ages as Bieda, an evolved form of its ancient name, which was restored in the twentieth century. It is the birthplace of Pope Sabinian; Pope Paschal II was also originally thought to be from here.

It is situated on a long, narrow tongue of rock at the junction of two deep glens.

Byzantine Papacy

The Byzantine Papacy was a period of Byzantine domination of the Roman papacy from 537 to 752, when popes required the approval of the Byzantine Emperor for episcopal consecration, and many popes were chosen from the apocrisiarii (liaisons from the pope to the emperor) or the inhabitants of Byzantine-ruled Greece, Syria, or Sicily. Justinian I conquered the Italian peninsula in the Gothic War (535–554) and appointed the next three popes, a practice that would be continued by his successors and later be delegated to the Exarchate of Ravenna.

With the exception of Pope Martin I, no pope during this period questioned the authority of the Byzantine monarch to confirm the election of the bishop of Rome before consecration could occur; however, theological conflicts were common between pope and emperor in the areas such as monothelitism and iconoclasm.

Greek-speakers from Greece, Syria, and Sicily replaced members of the powerful Roman nobles in the papal chair during this period. Rome under the Greek popes constituted a "melting pot" of Western and Eastern Christian traditions, reflected in art as well as liturgy.

Church bell

A church bell in the Christian tradition is a bell which is rung in a church for a variety of ceremonial purposes, and can be heard outside the building. Traditionally they are used to call worshippers to the church for a communal service, and to announce times of daily prayer, called the canonical hours. They are also rung on special occasions such as a wedding, or a funeral service. In some religious traditions they are used within the liturgy of the church service to signify to people that a particular part of the service has been reached. The ringing of church bells, in the Christian tradition, was also believed to drive out demons.The traditional European church bell (see cutaway drawing) used in Christian churches worldwide consists of a cup-shaped metal resonator with a pivoted clapper hanging inside which strikes the sides when the bell is swung. It is hung within a steeple or belltower of a church or religious building, so the sound can reach a wide area. Such bells are either fixed in position ("hung dead") or hung from a pivoted beam (the "headstock") so they can swing to and fro. A rope hangs from a lever or wheel attached to the headstock, and when the bell ringer pulls on the rope the bell swings back and forth and the clapper hits the inside, sounding the bell. Bells that are hung dead are normally sounded by hitting the sound bow with a hammer or occasionally by a rope which pulls the internal clapper against the bell.

A church may have a single bell, or a collection of bells which are tuned to a common scale. They may be stationary and chimed, rung randomly by swinging through a small arc, or swung through a full circle to enable the high degree of control of English change ringing.

Before modern communications, church bells were a common way to call the community together for all purposes, both sacred and secular.

List of popes by country

This page is a list of popes by country of origin. They are listed in chronological order within each section.

As the office of pope has existed for almost two millennia, many of the countries of origin of popes no longer exist, and so they are grouped under their modern equivalents. Popes from Italy are in a separate section, given the very large number of popes from that peninsula.

Papal apocrisiarius

The apocrisiarius or apocrisiary was the legate from the Pope to the Patriarch of Constantinople, circa 452-743, equivalent to the modern nunciature.

Phocas

Phocas (Latin: Flavius Phocas Augustus; Greek: Φωκᾶς, Phokas; c. 547 – 5 October 610) was Byzantine Emperor from 602 to 610. The early life of Phocas is largely unknown, but he rose to prominence in 602, as a leader in the revolt against Emperor Maurice. Phocas captured Constantinople and overthrew Maurice on 23 November 602, and declared himself Byzantine Emperor on the same day. Phocas deeply distrusted the elite of Constantinople, and therefore installed his relatives in high military positions, and brutally purged his opponents. Phocas was an incompetent leader, both of the administration and army, and under him the Byzantine Empire was threatened by multiple enemies, with frequent raids in the Balkans from the Avars and Slavs, and a Sassanid invasion of the eastern provinces. Because of Phocas' incompetence and brutality, the Exarch of Carthage, Heraclius the Elder, rebelled against him. Heraclius the Elder's son, Heraclius, succeeded in taking Constantinople on 5 October 610, and executed Phocas on the same day, before declaring himself the Byzantine Emperor.

Pope Boniface III

Pope Boniface III (Latin: Bonifatius III; d. 12 November 607) was the Pope from 19 February 607 to his death on 12 November that same year. Despite his short time as Pope he made a significant contribution to the organization of the Catholic Church.

Sabinian

Several people had the name Sabinian or Savinian:

Marcus Iunius Rufinus Sabinianus, Roman consul in 155

Gaius Vettius Sabinianus Julius Hospes, Roman consul circa 176

Gaius Vettius Gratus Sabinianus, Roman consul in 221

Gaius Vettius Gratus Atticus Sabinianus, Roman consul in 242

Sabinian of Troyes, a Christian martyr and saint

Sabinian and Potentian, Christian martyrs and saints

Sabinianus, the leader of a revolt against Roman Emperor Gordian III in province of Africa

Sabinianus Magnus, Roman general

Sabinianus (consul 505), consul in 505

Anastasius (consul 517), consul in 517, whose full name was Anastasius Paulus Probus Sabinianus Pompeius

Pope Sabinian

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