Pope Pius I

Pope Pius I (died c. 155) is said to have been the Bishop of Rome from c. 140 to his death c. 154,[1] according to the Annuario Pontificio. His dates are listed as 142 or 146 to 157 or 161, respectively.[2]

Pope Saint

Pius I
Pope Pius I
Papacy beganc. 140
Papacy endedc. 155
PredecessorHyginus
SuccessorAnicetus
Personal details
Birth namePius
Bornc. late 1st century
Aquileia, Italy
Diedc. 155
Rome, Roman Empire
Sainthood
Feast day11 July
Other popes named Pius

Early life

Pius is believed to have been born at Aquileia, in Northern Italy, during the late 1st century.[3] His father was an Italian[4] called "Rufinus", who was also a native of Aquileia according to the Liber Pontificalis.[5]

According to the 2nd century Muratorian Canon[6] and the Liberian Catalogue,[7] that he was the brother of Hermas, author of the text known as The Shepherd of Hermas.

The writer of the later text identifies himself as a former slave. This has led to speculation that both Hermas and Pius were freedmen. However Hermas' statement that he was a slave may just mean that he belonged to a low-ranking plebeian family.[8]

Pontificate

According to Catholic tradition, St Pius I governed the Church in the middle of the 2nd century during the reigns of the Emperors Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius.[9] He is held to be the ninth successor of Saint Peter,[1] who decreed that Easter should only be kept on a Sunday. Although credited with ordering the publication of the Liber Pontificalis,[10] compilation of that document was not started before the beginning of the 6th century.[11] He is also said to have built one of the oldest churches in Rome, Santa Pudenziana.

Saint Justin taught Christian doctrine in Rome during the theoretical pontificate of St Pius I but the account of his martyrdom indicates there was no Roman bishop present there. The heretics Valentinus, Cerdon, and Marcion visited Rome during that period. Catholic apologists see this as an argument for the primacy of the Roman See during the 2nd century.[10] Pope Pius I is believed to have opposed the Valentinians and Gnostics under Marcion, whom he excommunicated.[12]

There is some conjecture that he was a martyr in Rome, a conjecture that entered earlier editions of the Roman Breviary. The study that had produced the 1969 revision of the General Roman Calendar stated that there were no grounds for his consideration as a martyr,[13] and he is not presented as such in the Roman Martyrology.[14]

Feast day

Pius I's feast day is 11 July. In the Tridentine Calendar it was given the rank of "Simple" and celebrated as the feast of a martyr. The rank of the feast was reduced to a Commemoration in the 1955 General Roman Calendar of Pope Pius XII and the General Roman Calendar of 1960. Though no longer mentioned in the General Roman Calendar, Saint Pius I may now, according to the rules in the present-day Roman Missal, be celebrated everywhere on his feast day as a Memorial, unless in some locality an obligatory celebration is assigned to that day.[15]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Pope St. Pius I". newadvent.org. Retrieved 2015-07-25.
  2. ^ "Annuario Pontificio" (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2012 ISBN 978-88-209-8722-0), P. 8*
  3. ^ "Lives of the Saints, For Every Day of the Year," edited by Rev. Hugo Hoever, S.O.Cist., Ph.D., New York: Catholic Book Publishing Co., 1955, p. 263
  4. ^ Platina, Anthony F. D'Elia (2008). Lives of the Popes: Antiquity, Volume 1. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0674028197.
  5. ^ Ed. Duchesne, I, 132.
  6. ^ Ed. Preuschen, "Analecta, 1," Tubingen, 1910.
  7. ^ Ed. Duchesne, "Liber Pontificalis, I, 5."
  8. ^ Catholic University of America (1967). New Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume 11. New York : McGraw-Hill. p. 393.
  9. ^ "Lives of the Saints, For Every Day of the Year," p.263
  10. ^ a b "Lives of the Saints, For Every Day of the Year," p. 263
  11. ^ "Dictionnaire historique de la papauté", Philippe Levillain, Fayard 1994, p. 1042–1043"
  12. ^ "Dictionary of Saints" (First Image Books Edition, April 2005 ISBN 0-385-51520-0), p. 505
  13. ^ "Calendarium Romanum" (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1969), p. 129
  14. ^ "Martyrologium Romanum" (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2001 ISBN 88-209-7210-7)
  15. ^ General Instruction of the Roman Missal Archived 2008-07-20 at the Wayback Machine, 355 c

References

  • "Lives of the Saints, For Every Day of the Year," edited by Rev. Hugo Hoever, S.O.Cist., Ph.D., New York: Catholic Book Publishing Co., 1955, pp 511
Titles of the Great Christian Church
Preceded by
Hyginus
Bishop of Rome
Pope

140–154
Succeeded by
Anicetus
140

Year 140 (CXL) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Hadrianus and Caesar (or, less frequently, year 893 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 140 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

140s

The 140s decade ran from January 1, 140, to December 31, 149.

== Events ==

=== 140 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Antoninus Augustus Pius and Marcus Aurelius Caesar become Roman Consuls.

Antoninus Pius recognizes the king of the Quadi, who becomes an ally of Rome.

King Mithridates IV dies; Vologases III claims the throne and extends his rule throughout the Parthian Empire.

The export of olive oil from Hispania Baetica to Rome peaks.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Pope Pius I succeeds Pope Hyginus as the tenth pope.

Marcion arrives in Rome, bringing Evangelikon and Apostolikon to the Christian community.

====== Arts and sciences ======

Ptolemy completes his Almagest (approximate date).

=== 141 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

The Temple of Antoninus and Faustina is constructed in Rome; the temple is dedicated to Faustina the Elder.

====== Asia ======

Last (6th) year of Yonghe era of the Chinese Han Dynasty.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Change of Patriarch of Constantinople from Felix of Byzantium to Polycarpus II of Byzantium.

====== Arts and Science ======

6th recorded perihelion passage of Halley's Comet.

=== 142 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Antoninus Pius orders the construction of the Antonine Wall. The wall stretch 39 miles (63 km) from Old Kilpatrick in West Dunbartonshire on the Firth of Clyde to Carriden near Bo'ness on the Firth of Forth (Scotland). The Romans built nineteen forts and smaller fortlets (milecastles), to protect the border against the Caledonians.

Municipal doctors are named throughout the Roman Empire.

====== Asia ======

First year of the Hanan era of the Chinese Han Dynasty.

The Chinese Taoist alchemist Wei Boyang, author of the Kinship of the Three, is the first to describe an early form of gunpowder solution.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Marcion proclaims that the Old Testament is incompatible with Christianity.

=== 143 ===

Antoninus Pius serves as Roman Consul.

A revolt of the Brigantes tribe in Britannia is suppressed by Quintus Lollius Urbicus.

==== By topic ====

====== Medicine ======

The Roman doctor Antyllus performs the first arteriotomy.

=== 144 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Lucius Hedius Rufus Lollianus Avitus and Titus Statilius Maximus become Roman Consuls.

The Roman campaigns in Mauretania begin.

====== Asia ======

Change of era name from Hanan (3rd year) to Jiankang era of the Chinese Han Dynasty.

Change of emperor from Han Shundi to Han Chongdi of the Chinese Han Dynasty.

Reign of Kanishka, emperor of the Kushan Empire.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Change of Patriarch of Constantinople from Patriarch Polycarpus II to Patriarch Athendodorus.

Marcion of Sinope is excommunicated; a sect, Marcionism, grows out of his beliefs.

=== 145 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Antoninus Augustus Pius and Marcus Aurelius Caesar become Roman Consuls.

Marcus Aurelius marries Faustina the Younger, a daughter of Antoninus Pius.

Arrian becomes archon in Athens.

====== Asia ======

Change of era name from Jiankang (1st year) to Yongxi era of the Chinese Han Dynasty.

Change of emperor from Han Chongdi to Han Zhidi of the Chinese Han Dynasty.

Ajmere, India, is founded.

=== 146 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Faustina the Younger is given the title Augusta and becomes Roman Empress.

Marcus Aurelius receives the imperium proconsular.

====== Asia ======

Change of era name from Yongxi (1st year) to Benchu era of the Chinese Han Dynasty.

Change of emperor from Han Zhidi to Han Huandi of the Chinese Han Dynasty.

Chadae becomes ruler of the Korean kingdom of Goguryeo.

=== 147 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Marcus Aurelius receives imperial powers from the Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius.

Festivals to celebrate the 900th anniversary of the founding of Rome begin.

Vologases III dies after a 42-year reign in which he has contended successfully with his rivals.

King Vologases IV, son of Mithridates IV of Parthia, unites under his rule the Parthian Empire.

====== Asia ======

First year of Jianhe of the Chinese Han Dynasty.

=== 148 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

The Emperor Antoninus Pius hosts a series of grand games to celebrate Rome's 900th anniversary.

====== Asia ======

An Shigao arrives in China.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Change of Patriarch of Constantinople from Patriarch Athendodorus to Patriarch Euzois.

=== 149 ===

150s

The 150s decade ran from January 1, 150, to December 31, 159.

154

Year 154 (CLIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Aurelius and Lateranus (or, less frequently, year 907 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 154 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

155

Year 155 (CLV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Severus and Rufinus (or, less frequently, year 908 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 155 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Christianity and violence

Christians have held diverse views towards violence and non-violence through time. Currently and historically there have been four views and practices within Christianity toward violence and war: non-resistance, Christian pacifism, Just war theory, and the Crusade (Holy or preventive war). The early church in the Roman empire adopted a nonviolent stance when it came to war since imitating Jesus's sacrificial life was preferable. The concept of "Just war", whereby limited uses of war were considered acceptable originated with earlier non-Christian Roman and Greek thinkers such as Cicero and Plato. This theory was adapted later by Christian thinkers such as St Augustine, who like other Christians, borrowed much of the justification from Roman writers like Cicero and Roman Law. Even though "Just War" concept was widely accepted early on, warfare was not regarded as a virtuous activity and expressing concern for the salvation of those who killed enemies in battle, regardless of the cause for which they fought, was common. Concepts such as "Holy war", whereby fighting itself might be considered a penitential and spiritually meritorious act, did not emerge before the 11th century.

Hegesippus (chronicler)

Saint Hegesippus (Ἅγιος Ἡγήσιππος) (c. 110 – c. April 7, 180 AD), was a Christian chronicler of the early Church who may have been a Jewish convert and certainly wrote against heresies of the Gnostics and of Marcion. The date of Hegesippus is insecurely fixed by the statement of Eusebius that the death and apotheosis of Antinous (130) occurred in Hegesippus' lifetime, and that he came to Rome under Pope Anicetus and wrote in the time of Pope Eleuterus (Bishop of Rome, c. 174–189).

Hegesippus' works are now entirely lost, save eight passages concerning Church history quoted by Eusebius, who tells us that he wrote Hypomnemata (Ὑπομνήματα; "Memoirs" or "Memoranda") in five books, in the simplest style concerning the tradition of the Apostolic preaching. Through Eusebius, Hegesippus was also known to Jerome, who is responsible for the idea that Hegesippus "wrote a history of all ecclesiastical events from the passion of our Lord down to his own period... in five volumes", which has established the Hypomnemata as a Church history. Hegesippus appealed principally to tradition as embodied in the teaching which had been handed down through the succession of bishops, thus providing for Eusebius information about the earliest bishops that otherwise would have been lost.

Eusebius says that Hegesippus was a convert from Judaism, learned in the Semitic languages and conversant with the oral tradition and customs of the Jews, for he quoted from the Hebrew, was acquainted with the Gospel of the Hebrews and with a Syriac Gospel, and he also cited unwritten traditions of the Jews. Eusebius' own shaky command of Hebrew and Aramaic, and his lack of personal knowledge of customs of the Jews, were insufficiently founded to judge Hegesippus as a dependable source. He seems to have lived in some part of the East, for, in the time of Pope Anicetus (A.D. 155-166) he travelled through Corinth to reach Rome, collecting on the spot the teachings of the various churches which he visited, and ascertaining their uniformity with Rome, according to this excerpt:

"And the Church of the Corinthians remained in the true word until Primus was bishop in Corinth; I made their acquaintance in my journey to Rome, and remained with the Corinthians many days, in which we were refreshed with the true word. And when I was in Rome, I made a succession up to Anicetus, whose deacon was Eleuterus. And in each succession and in each city all is according to the ordinances of the law and the Prophets and the Lord"It is probable that Eusebius borrowed his list of the early bishops of Jerusalem from Hegesippus. With great ingenuity J.B. Lightfoot, in Clement of Rome (London, 1890), found traces of a list of popes in Epiphanius of Cyprus, (Haer., xxvii, 6) that may also derive from Hegesippus, where that fourth-century writer carelessly says: "Marcellina came to us lately and destroyed many, in the days of Anicetus, Bishop of Rome", and then refers to "the above catalogue", though he has given none. He is clearly quoting a writer who was at Rome in the time of Anicetus and made a list of popes A list which has some curious agreements with Epiphanius in that it extends only to Anicetus, is found in the poem of Pseudo-Tertullian against Marcion; apparently Epiphanius has mistaken Marcion for "Marcellina". The same list is at the base of the earlier part of the Liberian Catalogue, doubtless taken from Hippolytus. Correspondences among the lists of St. Irenaeus, Africanus, and Eusebius cannot be assumed to have come from the lost list of Hegesippus, as only Eusebius mentions his name.

Eusebius quotes from Hegesippus fifth and last book a long account of the death of James the Just, "the brother of the Lord", given the obscure Greek epithet Oblias, supposed to be a Semitic name in Greek translation. Dr. Robert Eisenman connects "Oblias" with "Protector of the people", as were other 'Zaddikim'. He also transcribes from Hegesippus the story of the election of his successor Simeon, and the summoning of the descendants of St. Jude to Rome by the Emperor Domitian. A list of heresies against which Hegesippus wrote is also cited. Dr. Lawlor has argued that all these passages cited by Eusebius were connected in the original, and were in the fifth book of Hegesippus. He has also argued the likelihood that Eusebius got from Hegesippus the statement that St. John was exiled to Patmos by Domitian. Hegesippus mentioned the letter of Pope Clement I to the Corinthians, apparently in connection with the persecution of Domitian. It is very likely that the dating of heretics according to papal reigns in Irenaeus and Epiphanius—e.g., that Marcion's disciple Cerdon and Valentinus came to Rome under Anicetus—was derived from Hegesippus, and the same may be true of the assertion that Hermas, author of The Shepherd of Hermas, was the brother of Pope Pius I (as the Liberian Catalogue, the poem against Marcion, and the Muratorian fragment all state).

Zahn has shown that the work of Hegesippus may still have been extant in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in three Eastern libraries, saying: "We must lament the loss of other portions of the Memoirs which were known to exist in the seventeenth century."

July 11

July 11 is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 173 days remain until the end of the year.

Justus of Vienne

Justus or Just was the fifth bishop of Vienne and lived in the 2nd century. Justus was known also from some spurious letters attributed to Pope Pius I.

List of canonised popes

This article lists the Popes who have been canonised or recognised as Saints in the Roman Catholic Church they had led. A total of 83 (out of 266) Popes have been recognised universally as canonised saints, including all of the first 35 Popes (31 of whom were martyrs) and 52 of the first 54. If Pope Liberius is numbered amongst the Saints as in Eastern Christianity, all of the first 49 Popes become recognised as Saints, of whom 31 are Martyr-Saints, and 53 of the first 54 Pontiffs would be acknowledged as Saints. In addition, 13 other Popes are in the process of becoming canonised Saints: as of December 2018, two are recognised as being Servants of God, two are recognised as being Venerable, and nine have been declared Blessed or Beati, making a total of 95 (97 if Pope Liberius and Pope Adeodatus II are recognised to be Saints) of the 266 Roman Pontiffs being recognised and venerated for their heroic virtues and inestimable contributions to the Church.

The most recently reigning Pope to have been canonised was Pope John Paul II, whose cause for canonisation was opened in May 2005. John Paul II was beatified on May 1, 2011, by Pope Benedict XVI and later canonised, along with Pope John XXIII, by Pope Francis on April 27, 2014. Pope Francis also canonised Pope Paul VI on October 14, 2018.

List of extant papal tombs

A pope is the Bishop of Rome and the leader of the Catholic Church. Approximately 100 papal tombs are at least partially extant, representing less than half of the 264 deceased popes, from Saint Peter to Saint John Paul II.For the first few centuries in particular, little is known of the popes and their tombs, and available information is often contradictory. As with other religious relics, multiple sites claim to house the same tomb. Furthermore, many papal tombs that recycled sarcophagi and other materials from earlier tombs were later recycled for their valuable materials or combined with other monuments. For example, the tomb of Pope Leo I was combined with Leos II, III, and IV circa 855, and then removed in the seventeenth century and placed under his own altar, below Alessandro Algardi's relief, Fuga d'Attila. The style of papal tombs has evolved considerably throughout history, tracking trends in the development of church monuments. Notable papal tombs have been commissioned from sculptors such as Michelangelo and Gian Lorenzo Bernini.

Most extant papal tombs are located in St. Peter's Basilica, other major churches of Rome (especially Archbasilica of St. John Lateran, Santa Maria sopra Minerva and Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore), or other churches of Italy, France, and Germany.

List of non-extant papal tombs

This is a list of non-extant papal tombs, which includes tombs not included on the list of extant papal tombs. Information about these tombs is generally incomplete and uncertain.

Chronologically, the main locations of destroyed or unknown papal tombs have been: the obscure tombs of the first two centuries of popes near Saint Peter, the repeated waves of translations from the Catacombs of Rome, the demolition of the papal tombs in Old St. Peter's Basilica, and the 1306 and 1361 fires in the Basilica of St. John Lateran.

Papal tombs have also been destroyed by other instances of fire, remodeling, and war (most recently, World War II). Others are unknown due to creative or geographically remote methods of martyrdom, or—in the case of Pope Clement I—both. Burial in churches outside the Aurelian Walls of Rome (Italian: fuori le Mura)—in the basilicas of Paul or Lorenzo—have not generally survived.

List of popes who died violently

A collection of popes who have had violent deaths through the centuries. The circumstances have ranged from martyrdom (Pope Stephen I) to war (Lucius II), to a beating by a jealous husband (Pope John XII). A number of other popes have died under circumstances that some believe to be murder, but for which definitive evidence has not been found.

List of slaves

Slavery is a social-economic system under which persons are enslaved: deprived of personal freedom and forced to perform labor or services without compensation. These people are referred to as slaves.

The following is a list of historical people who were enslaved at some point during their lives, in alphabetical order by first name. Several names have been added under the letter representing the person's last name.

Pope Pius

There have been 12 Roman Catholic Popes named Pius:

Pope Pius I (c. 140–154; officially listed as 142/146 – 157/161)

Pope Pius II (1458–1464)

Pope Pius III (1503)

Pope Pius IV (1559–1565)

Pope Pius V (1566–1572)

Pope Pius VI (1775–1799)

Pope Pius VII (1800–1823)

Pope Pius VIII (1829–1830)

Pope Pius IX (1846–1878)

Pope Pius X (1903–1914)

Pope Pius XI (1922–1939)

Pope Pius XII (1939–1958)There has been 1 traditionalist Roman Catholic antipope named Pius:

Antipope Pius XIII (1998–2009)Other uses of the papal name Pius include:

In the Babylon 5 science fiction saga, Pius XV is a fictional early 22nd century Pope of the Roman Catholic Church. Pius XV was featured in the novel Dark Genesis and mentioned in The Glass Bead Game.

Angels & Demons by Dan Brown opens with the death of Pope Pius XVI, which triggers the events described in the book.

In the series The Young Pope, the protagonist is named Pope Pius XIII.

Pudentiana

Pudentiana is a traditional Christian saint and martyress of the 2nd century who refused to worship the Roman Emperors Marcus Aurelius and Antoninus Pius as deities. She is sometimes locally known as Potentiana and is often coupled with her sister, Praxedes the martyr.

Saint Peter's tomb

Saint Peter's tomb is a site under St. Peter's Basilica that includes several graves and a structure said by Vatican authorities to have been built to memorialize the location of Saint Peter's grave. St. Peter's tomb is near the west end of a complex of mausoleums that date between about AD 130 and AD 300. The complex was partially torn down and filled with earth to provide a foundation for the building of the first St. Peter's Basilica during the reign of Constantine I in about AD 330. Though many bones have been found at the site of the 2nd-century shrine, as the result of two campaigns of archaeological excavation, Pope Pius XII stated in December 1950 that none could be confirmed to be Saint Peter's with absolute certainty. Following the discovery of bones that had been transferred from a second tomb under the monument, on June 26, 1968, Pope Paul VI claimed that the relics of Saint Peter had been identified in a manner considered convincing.The grave claimed by the Church to be that of Saint Peter lies at the foot of the aedicula beneath the floor. The remains of four individuals and several farm animals were found in this grave. In 1953, after the initial archeological efforts had been completed, another set of bones were found that were said to have been removed without the archeologists' knowledge from a niche (loculus) in the north side of a wall (the graffiti wall) that abuts the red wall on the right of the aedicula. Subsequent testing indicated that these were the bones of a 60- to 70-year-old man. Margherita Guarducci argued that these were the remains of Saint Peter and that they had been moved into a niche in the graffiti wall from the grave under the aedicula "at the time of Constantine, after the peace of the church" (313). Antonio Ferrua, the archaeologist who headed the excavation that uncovered what is known as Saint Peter's Tomb, said that he wasn't convinced that the bones that were found were those of Saint Peter.The upper image shows the area of the lower floor of St. Peter's Basilica that lies above the site of Saint Peter's tomb. A portion of the aedicula that was part of Peter's tomb rose above level of this floor and was made into the Niche of the Pallium which can be seen in the center of the image.

San Lorenzo in Lucina

The Minor Basilica of St. Lawrence in Lucina (Italian: Basilica Minore di San Lorenzo in Lucina or simply Italian: San Lorenzo in Lucina; Latin: S. Laurentii in Lucina) is a Roman Catholic parish, titular church, and minor basilica in central Rome, Italy. The basilica is located in Piazza di San Lorenzo in Lucina in the Rione Colonna, circa two blocks behind the Palazzo Montecitorio, proximate to the Via del Corso.

The Shepherd of Hermas

The Shepherd of Hermas (Greek: Ποιμὴν τοῦ Ἑρμᾶ, Poimēn tou Herma; sometimes just called The Shepherd) is a Christian literary work of the late first half of the second century, considered a valuable book by many Christians, and considered canonical scripture by some of the early Church fathers such as Irenaeus. The Shepherd was very popular amongst Christians in the 2nd and 3rd centuries. It is part of the Codex Sinaiticus, and it is listed between the Acts of the Apostles and the Acts of Paul in the stichometrical list of the Codex Claromontanus.

The work comprises five visions, twelve mandates, and ten parables. It relies on allegory and pays special attention to the Church, calling the faithful to repent of the sins that have harmed it.

The book was originally written in Rome, in the Greek language, but a first Latin translation, the Vulgata, was made very shortly afterwards. A second Latin translation, the Palatina, was made at the beginning of the fifth century. Of the Greek version, the last fifth or so is missing.

The shepherd is one of the meanings that is probably attached to some figurines of the Good Shepherd as well as an epithet of Christ, or a traditional pagan kriophoros.

1st–4th centuries
During the Roman Empire (until 493)
including under Constantine (312–337)
5th–8th centuries
Ostrogothic Papacy (493–537)
Byzantine Papacy (537–752)
Frankish Papacy (756–857)
9th–12th centuries
Papal selection before 1059
Saeculum obscurum (904–964)
Crescentii era (974–1012)
Tusculan Papacy (1012–1044/1048)
Imperial Papacy (1048–1257)
13th–16th centuries
Viterbo (1257–1281)
Orvieto (1262–1297)
Perugia (1228–1304)
Avignon Papacy (1309–1378)
Western Schism (1378–1417)
Renaissance Papacy (1417–1534)
Reformation Papacy (1534–1585)
Baroque Papacy (1585–1689)
17th–20th centuries
Age of Enlightenment (c. 1640-1740)
Revolutionary Papacy (1775–1848)
Roman Question (1870–1929)
Vatican City (1929–present)
21st century
History of the papacy
Virgin Mary
Apostles
Archangels
Confessors
Disciples
Doctors
Evangelists
Church
Fathers
Martyrs
Patriarchs
Popes
Prophets
Virgins
See also

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.