Pope Pius VIII

Pope Pius VIII (20 November 1761 – 30 November 1830), born Francesco Saverio Castiglioni, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 31 March 1829 to his death in 1830.

Pius VIII's pontificate was the shortest of the 19th century, and is likely the least remembered. His brief papacy witnessed the Catholic Emancipation in Great Britain in 1829, which he welcomed, and the July Revolution in France in 1830, which he reluctantly accepted. Pius VIII is often remembered for his writings on marriages between Catholics and Protestants in the 1830 encyclical Litteris altero abhinc, in which he declared that a marriage could only be properly blessed if proper provisions had been made to ensure the bringing up of children in the Catholic faith. His death less than two years after his election to the papacy has led to speculation of a possible murder.

Pope

Pius VIII
Bishop of Rome
Pope Pius VIII
Papacy began31 March 1829
Papacy ended30 November 1830
PredecessorLeo XII
SuccessorGregory XVI
Orders
Ordination17 December 1785
by Giuseppe Maria Doria Pamphilj
Consecration17 August 1800
by Giuseppe Maria Doria Pamphilj
Created cardinal8 March 1816
by Pius VII
Personal details
Birth nameFrancesco Saverio Castiglioni
Born20 November 1761
Cingoli, Marche, Papal States
Died30 November 1830 (aged 69)
Quirinal Palace, Rome, Papal States
Previous post
Coat of armsPius VIII's coat of arms
Other popes named Pius

Early life

Francesco Saverio Castiglioni was born in Cingoli, Marche, the third of eight children of Count Ottavio Castiglioni and his wife Sanzia Ghislieri. His baptismal name was recorded as Francesco Saverio Maria Felice. An ancestor of his was Pope Celestine IV. He studied at the Collegio Campana run by the Society of Jesus and, after that, at the University of Bologna where he earned a doctorate in canon law and in civil law in 1785. He was ordained to the priesthood in Rome on 17 December 1785.[1]

He served as the Vicar General of Anagni (1788–90), Fano (1790-97) and Ascoli Piceno (1797-1800).[1]

Episcopate and cardinalate

On 11 August 1800 Castiglioni was appointed Bishop of Montalto. He received episcopal consecration on 17 August in Rome at the Church of Santi Domenico e Sisto. Cardinal Giuseppe Doria Pamphili served as consecrator, assisted by Nicola Buschi and Camillo Campanelli. He refused to swear allegiance to Napoleon or to his client state, the Kingdom of Italy. On 29 July 1808 he was arrested and taken to Milan. Castiglioni was subsequently taken to Pavia, to Mantua, and then to Turin, where he arrived on 10 November 1813. On 18 November he was brought back to Milan. Finally, after Napoleon fell, Castiglioni returned to his diocese on 16 June 1814.[1] He was praised by Pope Pius VII who in 1816 elevated him to the cardinalate as the Cardinal-Priest of Santa Maria in Traspontina. He held various high offices thereafter, including that of Apostolic Penitentiary. He soon became a Cardinal-Bishop of the suburbicarian see of Frascati.

Castiglioni was considered a front-runner in the conclave of 1823. He was known to be close to Pius VII, who often referred to Castiglioni as "Pius VIII."[2] However, he failed to gain the necessary votes, in part due to controversy surrounding an alliance between him and another favorite, Secretary of State Ercole Consalvi. Annibale Cardinal della Genga was elected instead, and he took the name of Pope Leo XII.

Papacy

Papal styles of
Pope Pius VIII
C o a Pio VIII
Reference styleHis Holiness
Spoken styleYour Holiness
Religious styleHoly Father
Posthumous styleNone

Election

After the death of Pope Leo XII in 1829, Castiglioni was again considered to be a major candidate, though was questioned due to his frail health. Despite these concerns, he was elected as pope in the papal conclave of 1829. Given that Pope Pius VII had referred to him as Pius VIII, it seemed only suitable that it was the pontifical name that he chose. He was crowned on 5 April 1829 by Cardinal Giuseppe Albani.[1]

Modernism and Biblical translations

As Pope Pius VIII, he initiated some reforms in the Papal States. On 24 May 1829 he issued an encyclical, Traditi humilitati. Regarding religious pluralism, he condemned the "foul contrivance of the sophists of this age" that would place Catholicism on par with any other religion. Regarding Bible translations, he wrote in that encyclical:

We must also be wary of those who publish the Bible with new interpretations contrary to the Church's laws. They skillfully distort the meaning by their own interpretation. They print the Bibles in the vernacular and, absorbing an incredible expense, offer them free even to the uneducated. Furthermore, the Bibles are rarely without perverse little inserts to ensure that the reader imbibes their lethal poison instead of the saving water of salvation.[3]

On 25 March 1830, in the brief Litteris altero, he condemned the masonic secret societies and modernist biblical translations. Pius VIII accepted the situation on mixed marriages between Protestants and Catholics in Germany, but he opposed changes in Ireland and Poland, which were still strongly Catholic. In Litteris altero abhinc, he declared that a mixed marriage could only be blessed by a priest if proper promises had been made to educate the children of the marriage as Catholics.[4]

Other activities

Pope Pius VIII in St. Peter's on the Sedia Gestatoria
1829 painting by Horace Vernet of Pius VIII in the Sedia gestatoria

His brief pontificate saw the Catholic Emancipation in the United Kingdom and the July Revolution in France, which occurred in 1829 and 1830, respectively. Pius VIII recognised Louis Philippe I (1830–48) as French king and allowed him to use the French king's customary title "Roi Très Chretien," which means "His Most Christian Majesty."[5]

Pius VIII also held three consistories in which he elevated a total of six men into the cardinalate. He held these ceremonies on 27 July 1829, 15 March 1830 and 5 July 1830.[6]

He canonized no saints during his brief pontificate but he beatified two individuals. On 23 December 1829 he beatified Benincasa da Montepulciano, and on 4 March 1830 he beatified Chiara Gambacorti. In 1830 Pius VIII proclaimed Saint Bernard of Clairvaux a Doctor of the Church.

Of remarkable importance to the future is a letter of his to a French bishop, in which he allowed the taking of moderate interest (under the principle of foregoing a profit by investing the lent capital; see Vix pervenit for the discussion of the topic).

Being, at that time, head of the Roman State, he remained popular for decades for removing the so-called cancelletti (grids) from the taverns, which Leo XII had ordered to be put there to hinder the consumption of wine unless accompanied by a meal. A poem was written about him that ran thus: "Allor che il sommo Pio / comparve innanzi a Dio / gli domandò: Che hai fatto? / Rispose: Nient'ho fatto. / Corresser gli angeletti: / Levò i cancelletti." (Which is approximately in English: At the time when the highest Pius / approached God in the highest / He asked him: What have you got done? / He answered: "There's nothing I've got done." / But the angels present knew better: / "He cancelled the cancelletter".)[7]

Health and death

Monument to Pope Pius VIII
Monument in Saint Peter's Basilica

Pius VIII was in very poor health during most of his papacy. He became very ill in early November 1830, developing fistulas on his neck and knee while his entire body became covered with pustules, which the doctors were able to manage by 15 November. Pius VIII became seriously ill on 23 November and had difficulties in breathing for the following three nights until being given the Viaticum on 28 November and the Extreme Unction later that day.[5][8] He died on 30 November 1830 at the age of 69 in the Quirinal Palace in Rome.

Certain theories have emerged suggesting that Pius VIII was poisoned, but no proof has been found to verify this claim.[5] Cardinal Camillo di Pietro gave the funeral oration for the late pope, before the cardinals entered the conclave to choose a successor. Pius VIII was succeeded by Pope Gregory XVI.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d "CASTIGLIONI, Francesco Saverio (1761-1830)". The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church. Retrieved 11 February 2014.
  2. ^ Pirie, Valérie. LEO XII (DELLA GENGA) Pickle Pushing. Web. Retrieved 28 February 2016.
  3. ^ "TRADITI HUMILITATI (On His Program For The Pontificate): Pope Pius VIII". Eternal Word Television Network. Retrieved 16 February 2016.
  4. ^ "Pope Pius VIII". New Advent. Retrieved 16 February 2016.
  5. ^ a b c "Papal Profile: Pope Pius VIII". The Mad Monarchist. 4 June 2012. Retrieved 20 February 2016.
  6. ^ Miranda, Salvador. Consistories for the creation of Cardinals: 19th Century (1800-1903) The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church. Web. Retrieved 16 February 2016.
  7. ^ As represented in one of the books of the Concerto Romano cycle.
  8. ^ "Sede Vacante 1830-1831". 15 August 2015. Retrieved 20 January 2019.

Literature

External links

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Francesco Antonio Marcucci
Bishop of Montalto
11 August 1800 – 8 March 1816
Succeeded by
Pietro Paolo Mazzichi
Preceded by
Carlo Bellisomi
Bishop of Cesena
8 March 1816 – 4 August 1821
Succeeded by
Antonio Maria Cadolini
Preceded by
Michele di Pietro
Major Penitentiary of Sacred Apostolic Penitentiary
4 August 1821 – 31 March 1829
Succeeded by
Emmanuele De Gregorio
Preceded by
Leo XII
Pope
31 March 1829 – 30 November 1830
Succeeded by
Gregory XVI
1829 papal conclave

The papal conclave of 1829 to elect a successor to Pope Leo XII after his death on 10 February 1829 began on 24 February 1829.

It took a long time for the conclave to elect a new pope due to conflict between secular governments concerning who should be elected. Cardinal Emmanuele De Gregorio was the proposed candidate of the pro-French faction and the zelanti (conservative cardinals), whilst Bartolomeo Pacca was proposed by the more moderate cardinals but was not accepted by the French government of the Bourbon Restoration period. At the time, France was governed by Charles X and Prime Minister Jean Baptiste Gay, vicomte de Martignac. Pacca was also seen by many in the conclave as being too gentle to be an effective Pope.

1830–31 papal conclave

The papal conclave of 1830–31, was held commencing 14 December 1830 after the death of Pope Pius VIII. It did not conclude until the 2 February 1831 election of Mauro Alberto Cappellari as Pope Gregory XVI.

Benedetto Barberini

Benedetto Barberini (22 October 1788 – 10 April 1863) was a Catholic Cardinal and Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals.

Benincasa da Montepulciano

Blessed Benincasa da Montepulciano (1375 - 9 May 1426) was an Italian Roman Catholic professed religious from the Servite Order. He lived as a hermit in Siena his entire life since he joined the order as a teenager and dedicated himself to a quiet life of servitude to God in contemplation despite still receiving visitors and orders from his superiors.His beatification received formal confirmation on 23 December 1829 once Pope Pius VIII issued formal approval to the late friar's enduring and local 'cultus' - or popular veneration.

Bernard of Clairvaux

Bernard of Clairvaux, O.Cist (Latin: Bernardus Claraevallensis; 1090 – 20 August 1153) was a French abbot and a major leader in the reform of Benedictine monasticism that caused the formation of the Cistercian order.

"...He was sent to found a new abbey at an isolated clearing in a glen known as the Val d'Absinthe, about 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) southeast of Bar-sur-Aube. According to tradition, Bernard founded the monastery on 25 June 1115, naming it Claire Vallée, which evolved into Clairvaux. There Bernard would preach an immediate faith, in which the intercessor was the Virgin Mary." In the year 1128, Bernard attended the Council of Troyes, at which he traced the outlines of the Rule of the Knights Templar, which soon became the ideal of Christian nobility.

On the death of Pope Honorius II on 13 February 1130, a schism broke out in the Church. King Louis VI of France convened a national council of the French bishops at Étampes in 1130, and Bernard was chosen to judge between the rivals for pope. By the end of 1131, the kingdoms of France, England, Germany, Portugal, Castile, and Aragon supported Pope Innocent II; however, most of Italy, southern France, and Sicily, with the Latin patriarchs of Constantinople, Antioch, and Jerusalem supported Antipope Anacletus II. Bernard set out to convince these other regions to rally behind Innocent.

In 1139, Bernard assisted at the Second Council of the Lateran. He subsequently denounced the teachings of Peter Abelard to the pope, who called a council at Sens in 1141 to settle the matter. Bernard soon saw one of his disciples elected Pope Eugene III. Having previously helped end the schism within the church, Bernard was now called upon to combat heresy. In June 1145, Bernard traveled in southern France and his preaching there helped strengthen support against heresy. He preached at the Council of Vézelay (1146) to recruit for the Second Crusade.

After the Christian defeat at the Siege of Edessa, the pope commissioned Bernard to preach the Second Crusade. The last years of Bernard's life were saddened by the failure of the crusaders, the entire responsibility for which was thrown upon him. Bernard died at the age of 63, after 40 years as a monk. He was the first Cistercian placed on the calendar of saints, and was canonized by Pope Alexander III on 18 January 1174. In 1830 Pope Pius VIII bestowed upon Bernard the title "Doctor of the Church".

Cardinals created by Pius VIII

Pius VIII (r. 1829–1830) created six new cardinals in three consistories.

Carlo Gritti Morlacchi

Carlo Gritti Morlacchi (1777–1852) was the Bishop of Bergamo from 1831 to 1852.

Castiglioni

Castiglioni is an Italian surname. People with this surname include:

Giannino Castiglioni (1884–1971), Italian artist

Achille Castiglioni (1918–2002), Italian industrial designer

Pier Giacomo Castiglioni (1913–1968), Italian industrial designerFrancesco Saverio Castiglioni (1761–1830), Pope Pius VIII

Goffredo da Castiglione / Godfrey Castiglioni (died 1241), Pope Celestine IV

St. Buono Castiglioni (818–822), Bishop of Milan

St. Honoratus Castiglioni (568–572), Bishop of MilanArturo Castiglioni (1874–1952), Italian-American medical historian

Camillo Castiglioni (1879–1961), Austrian financier and banker

Consuelo Castiglioni, b. 1959, Chilean-Italian fashion designer

Luis Alberto Castiglioni Soria, former vice president of Paraguay

Niccolò Castiglioni (1932–1996), Italian composer and pianist

Charles Januarius Acton

Charles Januarius Edward Acton was an English cardinal born at Naples, 6 March 1803; died at Naples, 23 June 1847.He was the second son of Sir John Francis Acton, 6th Baronet. The family, a cadet branch of the Actons of Aldenham Park, near Bridgnorth, in Shropshire, had settled in Naples some time before his birth. His father was first minister of the Kingdom of Naples when he succeeded to the family estate and title through the death of his cousin, Sir Richard Acton, 5th Baronet. The Cardinal's education was English, as he and his elder brother were sent to England on their father's death in 1811 to a school near London kept by the Abbé Quéqué. They were then sent to Westminster School, with the understanding that their religion was not to be interfered with. Yet, they not only were sent to this Protestant school, but they had a Protestant clergyman as tutor.In 1819, they went on to Magdalene College, Cambridge. After this strange schooling for a future cardinal, Charles went to Rome when he was twenty and entered the Academia Ecclesiastica, where ecclesiastics intending to be candidates for public offices receive a special training. An essay of his attracted the attention of the Secretary of State, della Somaglia, and Pope Leo XII made him a chamberlain and attaché to the Paris Nunciature, where he had the best opportunity to become acquainted with diplomacy.

Pope Pius VIII recalled him and named him vice-legate, granting him choice of any of the four legations over which cardinals presided. He chose Bologna as affording most opportunity for improvement. He left there at the close of Pius VIII's brief pontificate, and went to England, in 1829, to marry his sister to Sir Richard Throckmorton. Pope Gregory XVI made him assistant judge in the Civil Court of Rome. In 1837 he was made Auditor to the Apostolic Chamber, the highest Roman dignity after the cardinalate. Probably this was the first time it was even offered to a foreigner. Acton declined it, but was commanded to retain it. He was proclaimed Cardinal-Priest, with the title of Santa Maria della Pace, in 1842; having been created nearly three years previously. His strength, never very great, began to decline, and a severe attack of ague made him seek rest and recuperation, first at Palermo and then at Naples, but without avail, for he died in the latter city. His sterling worth was little known through his modesty and humility. In his youth his musical talent and genial wit supplied much innocent gaiety, but the pressure of serious responsibilities and the adoption of a spiritual life somewhat subdued its exercise.

His judgment and legal ability were such that advocates of the first rank said that were they to know his view of a case they could tell how it would be decided. When he communicated anything in writing, Pope Gregory used to say he never had occasion to read it more than once. He was selected as interpreter in the interview which the Pope had with the Czar Nicholas I of Russia. The Cardinal never said anything about this except that when he had interpreted the Pope's first sentence the Czar said: "It will be agreeable to me, if your Eminence will act as my interpreter, also." After the conference Cardinal Acton, by request of the Pope, wrote out a minute account of it; but he never permitted it to be seen. The King of Naples urged him earnestly to become Archbishop of Naples, but he inexorably refused. His charities were unbounded. He once wrote from Naples that he actually tasted the distress which he sought to solace. He may be said to have died in the 'wealth' of willing poverty.

Chiara Gambacorti

Blessed Chiara Gambacorti (1362 - 17 April 1420) – born Vittoria – was an Italian Roman Catholic professed religious from the Order of Preachers. Gambacorti was born to rich merchants and was left a widow after a brief marriage. She escaped a second marriage after becoming a professed religious despite her father's fierce resistance.Her beatification received ratification from Pope Pius VIII on 4 March 1830 after her local 'cultus' received confirmation.

Cingoli

Cingoli is a town and comune of the Marches, Italy, in the province of Macerata, about 27 kilometres (17 mi) by road from the town of Macerata. It is the birthplace of Pope Pius VIII.

Domenico de Simone

Domenico de Simone (29 November 1768–9 November 1837) was an Italian cardinal. He was part of the Roman Curia.

He was born in Benevento and died in Rome.

He was made a cardinal in March 1830 by Pope Pius VIII and took part in the 1830–1831 conclave which chose Pope Gregory XVI.

Feast of the Most Holy Redeemer

The Feast of the Most Holy Redeemer was a Catholic liturgical feast. It is celebrated in Venice as the Festa del Redentore. It is also celebrated by the Redemptorists and was celebrated in the City of Rome.

The feast is found only in the special calendar of some dioceses and religious orders, and is celebrated with proper Mass and Office either on the third Sunday of July or on 23 October. In Venice this feast has been observed for more than three centuries with great solemnity. Moroni in his "Dizionario" gives some interesting data concerning the origin of this feast. In 1576 a plague broke out in Venice which in a few days carried off thousands of victims. To avert this scourge the Senate vowed to erect a splendid temple to the Redeemer of mankind, and to offer therein each year on the third Sunday of July public and solemn services of thanksgiving. Scarcely had the plague ceased when they began to fulfil their vow. The church was designed by the famous Andrea Palladio, and the corner-stone was laid by the Patriarch Trevisan on 3 May, 1577. The celebrated painters Paolo Veronese and Jacopo Tintoretto decorated the interior. The church was consecrated in 1592, and, at the urgent solicitations of Pope Gregory XIII, placed in charge of the Capuchin Fathers.

By concession of Pope Benedict XIV, dated 8 March, 1749, the Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer solemnizes this feast as a double of the first class with an octave on the third Sunday of July. The same congregation also keeps the feast as a greater double on 23 October and 25 February, and has, besides, the privilege of reciting once a month the votive office of the Most Holy Redeemer. In Rome also Pope Pius VIII introduced the feast and by a Decree of 8 May, 1830, the Sacred Congregation of Rites assigned it to 23 October. The characteristics of the Mass and Office are joy and gratitude for the ineffable graces and benefits of the Redemption. This appears especially from the Introit "Gaudens gaudebo", from the antiphons of Lauds "Cantate Domino", from the Epistle of the Mass, taken from St. Paul to the Ephesians, (chapter 1), "Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, Who hath blessed us with spiritual blessings . . . in Christ". For this reason white is the colour of the vestments, and not red, as in the Mass of the Passion.

Ferdinando Mattei

Ferdinando Mattei (24 July 1761 – 14 July 1829) was a Maltese prelate who was appointed bishop of Malta in 1807 and Archbishop of Rhodes (before the year 1823).Mattei was born in Senglea Malta on July 24, 1761. After being ordained priest, Mattei was appointed as one of the knights of St John's Conventual Chaplains because of the high regard they had for him. After the knights were expelled from the island by the French, Mattei worked with the Maltese and avoided any contact with the French. After the French left Malta the British looked with favor upon him.In 1803 Mattei was appointed as a Monsignor of the Cathedral and on 23 December 1805 Pope Pius VIII appointed him as titular Bishop of Pafo. This entitled the new bishop to help Bishop Labini in running the diocese. In 1818 he ordained bishop Publio Maria Sant the Titular Bishop of Laranda. Two years later Bishop Mattei was himself appointed as the new bishop of Malta after the death of Bishop Labini. He was opposed by Francesco Saverio Caruana who himself wanted to be bishop of Malta. Mattei died on July 14, 1829, ten days before his 68th birthday, and Caruana would eventually succeed him.

Pietro Tenerani

Pietro Tenerani (11 November 1789 – 16 December 1869) was an Italian sculptor of the Neoclassic style.

Pope Pius

There have been 12 Roman Catholic Popes named Pius:

Pope Pius I (c. 140–154; officially listed as 142/146 – 157/161)

Pope Pius II (1458–1464)

Pope Pius III (1503)

Pope Pius IV (1559–1565)

Pope Pius V (1566–1572)

Pope Pius VI (1775–1799)

Pope Pius VII (1800–1823)

Pope Pius VIII (1829–1830)

Pope Pius IX (1846–1878)

Pope Pius X (1903–1914)

Pope Pius XI (1922–1939)

Pope Pius XII (1939–1958)There has been 1 traditionalist Roman Catholic antipope named Pius:

Antipope Pius XIII (1998–2009)Other uses of the papal name Pius include:

In the Babylon 5 science fiction saga, Pius XV is a fictional early 22nd century Pope of the Roman Catholic Church. Pius XV was featured in the novel Dark Genesis and mentioned in The Glass Bead Game.

Angels & Demons by Dan Brown opens with the death of Pope Pius XVI, which triggers the events described in the book.

In the series The Young Pope, the protagonist is named Pope Pius XIII.

Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Mobile

The Archdiocese of Mobile (Latin: Archidioecesis Mobiliensis) is a Roman Catholic archdiocese comprising the lower 28 counties of Alabama. It is the metropolitan seat of the Province of Mobile, which includes the suffragan bishopric sees of the Diocese of Biloxi, the Diocese of Jackson, and the Diocese of Birmingham in Alabama. The Archbishop of Mobile is the pastor of the Cathedral Basilica of the Immaculate Conception located in Mobile, Alabama.

As of 2004, it contained 65,588 Roman Catholics from a population of just over 1.65 million, and was approximately 4% Roman Catholic. Most of the archdiocese's Catholic population lives in the Mobile area - 46,503 as of 2000 - and, as a result, the Mobile area is considerably more Catholic than the archdiocese at large. These numbers are based solely on parish membership lists; many Catholics in the area do not formally register with a parish, while many children are often not included in parish lists.

St. Mary of Sakızağaç Cathedral, Istanbul

The St. Mary of Sakızağaç Cathedral (Turkish: Sakızağaç Kutsal Meryem Ana Katedralı ) also called Surp Asdvadzadzin, or the Armenian catholic Cathedral of Istanbul Is the name given to a religious building belonging to the Catholic Church that follows the Armenian rite in full communion with the Pope in Rome, which is located in the city of Istanbul, the largest in the Eurasian country of Turkey. Not to be confused With the other two Catholic cathedrals in that same locality, the Cathedral of the Holy Spirit (Saint Esprit Kilisesi), which follows the Latin Rite and the cathedral of a Greek-Catholic rite (Ayatriada Rum Katoliki Kilise').

It is the main temple of the Archieparchia Armenian catholic of Istanbul (Archieparchia Constantinopolitana Armenorum) that was created in 1830 by the bull "Quod jamdiu" of Pope Pius VIII.

It is under the pastoral responsibility of Bishop Lévon Boghos Zékiyan.

Traditi humilitati

Traditi humilitati is a papal encyclical issued by Pope Pius VIII in 1829. It laid out the program for his pontificate. Although it does not explicitly mention Freemasonry, it has been cited by later Church documents on the subject because it condemned those "who think that the portal of eternal salvation opens for all from any religion".Regarding religious pluralism, Pius VIII condemned the "foul contrivance of the sophists of this age" that would place Catholicism on par with any other religion. Regarding Bible translations, he wrote:

We must also be wary of those who publish the Bible with new interpretations contrary to the Church's laws. They skillfully distort the meaning by their own interpretation. They print the Bibles in the vernacular and, absorbing an incredible expense, offer them free even to the uneducated. Furthermore, the Bibles are rarely without perverse little inserts to ensure that the reader imbibes their lethal poison instead of the saving water of salvation.

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