Pope Pius V

Pope Pius V (17 January 1504 – 1 May 1572), born Antonio Ghislieri (from 1518 called Michele Ghislieri, O.P.), was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 8 January 1566 to his death in 1572. He is venerated as a saint of the Catholic Church.[2] He is chiefly notable for his role in the Council of Trent, the Counter-Reformation, and the standardization of the Roman rite within the Latin Church. Pius V declared Thomas Aquinas a Doctor of the Church.[3][4]

As a cardinal, Ghislieri gained a reputation for putting orthodoxy before personalities, prosecuting eight French bishops for heresy. He also stood firm against nepotism, rebuking his predecessor Pope Pius IV to his face when he wanted to make a 13-year-old member of his family a cardinal and subsidize a nephew from the papal treasury.[5]

By means of the papal bull of 1570, Regnans in Excelsis, Pius V excommunicated Elizabeth I of England for heresy and persecution of English Catholics during her reign. He also arranged the formation of the Holy League, an alliance of Catholic states to combat the advancement of the Ottoman Empire in Eastern Europe. Although outnumbered, the Holy League famously defeated the Ottomans at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571. Pius V attributed the victory to the intercession of the Blessed Virgin Mary and instituted the feast of Our Lady of Victory.[6] Biographers report that as the Battle of Lepanto ended, Pius rose and went over to a window, where he stood gazing toward the East. "...[L]ooking at the sky, he cried out, 'A truce to business; our great task at present is to thank God for the victory which He has just given the Christian army'."[5]

Pope Saint

Pius V
Bishop of Rome
Papa Pio V
Papacy began7 January 1566
Papacy ended1 May 1572
PredecessorPius IV
SuccessorGregory XIII
Orders
Ordination1528
by Innocenzo Cybo
Consecration14 September 1556
by Giovanni Michele Saraceni
Created cardinal15 March 1557
by Pope Paul IV
Personal details
Birth nameAntonio Ghislieri
Born17 January 1504
Bosco, Duchy of Milan
Died1 May 1572 (aged 68)
Rome, Papal States
Previous post
MottoUtinam dirigantur viæ meæ ad custodiendas justificationes tuas (O that my ways may be directed to keep thy justifications)[1]
Coat of armsPius V's coat of arms
Sainthood
Feast day
Venerated inCatholic Church
Beatified1 May 1672
by Pope Clement X
Canonized22 May 1712
by Pope Clement XI
Attributes
Patronage
Other popes named Pius

Biography

Early life

Antonio Ghislieri was born 17 January 1504 in Bosco in the Duchy of Milan (now Bosco Marengo in the province of Alessandria,[7] Piedmont), Italy. At the age of fourteen he entered the Dominican Order, taking the name Michele, passing from the monastery of Voghera to that of Vigevano, and thence to Bologna. Ordained priest at Genoa in 1528, he was sent by his order to Pavia, where he lectured for sixteen years. At Parma he advanced thirty propositions in support of the papal chair and against the Protestant Reformation.

He became master of novices and was on several occasions elected prior of more than one Dominican priory. During a time of great moral laxity, he insisted on discipline, and strove to develop the practice of the monastic virtues. He fasted, did penance, passed long hours of the night in meditation and prayer, traveled on foot without a cloak in deep silence, or only speaking to his companions of the things of God. As his reformist zeal provoked resentment, he was compelled to return to Rome in 1550, where, after having been employed in several inquisitorial missions, he was elected to the commissariat of the Holy Office.

In 1556 he was made Bishop of Sutri by Pope Paul IV and was selected as inquisitor of the faith in Milan and Lombardy. In 1557 he was made a cardinal and named inquisitor general for all Christendom.[5] His defense of Bartolomé Carranza, Archbishop of Toledo, who had been suspected of heresy by the Spanish Inquisition, earned him a rebuff from the Pope.[8]

Under Pope Pius IV (1559–65) he became bishop of Mondovi in Piedmont. Frequently called to Rome, he displayed his unflinching zeal in all the affairs on which he was consulted. Thus he offered an insurmountable opposition to Pius IV when the latter wished to admit Ferdinand de' Medici, then only thirteen years old, into the Sacred College. His opposition to the pontiff procured his dismissal from the palace and the abridgment of his authority as inquisitor.[9]

Papal election

Before Michele Ghislieri could return to his episcopate, Pope Pius IV died. On 8 January 1566, Ghislieri, with the influential backing of Charles Borromeo, was elected to the papal throne, taking the name Pope Pius V.[7] He was crowned ten days later, on his 62nd birthday by the protodeacon.

Cardinal Borromeo wrote to the Portuguese Cardinal Henrique six weeks following the conclave where he recalled the election of the new pope. The cardinal referred to having "a high esteem for him on account of his singular holiness and zeal" and saw these qualities as a signal that he would make a good pope "to the great satisfaction of all". On 4 January, a courier from Spain arrived prompting rumors that King Philip II endorsed Cardinal Ghislieri, giving Borromeo and his allies the chance to capitalize on the confusion. This led to an increase in votes for Ghislieri as the cardinals conferred with each other, leading to the election of the new pope in the afternoon of 8 January.[10]

Pontificate

Papal styles of
Pope Pius V
C o a Pio V
Reference styleHis Holiness
Spoken styleYour Holiness
Religious styleHoly Father
Posthumous styleSaint

His pontificate saw him dealing with internal reform of the Church, the spread of Protestant doctrines in the West, and Turkish armies advancing from the East.

Church discipline

Aware of the necessity of restoring discipline and morality at Rome to ensure success without, he at once proceeded to reduce the cost of the papal court after the manner of the Dominican Order to which he belonged, compel residence among the clergy, regulate inns, and assert the importance of the ceremonial in general and the liturgy of the Mass in particular.

Three national synods were held during his pontificate at Naples under Alfonso Cardinal Caraffa (whose family had, after inquiry, been reinstated by Pius V), at Milan under Saint Charles Borromeo, and at Machim.In his wider policy, which was characterised throughout by an effective stringency, the maintenance and increase of the efficacy of the Inquisition and the enforcement of the canons and decrees of the Council of Trent had precedence over other considerations.[5]

Liturgy

Accordingly, in order to implement a decision of that council, he standardised the Holy Mass by promulgating the 1570 edition of the Roman Missal. Pius V made this Missal mandatory throughout the Latin rite of the Catholic Church, except where a Mass liturgy dating from before 1370 AD was in use.[11][12] This form of the Mass remained essentially unchanged for 400 years until Pope Paul VI's revision of the Roman Missal in 1969–70, after which it has become widely known as the Tridentine Mass;[13] use of the last pre-1969 edition of the Missal, that by Pope John XXIII in 1962, is permitted without limitation for private celebration of the Mass and, since July 2007, is allowed also for public use, as laid down in the motu proprio Summorum Pontificum of Pope Benedict XVI. Some continue to use even earlier editions, but without authorisation.

Thomism

Pius V, who had declared Thomas Aquinas the fifth Latin Doctor of the Church in 1567, commissioned the first edition of Aquinas' opera omnia, often called the editio Piana in honor of the Pope. This work was produced in 1570 at the studium generale of the Dominican Order at Santa Maria sopra Minerva, which would be transformed into the College of Saint Thomas in 1577, and again into the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum in the 20th century.[14]

Holy League

Saint Pius V arranged the forming of the Holy League against the Ottoman Empire, as the result of which the Battle of Lepanto (7 October 1571) was won by the combined fleet under Don John of Austria. It is attested in his canonisation that he miraculously knew when the battle was over, himself being in Rome at the time.[15] Pius V also helped financially in the construction of Valletta, Malta's capital city, by sending his military engineer Francesco Laparelli to design the fortification walls. (A bronze bust of Pius V was installed at the Gate of Valletta in 1892.) To commemorate the victory, he instituted the Feast of Our Lady of Victory.

The Reformation

By the time Pius V ascended the throne, Protestantism had swept over all of England and Scotland, as well as half of Germany, the Netherlands, and parts of France; only Spain remained unswervingly Catholic. Pius V was thus determined to prevent its insurgency into Italy—which he believed would come via the Alps and Milan.

Huguenots

Pius V recognized attacks on papal supremacy in the Catholic Church and was desirous of limiting their advancement. In France, where his influence was stronger, he took several measures to oppose the Protestant Huguenots. He directed the dismissal of Cardinal Odet de Coligny[16] and seven bishops, nullified the royal edict tolerating the extramural services of the Reformers, introduced the Roman catechism, restored papal discipline, and strenuously opposed all compromise with the Huguenot nobility.

Elizabeth I

His response to the Queen Elizabeth I of England assuming governance of the Church of England included support of the imprisoned Mary, Queen of Scots and her supporters in their attempts to take over England "ex turpissima muliebris libidinis servitute" "from a most sordid slavery to a woman's voracity". A brief English Catholic uprising, the Rising of the North, had just failed. Pius then issued a Papal bull, Regnans in Excelsis ("Reigning on High"), dated 27 April 1570, that declared Elizabeth I a heretic and released her subjects from their allegiance to her.[17] It was the official decree of excommunication on her and it also declared an ipso facto excommunication on anyone who did not deny allegiance to her. In response, Elizabeth, who had thus far tolerated Catholic worship in private, now actively started persecuting them for treason.

Character and policy

Scipione Pulzone - Pius V
Portrait by Scipione Pulzone, c. 1578

As a young man, Michele Ghislieri was eager to join the inquisition. Under Paul IV, whom popular historian John Julius Norwich calls the most hated pope of the 16th century,[18] he rose to inquisitor general, and from there ascended to the papacy. As Pius V, he personally attended all sessions of the Roman inquisition. According to Norwich, Ghislieri often stayed to watch as supposed lawbreakers and heretics were tortured.[19]

Upon assuming the papacy, Ghislieri immediately started to get rid of many of the extravagant luxuries then prevalent in the court. One of his first acts was to dismiss the papal court jester, and no pope after had one. He forbade horse racing in St. Peter's Square. Severe sanctions were imposed against blasphemy, adultery, and sodomy. These laws quickly made Pius V the subject of Roman hatred; he was accused of trying to turn the city into a vast monastery. He was not a hypocrite: in day-to-day life Pius V was highly ascetic. He wore a hair shirt beneath the simple habit of a Dominican friar and was often seen in bare feet.[20]

In the time of a great famine in Rome he imported corn at his own expense from Sicily and France; a considerable part of which he distributed among the poor, gratis, and sold the rest to the public below cost.

Papal bulls

Katherine Rinne writes in Waters of Rome[21] that Pius V ordered the construction of public works to improve the water supply and sewer system of the city—a welcome step, particularly in low-lying areas, where typhoid and malaria were inevitable summer visitors.

In 1567 he issued Super prohibitione agitationis Taurorum & Ferarum prohibiting bull-fighting.[22]

Besides "In Coena Domini" (1568) there are several others of note, including his prohibition of quaestuary (February 1567 and January 1570); condemnation of Michael Baius, the heretical Professor of Leuven (1567); reform of the Roman Breviary (July 1568); formal condemnation of homosexual behaviour by the clergy[23] (August 1568); the banishment of the Jews from all ecclesiastical dominions except Rome and Ancona (1569);[24] an injunction against use of the reformed missal (July 1570); the confirmation of the privileges of the Society of Crusaders for the protection of the Inquisition (October 1570); the suppression of the Fratres Humiliati (February 1571); the approbation of the new office of the Blessed Virgin (March 1571); and the enforcement of the daily recitation of the Canonical Hours (September 1571).

Papal garments

Pius V is often credited with the origin of the Pope's white garments, supposedly because after his election Pius continued to wear his white Dominican habit. However, many of his predecessors also wore white with a red mozzetta, as can be seen on many paintings where neither they nor Pius is wearing a cassock, but thin, wide, white garments.

An article by Agostino Paravicini Bagliani on L'Osservatore Romano of 31 August 2013 states that the earliest document that speaks explicitly of the Pope wearing white is the Ordo XIII, a book of ceremonies compiled in about 1274 under Pope Gregory X. From that date on, the books of ceremonies speak ever more explicitly of the Pope as wearing a red mantle, mozzetta, camauro and shoes, and a white cassock and stockings.[25][26]

Canonizations

Pius V canonized one saint during his reign: Ivo of Chartres on 18 December 1570.

Consistories

Pius V created 21 cardinals in three consistories including Felice Piergentile who would become Pope Sixtus V.

Death and canonization

Saint Pope

Pius V
Portrait of Pope Pius V by Palma il Giovane
Bishop of Rome
BornAntonio Ghislieri
January 17, 1504
Bosco, Duchy of Milan
DiedMay 1, 1572
Rome, Papal States
Venerated inCatholic Church
Beatified1 May 1672 by Pope Clement X
Canonized22 May 1712 by Pope Clement XI
Feast30 April (Catholic Church)
5 May (Extraordinary Form)
PatronageValletta, Malta
Bosco Marengo, Italy
Roma-Santa Maria Maggiore01
The body of Pius V in his tomb in Santa Maria Maggiore

Pius V died on 1 May 1572 of what is believed to be cancer. He was buried in the chapel of S. Andrea which was close to the tomb of Pope Pius III, in the Vatican. Although his will requested he be buried in Bosco, Pope Sixtus V built a monument in the chapel of SS. Sacramento in the Liberian basilica. His remains were transferred there on 9 January 1588.

In 1696, the process of Pius V's canonisation was started through the efforts of the Master of the Order of Preachers, Antonin Cloche. He also immediately commissioned a representative tomb from the sculptor Pierre Le Gros the Younger to be erected in the Sistine Chapel of the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore. The pope's body was placed in it in 1698. Pope Pius V was beatified by Pope Clement X in the year 1672,[27] and was later canonized by Pope Clement XI (1700–21) on 22 May 1712.[28][29]

In the following year, 1713, his feast day was inserted in the General Roman Calendar, for celebration on 5 May, with the rank of "Double", the equivalent of "Third-Class Feast" in the General Roman Calendar of 1960, and of its present rank of "Memorial".[30] In 1969 the celebration was moved to 30 April, the day before the anniversary of his death (1 May).

Blessed Cardinal John Henry Newman declared that "St. Pius V was stern and severe, as far as a heart burning and melted with divine love could be so ... Yet such energy and vigour as his were necessary for the times. He was a soldier of Christ in a time of insurrection and rebellion, when in a spiritual sense, martial law was proclaimed."[8]

Pius V head Wiki
Portrait of Pius V by Pierre Le Gros on the tomb

The front of his tomb has a lid of gilded bronze which shows a likeness of the dead pope. Most of the time this is left open to allow the veneration of the saint's remains.

See also

References

  1. ^ Salvatore, Canonici Regolari di Sant'Agostino Congregazione del Santissimo (1730). "Bullarium Canonicorum regularium Rhenanæ congregationis sanctissimi ... - Canonici regolari di sant'Agostino : Congregazione del santissimo Salvatore - Google Books". Retrieved 17 March 2016."R.P.D. Thomae Del Bene clerici regularis, ... De officio S. Inquisitionis ... - Google Books". 1680. Retrieved 17 March 2016."Ps 118:5 VULGATE;DRA - utinam dirigantur viae meae ad - Bible Gateway". Bible Gateway. Retrieved 17 March 2016.
  2. ^ Durant, William ‘Will’; Durant, Ethel ‘Ariel’ (1961), Age of Reason Begins, The Story of Civilisation, 7, Simon & Schuster, pp. 238–39
  3. ^ Thomas Aquinas (1911). "The "Summa Theologica" of St. Thomas Aquinas". 1. New York.
  4. ^ Jan Peil; Irene van Staveren, eds. (1 January 2009). Handbook of Economics and Ethics. Northampton, Massachusetts and Cheltenham, United Kingdom: Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-84542-936-2.
  5. ^ a b c d Lataste, Joseph. "Pope St. Pius V." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 12. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911. 18 July 2016
  6. ^ Aimé Georges Martimort (ed.). The Church at Prayer: The Liturgy and Time. 4. p. 145. ISBN 978-0-8146-1366-5.
  7. ^ a b Fernand Braudel (1995). The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II. 2. University of California Press. p. 1027. ISBN 978-0-520-20330-3.
  8. ^ a b Anderson, Robin (1978). St. Pius V: A Brief History of His Life, Times, Virtues and Miracles. Rockford, IL: TAN. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-89555-068-2.
  9. ^ Alban Butler and Paul Burns (1999). Butler's Lives of the Saints: April. Liturgical Press. p. 220. ISBN 978-0-8146-2380-0.
  10. ^ "Sede Vacante 1565-1566". 26 October 2015. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
  11. ^ Daniel Keyte Sandford; Allan Cunningham Thomas Thompson (1841). The Popular Encyclopedia. p. 842.
  12. ^ Don S. Armentrout; Robert Boak Slocum, eds. (1 January 2000). An Episcopal Dictionary of the Church: A User-Friendly Reference for Episcopalians. ISBN 9780898697018.
  13. ^ Russell B. Shaw (1998). Our Sunday Visitor's Catholic Encyclopedia. p. 872. ISBN 978-0-87973-669-9.
  14. ^ Renzi, Christopher J (2009), In This Light Which Gives Light: A History of the College of St. Albert the Great, p. 42, ISBN 9781883734183, retrieved 24 April 2011
  15. ^ "The Story of Don John of Austria". Nobility.org. 11 October 2010. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
  16. ^ Joseph Mendham (1832). "The life and pontificate of Saint Pius V". 37. London: 54.
  17. ^ Ehler, Sidney Z., Church and State Through the Centuries, (Biblo-Moser, 1988), 180.
  18. ^ Norwich, John Julius (2011). Absolute Monarchs. New York: Random House. pp. 319–20. ISBN 978-1-4000-6715-2.
  19. ^ Norwich, John Julius (2011). Absolute Monarchs. New York: Random House. pp. 319–20. ISBN 978-1-4000-6715-2.
  20. ^ Norwich 2011, p. 319.
  21. ^ Rinne, Katherine (January 2001). Waters of Rome. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-15530-3.
  22. ^ Widener, Michael. "A papal bull against bullfighting", Lillian Law Library, Yale University
  23. ^ "Pio V – Antonio Michele Ghislieri (1504–1572)", Cronologia [Chronology] (in Italian), IT: Leonardo, ...la denuncia del dirum nefas, "l'esecrabile vizio libidinoso"..
  24. ^ Krinsky, Carol Herselle. 1996. Synagogues of Europe: Architecture, History, Meaning. Courier Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-29078-6. p. 118.
  25. ^ "Vatican newspaper examines history of red, white papal garb". Catholic culture. 2 September 2013. ...the first document that mentions the Pope's white cassock dates from 1274.
  26. ^ "From red to white", L'Osservatore Romano, VA, archived from the original on 3 December 2013
  27. ^ Richard P. McBrien (2006). The Pocket Guide to the Popes. Harper Collins. p. 283. ISBN 978-0-06-113773-0.
  28. ^ "Pope Pius V". Catholic Hierarchy. 29 September 2013. Retrieved 26 February 2014.
  29. ^ Corkery, James; Worcester, Thomas (2010). The Papacy Since 1500: From Italian Prince to Universal Pastor. Cambridge University Press. pp. 56–57. ISBN 978-0-521-50987-9.
  30. ^ General Roman Calendar.

Further reading

  • St Pius V, by Robin Anderson, TAN Books and Publishers, Inc, 1973/78. ISBN 0-89555-354-6

External links

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Pius IV
Pope
7 January 1566 – 1 May 1572
Succeeded by
Gregory XIII
1565–66 papal conclave

The papal conclave of 1565–66 (20 December – 7 January) was convened on the death of Pope Pius IV and ended in the election of Pope Pius V.

Andrea Minucci

Andrea Minucci (died 1572) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Archbishop of Zadar (1567–1572).

Consueverunt Romani Pontifices

Consueverunt Romani Pontifices is a papal bull by Pope Pius V issued on September 17th, 1569 on the rosary. This papal bull instituted the essence of the rosary's present configuration.The Pope made it clear that there are two essential elements of the Rosary: vocal prayer and mental prayer.The papal bull refers to the Dominican roots of the Rosary and fact that as a young friar, Pope Pius V had been a member of the Dominican Order:

And so Dominic looked to that simple way of praying and beseeching God, accessible to all and wholly pious, which is called the Rosary, or Psalter of the Blessed Virgin Mary, in which the same most Blessed Virgin is venerated by the angelic greeting repeated one hundred and fifty times, that is, according to the number of the Davidic Psalter, and by the Lord's Prayer with each decade. Interposed with these prayers are certain meditations showing forth the entire life of Our Lord Jesus Christ, thus completing the method of prayer devised by the Fathers of the Holy Roman Church.

In this papal bull Pius V also confirmed the indults and indulgences which his predecessors had granted to those who pray the Rosary.

This 1569 document is distinct from an Apostolic Letter with the same title issued in November 2000, which declared the St. Giles church in Bardejov, Slovakia, a basilica minor.

Francesco Rusticucci

Francesco Rusticucci (died 1587) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Fano (1567–1587) and Bishop of Venosa (1566–1567).

Francisco Andrés de Carvajal

Francisco Andrés de Carvajal, OFM (died August 28, 1577) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as the Archbishop of Santo Domingo (1570–1577) and the third Bishop of Puerto Rico (1568–1570).

Ghislieri College

The Ghislieri College (Italian: Collegio Ghislieri), founded in 1567 by Pope Pius V, is the second most ancient college in Pavia and co-founder of the IUSS, located in Pavia as well.

Collegio Ghislieri is a 450-year-old Italian institution committed to promote University studies on the basis of merit, hosting around 200 pupils (males and females) who attend all faculties in the University of Pavia, offering them logistic and cultural opportunities such as scholarships, lectures, conferences, a 100.000 volumes library (the third one among private libraries in Northern Italy), foreign languages courses. Each year about 40 new students coming from all over the country are selected by public contest. Founded by Pope Pius V (Antonio Ghislieri) in 1567, since 18th century laically managed, nowadays under the High Patronage of the Presidency of the Italian Republic, it is ranked among high qualifying institutions by the Italian Ministry for Education and University. Student upkeep is greatly subsidized by the College as the required fees are proportional to parental income; many places are granted for free. Among its distinguished alumni are Carlo Goldoni and several Italian statesmen, scientists, scholars of the last two centuries.

Giovanni Battista Santorio

Giovanni Battista Santorio or Giovan Battista Santoro (died 29 February, 1592) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Tricarico (1586–1592) and Bishop of Alife (1586–1592).

Giuseppe Pamphilj (bishop of Segni)

Giuseppe Pamphilj (also Giuseppe Panfili or Giuseppe Panphili ) (1525 – 20 November 1581) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Segni (1570–1581).

Holy League (1571)

The Holy League (Latin: Liga Sancta, Spanish: Liga Santa, Italian: Lega Santa) of 1571 was arranged by Pope Pius V and included the major Catholic maritime states in the Mediterranean except France.

It was intended to break the Ottoman Turks' control of the eastern Mediterranean Sea and was formally concluded on 25 May 1571. Its members were:

the Papal States under Pius V,

Habsburg Spain under Philip II (including Naples and Sicily),

the Republic of Venice,

the Republic of Genoa,

the Knights of Malta,

the Grand Duchy of Tuscany and the Order of Saint Stephen under Cosimo I de' Medici,

the Duchy of Savoy under Emmanuel Philibert,

the Duchy of Urbino under Guidobaldo II della Rovere,

the Duchy of Parma under Ottavio Farnese.These states were to have a force of 200 galleys, 100 other ships, 50,000 infantry, 4,500 cavalry and adequate artillery ready by 1 April each year. Don Juan de Austria, illegitimate half-brother of King Philip II of Spain, was designated supreme commander.

The League kept membership open for the Holy Roman Empire, France and Portugal, but none of them joined. The Empire preferred to maintain its truce with Istanbul, while France had an active anti-Spanish alliance with the Ottomans. Portugal had no forces to spare, owing to its heavy engagement in its own Moroccan campaign, its ongoing maritime confrontations with the Ottomans in the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean, and colonial conflicts with the Malaccan and Johorean Sultanates

The League initially assembled a fleet to aid the Venetian defenders of Cyprus which was invaded by Ottoman forces under the command of Lala Mustafa in July 1570, but was too late to prevent the island's capture by the Ottomans.

On 7 October 1571, the League won a decisive victory over the Ottoman fleet at the Battle of Lepanto in the Gulf of Patras.

The fleet of the Holy League in this engagement consisted of 212 warships (206 galleys and 6 galleasses, the modern large galleys developed by Venice) with 1,815 guns and manned by 28,500 infantry. The majority of warships was Venetian (6 galleasses, 109 galleys), the next largest contingent were Spanish (49 galleys, including 26 galleys from Naples, Sicily and other Italian territories), and Genoese (27 galleys), with additional warships from the Papal States (seven galleys), the Order of Saint Stephen from the Grand Duchy of Tuscany (five galleys), the Duchy of Savoy and the Knights of Malta (three galleys each), and some privately owned galleys in Spanish service.

The victory at Lepanto confirmed the de facto division of the Mediterranean, with the eastern half under firm Ottoman control and the western under the Habsburgs and their Italian allies.The following year, as the allied Christian fleet resumed operations, it faced a renewed Ottoman navy of 200 vessels under Kılıç Ali Pasha, but the Ottoman commander actively avoided to engage the allied fleet and headed for the safety of the fortress of Modon. The arrival of the Spanish squadron of 55 ships evened the numbers on both sides and opened the opportunity for a decisive blow, but friction among the Christian leaders and the reluctance of Don John squandered the opportunity.Pius V died on 1 May 1572. The diverging interests of the League members began to show, and the alliance began to unravel.

In 1573, the Holy League fleet failed to sail altogether; instead, Don John attacked and took Tunis, only for it to be retaken by the Ottomans in 1574. Venice, fearing the loss of her Dalmatian possessions and a possible invasion of Friuli, and eager to cut her losses and resume the trade with the Ottoman Empire, initiated unilateral negotiations with the Porte.

The Holy League was disbanded with the peace treaty of 7 March 1573, which concluded the War of Cyprus.

Luis Zapata de Cárdenas

Luis Zapata de Cárdenas, O.F.M. Rec. (1510 – 24 February 1590) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Archbishop of Santafé en Nueva Granada (1570–1590).

Manuel de Mercado Aldrete

Manuel de Mercado Aldrete, O.S.H. (died 1580) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Panamá (1576–1580) and Bishop of Puerto Rico (1570–1576).

Missa sicca

The Missa sicca (Latin for 'dry Mass') was a form of Catholic devotion used in the medieval Catholic Church when a full Mass could not be said, such as for funerals or marriages which were served in the afternoon after a priest had already said Mass earlier that morning. It consisted of all components the Mass except the Offertory, Consecration and Communion.(Durandus, "Rationale", IV, i, 23)

Specific types of Missa sicca included Missa nautica, said at sea in rough weather, and Missa venatoria, said for hunters in a hurry. In some monasteries each priest was also obliged to say a dry Mass after the conventual Mass.

Cardinal Giovanni Bona (Rerum liturg. libr. duo, I, xv) argued against the practice of saying dry Masses. Following the reform of Pope Pius V it gradually disappeared.

Muzio Calini

Muzio Calini (died April 1570) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Archbishop (Personal Title) of Terni (1566–1570) and Archbishop of Zadar (1555–1566).

Pre-Tridentine Mass

Pre-Tridentine Mass refers to the variants of the liturgical rite of Mass in Rome before 1570, when, with his bull Quo primum, Pope Pius V made the Roman Missal, as revised by him, obligatory throughout the Latin-Rite or Western Church, except for those places and congregations whose distinct rites could demonstrate an antiquity of two hundred years or more.The Pope made this revision of the Roman Missal, which included the introduction of the Prayers at the Foot of the Altar and the addition of all that in his Missal follows the Ite missa est, at the request of Council of Trent (1545–63), presented to his predecessor at its final session.Outside Rome before 1570, many other liturgical rites were in use, not only in the East, but also in the West. Some Western rites, such as the Mozarabic Rite, were unrelated to the Roman Rite which Pope Pius V revised and ordered to be adopted generally, and even areas that had accepted the Roman rite had introduced changes and additions. As a result, every ecclesiastical province and almost every diocese had its local use, such as the Use of Sarum, the Use of York and the Use of Hereford in England. In France there were strong traces of the Gallican Rite. With the exception of the relatively few places where no form of the Roman Rite had ever been adopted, the Canon of the Mass remained generally uniform, but the prayers in the "Ordo Missae", and still more the "Proprium Sanctorum" and the "Proprium de Tempore", varied widely.The Pre-Tridentine Mass survived post-Trent in some Anglican and Lutheran areas with some local modification from the basic Roman rite until the time when worship switched to the vernacular. Dates of switching to the vernacular, in whole or in part, varied widely by location. In some Lutheran areas this took three hundred years, as choral liturgies were sung by schoolchildren who were learning Latin.

Quo primum

Quo primum (from the first) is the incipit of an Apostolic constitution in the form of a papal bull issued by Pope Pius V on 14 July 1570. It promulgated the 1570 edition of the Roman Missal, and made its use obligatory throughout the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church, except where there existed a different Mass liturgy of at least two hundred years' standing.

The declared reason for this measure was this: "It is most becoming that there be in the Church... only one rite for the celebration of Mass." However, he made the exception mentioned, which permitted the survival, within limited areas or in celebrations by members of certain religious orders, of Latin liturgical rites other than the Roman Rite, rites such as the Ambrosian and Mozarabic Rites, that of the Diocese of Lyon and certain Catholic Order Rites. Some of these dioceses and religious orders have since decided to adopt the Roman Rite. Others preferred not to avail themselves of the exemption to which they were entitled and instead to adopt the Roman Missal immediately.

Thus, although the bull Quo primum contained expressions such as "Let all everywhere adopt and observe what has been handed down by the Holy Roman Church, the Mother and Teacher of the other Churches, and let Masses not be sung or read according to any other formula than that of this Missal published by Us. This ordinance applies henceforth, now, and forever, throughout all the provinces of the Christian world", exceptions were allowed from the start, and not all priests, even of the Latin Rite were obliged to adopt the Missal of Pius V.In the bull Pope Pius V declared: "By this present Constitution, which will be valid henceforth, now, and forever, We order and enjoin that nothing must be added to Our recently published Missal, nothing omitted from it, nor anything whatsoever be changed within it." And he concluded: "No one whosoever is permitted to alter this notice of Our permission, statute, ordinance, command, precept, grant, indult, declaration, will, decree, and prohibition. Should anyone dare to contravene it, let him know that he will incur the wrath of Almighty God and of the Blessed Apostles Peter and Paul."

By this, he forbade alterations by other authorities, ecclesiastical or civil, or by private individuals. He gives a list of ecclesiastical dignitaries who, he says, may not alter his Missal, even of the level of cardinal ("each and every patriarch, administrator, and all other persons or whatever ecclesiastical dignity they may be, be they even cardinals of the Holy Roman Church, or possessed of any other rank or pre-eminence"), but does not include those of a higher level, that is popes. He himself altered his Missal when, after the victory of Lepanto in the following year, he added to it the feast of Our Lady of Victory. In 1585, Pope Sixtus V restored the feast of the Presentation of the Virgin Mary, which Pope Pius V had removed from the Missal. Only 34 years after the publication of Quo primum, Pope Clement VIII made a general revision of the Roman Missal, as did Pope Urban VIII 30 years later. The custom of placing tabernacles on altars, introduced later, made it necessary to introduce new rituals not in the missal of Pius V.

Reform of the Roman Breviary by Pope Pius X

The Reform of the Roman Breviary by Pope Pius X was promulgated by that Pope with the Apostolic Constitution "Divino Afflatu" of 1 November 1911.

The Roman Breviary is the title of the book obligatorily used for celebrating the Roman Rite Divine Office from the revision of Pope Pius V (Apostolic Constitution Quod a nobis, 9 July 1568) to that by Pope Paul VI (Apostolic Constitution Canticum laudis, 1 November 1970).

Regnans in Excelsis

Regnans in Excelsis ("reigning on high") was a papal bull issued on 25 February 1570 by Pope Pius V declaring "Elizabeth, the pretended Queen of England and the servant of crime", to be a heretic and releasing all her subjects from any allegiance to her, even when they had "sworn oaths to her", and excommunicating any that obeyed her orders.

"We charge and command all and singular the nobles, subjects, peoples and others afore said that they do not dare obey her orders, mandates and laws. Those who shall act to the contrary we include in the like sentence of excommunication."

The bull, written in Latin, is named from its incipit, the first three words of its text, which mean "ruling from on high" (a reference to God). Among the queen's offences, "She has removed the royal Council, composed of the nobility of England, and has filled it with obscure men, being heretics."

Tridentine Calendar

The Tridentine Calendar is the calendar of saints to be honoured in the course of the liturgical year in the official liturgy of the Roman Rite as reformed by Pope Pius V, implementing a decision of the Council of Trent, which entrusted the task to the Pope.

The text of the Tridentine Calendar can be found in the original editions of the Tridentine Roman Breviary and of the Tridentine Roman Missal.Use of both these texts, which included Pius V's revised calendar, was made obligatory throughout the Latin Rite except where other texts of at least two centuries' antiquity were in use, and departures from it were not allowed. The Apostolic Constitution Quod a nobis, which imposed use of the Tridentine Roman Breviary, and the corresponding Apostolic Constitution Quo primum concerning the Tridentine Roman Missal both decreed: "No one whosoever is permitted to alter this letter or heedlessly to venture to go contrary to this notice of Our permission, statute, ordinance, command, precept, grant, indult, declaration, will, decree and prohibition. Should anyone, however, presume to commit such an act, he should know that he will incur the wrath of Almighty God and of the Blessed Apostles Peter and Paul." See the article on Quo primum.

Pius V himself altered his Calendar when, after the victory in 1571 of the battle of Lepanto, he added the feast of Our Lady of Victory. In 1585, Pope Sixtus V restored the feast of the Presentation of the Virgin Mary, which Pope Pius V had removed. See, below, "Some differences in relation to later editions of the Roman calendar".

Vincenzo Ercolano

Vincenzo Ercolano (also Vincenzo Herculani) (1517 – 29 October 1586) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Perugia (1579–1586),Bishop of Imola (1573–1579),

and Bishop of Sarno (1569–1573).

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