He is known for presiding over the final session of the Council of Trent.
|Bishop of Rome|
|Papacy began||25 December 1559|
|Papacy ended||9 December 1565|
|Consecration||20 April 1546|
by Filippo Archinto
|Created cardinal||8 April 1549|
by Pope Paul III
|Birth name||Giovanni Angelo Medici|
|Born||31 March 1499|
Milan, Duchy of Milan
|Died||9 December 1565 (aged 66)|
Rome, Papal States
|Coat of arms|
|Other popes named Pius|
|Papal styles of|
Pope Pius IV
|Reference style||His Holiness|
|Spoken style||Your Holiness|
|Religious style||Holy Father|
After studying at Bologna and acquiring a reputation as a jurist he obtained his doctorate in both canon and civil law on 11 May 1525. Medici went in 1527 to Rome, and as a favourite of Pope Paul III was rapidly promoted to the governorship of several towns, the archbishopric of Ragusa (1545–1553), and the vice-legateship of Bologna.
On the death of Pope Paul IV, he was elected pope on 25 December 1559, taking the name Pius IV, and installed on 6 January 1560. His first public acts of importance were to grant a general pardon to the participants in the riot after the death of his predecessor, and to bring to trial the nephews of his predecessor. One, Cardinal Carlo Carafa, was strangled, and Duke Giovanni Carafa of Paliano, with his nearest associates, was beheaded.
On 18 January 1562 the Council of Trent, which had been suspended by Pope Julius III, was convened by Pius IV for the third and final time. Great skill and caution were necessary to effect a settlement of the questions before it, inasmuch as the three principal nations taking part in it, though at issue with regard to their own special demands, were prepared to unite their forces against the demands of Rome. Pius IV, however, aided by Cardinal Morone and Charles Borromeo, proved himself equal to the emergency, and by judicious management – and concession – brought the council to a termination satisfactory to the disputants and favourable to the pontifical authority. Its definitions and decrees were confirmed by a papal bull ("Benedictus Deus") dated 26 January 1564; and, though they were received with certain limitations by France and Spain, the famous Creed of Pius IV, or Tridentine Creed, became an authoritative expression of the Catholic faith. The more marked manifestations of stringency during his pontificate appear to have been prompted rather than spontaneous, his personal character inclining him to moderation and ease.
Thus, a warning, issued in 1564, summoning Jeanne d'Albret, the Queen of Navarre, before the Inquisition on a charge of Calvinism, was withdrawn by him in deference to the indignant protest of Charles IX of France. In the same year he published a bull granting the use of the cup to the laity of Austria and Bohemia. One of his strongest passions appears to have been that of building, which somewhat strained his resources in contributing to the adornment of Rome (including the new Porta Pia and Via Pia, named after him, and the northern extension (Addizione) of the rione of Borgo), and in carrying on the work of restoration, erection, and fortification in various parts of the ecclesiastical states.
On the other hand, others bemoaned the austere Roman culture during his papacy; Giorgio Vasari in 1567 spoke of a time when "the grandeurs of this place reduced by stinginess of living, dullness of dress, and simplicity in so many things; Rome is fallen into much misery, and if it is true that Christ loved poverty and the City wishes to follow in his steps she will quickly become beggarly...".
Pius IV created 46 cardinals in four consistories during his pontificate, and elevated three nephews to the cardinalate, including Carlo Borromeo. The pope also made Ugo Boncompagni, who would later be elected Pope Gregory XIII, a cardinal.
During the reign of Pius IV, Michelangelo rebuilt the basilica of Santa Maria degli Angeli (in Diocletian's Baths) and the eponymous Villa Pia, now known as Casina Pio IV. in the Vatican Gardens designed by Pirro Ligorio. It is now the headquarters of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences.
Pius IV also ordered public construction to improve the water supply of Rome.
|Catholic Church titles|
25 December 1559 – 9 December 1565
Annibale Saraceni was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Lecce (1560–1591).Antonio Avendaño y Paz
Antonio Avendaño y Paz, O.F.M. or Bishop Antonio de San Miguel Avendaño y Paz (1520 – 7 November 1590) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Quito (1588–1590) and Bishop of La Imperial (1564–1588).Antonio Giustiniani (archbishop of Lipari)
Antonio Giustiniani, O.P (died 1571) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Archbishop (Personal Title) of Lipari (1564–1571) and Archbishop of Naxos (1562–1564).Archangelo de' Bianchi
Archangelo de' Bianchi (October 4, 1516 – January 18, 1580) was an Italian Roman Catholic cardinal and bishop.Benedictus Deus (Pius IV)
Benedictus Deus is a papal bull written by Pius IV in 1564 which ratified all decrees and definitions of the Council of Trent. It maintains that the decrees of the Council of Trent can be interpreted solely by the Papal office itself; and enjoins strict obedience upon all Catholics, forbidding, under pain of excommunication, all unauthorized interpretation. This was seen by Church contemporaries of Pius IV as an attempt to strengthen the influence of the Papacy against the rise of Conciliarism exemplified by the Council of Trent itself.
There is a more minor bull of the same title written by Benedict XII in 1336.Bernardo Salviati
Bernardo Salviati (17 February 1508 – 6 May 1568) was an Italian condottiero and Roman Catholic Cardinal.
Salviati was born in Florence, the son of Jacopo Salviati and Lucrezia di Lorenzo de' Medici, the sister of Giovanni de' Medici. The year of his birth is given as 1492 and also 1470. From an early age he was a knight of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem. In his military career he fought against the Ottomans, obtaining the grade of admiral in the Military Order of Malta, which he represented as ambassador before Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, at Barcelona. He also fought against the Republic of Siena during the Italian Wars.
He became Grand Almoner to Catherine de' Medici (she was his maternal cousin's daughter), who had convinced him to set aside his fighting career for an ecclesiastical one. He followed his brother as bishop of Saint-Papoul. He was named Cardinal by Pope Pius IV on 26 February 1561.
His brother Giovanni and his nephew Anton Maria were also cardinals. Salviati was also uncle of the future pope Leo XI and of the first Grand Duke of Tuscany, Cosimo I de' Medici.
He died in his residence in Trastevere, Rome, on 6 May 1568 and is entombed at Santa Maria sopra Minerva.Council of Trent
The Council of Trent (Latin: Concilium Tridentinum), held between 1545 and 1563 in Trent (or Trento, in northern Italy), was the 19th ecumenical council of the Catholic Church. Prompted by the Protestant Reformation, it has been described as the embodiment of the Counter-Reformation.The Council issued condemnations of what it defined to be heresies committed by proponents of Protestantism, and also issued key statements and clarifications of the Church's doctrine and teachings, including scripture, the Biblical canon, sacred tradition, original sin, justification, salvation, the sacraments, the Mass, and the veneration of saints. The Council met for twenty-five sessions between 13 December 1545 and 4 December 1563. Pope Paul III, who convoked the Council, oversaw the first eight sessions (1545–47), while the twelfth to sixteenth sessions (1551–52) were overseen by Pope Julius III and the seventeenth to twenty-fifth sessions (1562–63) by Pope Pius IV.
The consequences of the Council were also significant in regards to the Church's liturgy and practices. During its deliberations, the Council made the Vulgate the official example of the Biblical canon and commissioned the creation of a standard version, although this was not achieved until the 1590s. In 1565, a year after the Council finished its work, Pius IV issued the Tridentine Creed (after Tridentum, Trent's Latin name) and his successor Pius V then issued the Roman Catechism and revisions of the Breviary and Missal in, respectively, 1566, 1568 and 1570. These, in turn, led to the codification of the Tridentine Mass, which remained the Church's primary form of the Mass for the next four hundred years.
More than three hundred years passed until the next ecumenical council, the First Vatican Council, was convened in 1869.Daniele Barboli
Daniele Barboli, O.P. (died 25 February, 1570) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Pedena (1563–1570).Flavio Orsini
Flavio Orsini (1532 – 16 May 1581) was a cardinal of the Catholic Church. He was a member of the Orsini family.
Born in Rome, he became bishop of Muro Lucano, and later moved to bishop of Spoleto. He took part in the Roman Curia.
He was made a cardinal on 12 March 1565 by Pope Pius IV.
Flavio Orsini died in Pozzuoli, near Naples.Francisco Delgado López (bishop)
Francisco Delgado López (1514 – 2 October 1576) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Jaén (1566–1576) and Bishop of Lugo (1561–1566).Giovanni D'Amato
Giovanni D'Amato was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Minori (1565–1567).Jerónimo Clavijo
Jerónimo Clavijo was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Nisyros and Auxiliary Bishop of Cádiz.Juan de los Barrios
Juan de los Barrios y Toledo, OFM (1498 – April 16, 1563) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as the first Archbishop of Santafé en Nueva Granada, (1564–1569),Bishop of Santa Marta (1552–1564),
and the first Bishop of Paraguay (1547–1552).Luigi Suppa
Luigi Suppa (died 29 September 1569) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Agrigento (1565–1569).Mateo Pinello
Mateo Pinello (died 1569) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Cuzco (1565–1569).Order of Pope Pius IX
The Order of Pope Pius IX (Italian: Ordine di Pio IX), also referred as the Pian Order (Italian: Ordine Piano), is a papal order of knighthood originally founded by Pope Pius IV in 1560. The awarding of the order fell into disuse and was re-instituted by Pope Pius IX as a continuation on 17 June 1847. Since November 1993, it has been granted to women.
The highest rank awarded by the Pope is the gold Collar of the Order, awarded to heads of state on the occasion of official visits to the Holy See. The Grand Cross is the highest Papal award given to lay men and women, often given to Ambassadors accredited to the Holy See after two years in post as well as exceptional Catholics in the wider world for particular services, mainly in the international field and for outstanding deeds for Church and society.
The next rank is that of Knight (and now Dame) Commander, to whom the Star (the same as worn by the Grand Crosses) may be given as a higher distinction. The lowest rank is that of Knight or Dame. It is awarded to Catholics and non-Catholics and, on occasion, to non-Christians.Palazzo Venezia
The Palazzo Venezia (Italian: [paˈlattso veˈnɛttsja]), formerly Palace of St. Mark, is a palazzo (palace) in central Rome, Italy, just north of the Capitoline Hill. The original structure of this great architectural complex consisted of a modest medieval house intended as the residence of the cardinals appointed to the church of San Marco. In 1469 it became a residential papal palace, having undergone a massive extension, and in 1564, Pope Pius IV, to win the sympathies of the Republic of Venice, gave the mansion to the Venetian embassy to Rome on the terms that part of the building would be kept as a residence for the cardinals, the Apartment Cibo, and that the republic would provide for the building's maintenance and future restoration. The palace faces Piazza Venezia and Via del Plebiscito. It currently houses the National Museum of the Palazzo Venezia.Pedro de la Peña
Pedro de la Peña, O.P. (died 7 March 1583) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as the second Bishop of Quito (1565–1583) and the second Bishop of Verapaz (1564–1565).Vincenzo Ferrari
Vincenzo Ferrari (died 1579) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Umbriatico (1578–1579)
and Bishop of Montepeloso (1564–1578 and 1550–1561).
During the Roman Empire (until 493)
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