Pope Pelagius I

Pope Pelagius I (d. 4 March 561) was Pope from 556 to his death in 561. He was the second pope of the Byzantine Papacy, and like his predecessor, a former apocrisiarius to Constantinople.

Pope

Pelagius I
Pope Pelagius I
Papacy began16 April 556
Papacy ended4 March 561
PredecessorVigilius
SuccessorJohn III
Personal details
Birth namePelagius
BornRome, Ostrogothic Kingdom
Died4 March 561 (aged 61)
Rome, Eastern Roman Empire
Other popes named Pelagius

Early life

He came from a Roman noble family. His father John seems to have been vicar of one of the two civil "dioceses", or districts, into which Italy was then divided.[1]

Apokrisiariat

Pelagius accompanied Pope Agapetus I to Constantinople and was appointed by him nuncio of the Roman Church to that city. Pelagius acquired great influence with Justinian, and returned to Rome in 543.[1]

In 545, when Pope Vigilius went to Constantinople on the orders of Emperor Justinian I, Pelagius stayed in Rome as the pope's representative. Totila, King of the Goths, had begun to blockade the city. Pelagius poured out his own fortune for the benefit of the famine-stricken people, and tried to induce the king to grant a truce. Though he failed, he afterwards induced Totila to spare the lives of the people when he captured Rome in December 546. Totila sent Pelagius to Constantinople in order to arrange a peace with Justinian I, but the emperor sent him back to say that his general Belisarius was in command in Italy.[1]

Papacy

Pelagius was elected Pope as Justinian's candidate, a designation not well received by the western clergy and laity.[2] While before his ordination he opposed Justinian's efforts to condemn the "Three Chapters" in order to reconcile theological factions in the Church, afterwards Pelagius adopted Justinian's position.

Rumors that he might have somehow been complicit in the death of Virgilius, and suspicion that his conceding to Justinian indicating a support for Monophysitism undermined his papacy. To overcome this he worked to maintain public order in Rome, and correct abuses among the clergy. He also labored on behalf of the poor and the victims of famine and war. In response to a request from the garrison commander at Civitavecchia, Pelagius directed Bishop Lawrence of that town, to provide chaplains for the army.[3] He is credited with the construction of the Santi Apostoli, Rome,[4] built to celebrate the complete victory of Narses over the Ostrogoths.

The elderly pope served five years, and upon his death was buried in St. Peter's.[2]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Wikisource-logo.svg Mann, Horace K. (1911). "Pope Pelagius I" . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. 11. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  2. ^ a b Brusher, Joseph S., Popes Through the Ages, 1980, San Rafael, California, Neff-Kane, ISBN 978-0-89-141110-9
  3. ^ Bachrach, David Steward. Religion and the Conduct of War, C. 300-1215, Boydell Press, 2003, ISBN 9780851159447, p. 17
  4. ^ "Santi XII Apostoli", Pontifical North American College

References

  • Ekonomou, Andrew J. 2007. Byzantine Rome and the Greek Popes: Eastern influences on Rome and the papacy from Gregory the Great to Zacharias, A.D. 590–752. Lexington Books.
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Vigilius
Pope
556–561
Succeeded by
John III
550s

The 550s decade ran from January 1, 550, to December 31, 559.

== Events ==

=== 550 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Emperor Justinian I appoints Bessas commander (magister militum) of Armenia, and entrusts him with the war in Lazica (Georgia).

January 16 – Gothic War: The Ostrogoths under king Totila recapture Rome after a long siege, by bribing the Isaurian garrison.

Summer – Totila plunders Sicily, after he subdues Corsica and Sardinia. He sends a Gothic fleet to raid the coasts of Greece.

Justinian I sends two Nestorian monks on a mission to Central Asia, to spread Christianity in the East (approximate date).

====== Europe ======

The Vendel era begins; the name is given to a region in Uppland (an important area of the sagas' account of a Swedish kingdom).

====== Persia ======

The Sassanid Empire, under the reign of King Khosrow I, controls the trade of silk destined for Europe and the Byzantine Empire.

====== Asia ======

The Eastern Wei Dynasty ends, and Wen Xuan Di becomes emperor of Northern Qi. He forces Xiao Jing Di to yield the throne.

Wen Xuan Di adopts a defensive policy towards the hostile northern tribes; he builds, on the border, over 1,000 miles of walls.

The Gupta Empire falls; India is again ruled by regional kingdoms (approximate date).

====== Americas ======

Construction of Quiriguá (Guatemala) begins (approximate date).

The last known eruption of Chimborazo (modern Ecuador) occurs.

==== By topic ====

====== Arts and sciences ======

Hindu mathematicians give zero a numeral representation in a positional notation system.

Procopius writes the Secret History (approximate date).

====== Religion ======

The churches of Lazica (Georgia) and Armenia split. While the Armenian Church remains independent, the Georgian church unites with the Byzantine Empire. This ecclesiastical union deepens political and cultural contact between the two states. As a sign of Lazica's status vis-à-vis Byzantium, Lazic princes are vested with honorific titles of the Byzantine court, including kouropalates, or "minister of the imperial palace" (approximate date).

The main redaction of the Babylonian Talmud is completed under Rabbis Ravina and Ashi (approximate date).

Chararic, king of the Suevi, converts to Catholicism.

In Ireland, the Diocese of Tuam is erected.

=== 551 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

After the death of his cousin Germanus, Justinian I appoints Narses new supreme commander and returns to Italy. In Salona on the Adriatic coast, he assembles a Byzantine expeditionary force totaling 20,000 or possibly 30,000 men and a contingent of foreign allies, notably Lombards, Heruls and Bulgars.

Gothic War: Narses arrives in Venetia and discovers that a powerful Gothic-Frank army (50,000 men), under joint command of the kings Totila and Theudebald, has blocked the principal route to the Po Valley. Not wishing to engage such a formidable force and confident that the Franks would avoid a direct confrontation, Narses skirts the lagoons along the Adriatic shore, by using vessels to leapfrog his army from point to point along the coast. In this way he arrives at the capital Ravenna without encountering any opposition. He attacks and crushes a small Gothic force at Ariminum (modern Rimini).

Autumn – Battle of Sena Gallica: The Byzantine fleet (50 warships) destroys the Gothic naval force under Indulf near Sena Gallica (Senigallia), some 17 miles (27 km) north of Ancona. It marks the end of the Gothic supremacy in the Mediterranean Sea.

July 9 – Beirut is destroyed by an earthquake and tsunami. Its epicenter has an estimated magnitude of about 7.2 or 7.6, and according to reports of Antoninus of Piacenza, Christian pilgrim, some 30,000 people are killed.

====== Europe ======

Athanagild revolts against the Visigothic king Agila. Their armies meet at Seville (Andalusia), and Agila is defeated.

12,000 Kutrigurs appear in Europe led by Chinialus and others to assist the Gepids.

====== Persia ======

Spring – Lazic War - Siege of Petra (550–551): The Byzantine army and their Sabir allies (some 6,000 men) under Bessas recapture the strategic Byzantine fortress of Petra, located on the coast of the Black Sea. He orders the city walls razed to the ground.

====== Asia ======

Autumn – Xiao Dong, great-nephew of the rebellious general Hou Jing, succeeds Jianwen Di as emperor of the Liang Dynasty. Xiao Dong has no real power and Hou Jing controls the imperial government at the capital Jiankang.

Bumin Qaghan, chieftain of the Göktürks, founds the Turkic Khaganate. He unites the local Turkic tribes and throws off the yoke of the Rouran domination.

==== By topic ====

====== Arts and sciences ======

Jordanes, Roman bureaucrat, publishes "The Origin and Deeds of the Goths" (approximate date).

=== 552 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

July 1 – Battle of Taginae: Narses crosses the Apennines with a Byzantine army (25,000 men). He is blocked by a Gothic force under king Totila near Taginae (Central Italy). In a narrow mountain valley, Narses deploys his army in a "crescent shaped" formation. He dismounts his Lombard and Heruli cavalry mercenaries, placing them as a phalanx in the centre. On his left flank he sends out a mixed force of foot and horse archers to seize a dominant height. The Goths open the battle with a determined cavalry charge. Halted by enfilading fire from both sides, the attackers are thrown back in confusion on the infantry behind them. The Byzantine cataphracts (Clibanarii) sweep into the milling mass. More than 6,000 Goths, including Totila, are killed. The remnants flee, and Narses proceeds to Rome, where he captures the city after a brief siege.

Emperor Justinian I dispatches a small Byzantine force (2,000 men) under Liberius to Hispania, according to the historian Jordanes. He conquers Cartagena and other cities on the southeastern coast.

Justinian I receives the first silkworm eggs from two Nestorian monks at Constantinople. They were sent to Central Asia (see 550) and smuggled the precious eggs from China hidden in rods of bamboo.

====== Europe ======

Battle of Asfeld: The Lombards under King Audoin defeat the Gepids.

Cynric, king of Wessex, captures the fortress city of Old Sarum.

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Meath is established in Ireland.

Teia becomes the last king of the Ostrogoths in Italy.

====== Asia ======

July 11 – First year of the Armenian calendar.

Yuan Di succeeds Xiao Dong as emperor of the Liang dynasty.

Bumin Qaghan dies; the new khagan is Issik Qaghan of the Turkic Empire.

Approximate date – Buddhism in Japan is introduced.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

The Byzantine Church is able to make fabrics, with the intention of developing a large silk industry in the Byzantine Empire.

Eutychius becomes patriarch of Constantinople.

=== 553 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Battle of Mons Lactarius: King Teia secretly marches to join forces with his brother Aligern in Campania, to relieve the siege of Cumae. Meanwhile at Mons Lactarius (modern Monti Lattari), Narses lays an ambush. The combined Gothic force is crushed in a hopeless last stand for two days (south of Naples), and Teia is killed in the fightings. Aligern escapes, but surrenders a few months later.

The Ostrogothic Kingdom ends after 60 years of rule in Italy. The Goths are allowed to return to their homes in peace and (re)settle in modern-day Austria. Some 7,000 people retreat to Campsas (Southern Gaul), and resist with minimal help from the Franks against the Byzantines until 554.

The Byzantines retreated from Telephis–Ollaria.

====== Europe ======

Gothic War: Frankish invasion — Two Frankish-Alemanni dukes, brothers Lothair and Buccelin, cross the Alps from Germany with a force of 75,000 men, mostly Frankish infantry. In the Po Valley, they win an easy victory over a much smaller Byzantine force at Parma, and are joined by remnants of the Gothic armies, bringing the total strength of the invaders to about 90,000 men. Narses, gathering his forces as quickly as possible, marches north to harass the Franks, but is not strong enough to engage them in battle. In Samnium (Southern Italy) the brothers divide their forces: Lothaire goes down the east coast, then returns to the north, to winter in the Po Valley. Buccelin follows the west coast into Calabria, where he spends the winter — his army being seriously wasted by attrition and disease.

====== Asia ======

King Seong of Baekje attacks the kingdoms of Goguryeo and Silla. However, under a secret agreement, Silla troops attack the exhausted Baekje army, and take possession of the entire Han River valley.

In the Turkic Khaganate Istemi is appointed governor (yabgu) in the west of the empire (modern Turkestan), and Muqan Qaghan succeeds his brother Issik Qaghan as emperor (khagan) of the Göktürks.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

May 5 – The Fifth Ecumenical Council is held in Constantinople. Emperor Justinian I condemns in an edict the Three Chapters, causing further schisms and heresies of monoenergism and monothelitism.

=== 554 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

August 13 – Byzantine Emperor Justinian I issues a Pragmatic sanction reorganizing Italy and rewards the praetorian prefect Liberius for over 60 years of distinguished service, granting him extensive estates in Italy.

October – Battle of the Volturnus: In the spring Butilinus (Buccelin) has marched north; the Frankish army (infected by an epidemic of dysentery which kills their leader Leutharis (Lothair)) is reduced to about 30,000 men. The Byzantine army, with 18,000 men (including a contingent of Goths under Aligern), marches south to meet them at Casilinum (on the banks of the River Volturno). Byzantine eunuch general Narses sends a cavalry force under Chanaranges to destroy the supply wagons of the Franks. Outmanoeuvring Butilinus, he chooses a disposition similar to that at Taginae. After a frontal assault on the Byzantine centre, the Franks and the Alamanni are annihilated, thus effectively ending the Gothic War (535–554). Narses garrisons in Italy an army of 16,000 men. The recovery of the Italian Peninsula has cost the empire about 300,000 pounds of gold.

====== Europe ======

Byzantine forces under Liberius seize Granada (Andalusia) and occupy the old province of Baetica. Justinian I calls Belisarius out of retirement, to complete the consolidation of reconquered regions of Southern Spain.

Athanagild is crowned as king of the Visigoths and succeeds Agila I. He acknowledges the suzerainty of the Byzantine Empire.

====== Asia ======

Al-Mundhir III ibn al-Nu'man is defeated and killed by the Ghassanids under al-Harith ibn Jabalah, at the battle of Yawm Halima; 'Amr III ibn al-Mundhir succeeds as king of the Lakhmids.

Gong Di succeeds his brother Fei Di as emperor of Western Wei. He is deposed by general Yuwen Tai who puts him to death.

The province of Jiangling (Central China) is captured; 100,000 inhabitants are enslaved and distributed to generals and officials.

Wei Shou completes compilation of the Book of Wei.

Baekje and the Gaya Confederacy wage war upon Silla, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, but are defeated.

Wideok becomes king of the Korean kingdom of Baekje.

Muqan Qaghan succeeds his brother Issik Qaghan as emperor (khagan) of the Göktürks.

The second and larger of the two Buddhas of Bamyan is erected in central Afghanistan.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Cassiodorus, Roman statesman, founds the Monastery at Vivarium (approximate date).

=== 555 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Emperor Justinian I reconquers many former territories of the Western Roman Empire, including Italy, Dalmatia, Africa and Southern Hispania.

An earthquake devastates the city of Latakia (modern Syria).

====== Europe ======

King Chlothar I annexes the Frankish territories of Metz and Reims, after the death of his great-nephew Theudebald.

====== Britain ======

King Erb of Gwent (in Southern Wales) dies; his kingdom is divided into Gwent and Ergyng (approximate date).

====== Persia ======

Summer – Lazic War: The Byzantine army under Bessas is repulsed, and forced to retreat out of Archaeopolis (Georgia).

King Gubazes II is invited to observe the siege of a Persian-held fortress, and is murdered by the Byzantine military staff.

====== Asia ======

Chinese Liang Dynasty: Jing Di, age 12, succeeds his father Yuan Di and is declared emperor by general Chen Baxian.

The Rouran Khaganate ends; it is defeated by the Göktürks under Muqan Qaghan, who expands his rule in Central Asia.

==== By topic ====

====== Arts and sciences ======

Around this time, the historian Jordanes writes several books, among them De origine actibusque Getarum (The origin and deeds of the Goths).

Taliesin, British poet, becomes court bard to King Brochwel of Powys (approximate date).

====== Religion ======

June 7 – Pope Vigilius dies at Syracuse on his journey back home. His body is brought to Rome and buried in the San Martino ai Monti.

Cybi Felyn, abbot of Holyhead, dies at his monastery in Caer Gybi (approximate date).

=== 556 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

King Chlothar I suppresses a revolt of the Saxons and Thuringii in Saxony (Germany). For some time he exacts a tribute of 500 cows every year.

====== Britain ======

King Cynric and his son Ceawlin of Wessex fight against the Britons at Beranburh, now identified as Barbury Castle (Wiltshire) in South West England.

====== Persia ======

Lazic War: A Byzantine expeditionary force under Justin retakes Archaeopolis (modern Georgia), and routs the Persian army.

Siege of Phasis: The Persians are defeated at the besieged town of Phasis in Lazica, held by the Byzantines.

King Khosrau I opens negotiations with Justinian I, leading to the establishment of a 50 year peace agreement in 562.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

April 16 – The diplomatic representative (apocrisiarius) to Constantinople is elected as Pope Pelagius I, succeeding Vigilius as the 60th pope of Rome.

=== 557 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

The Avars arrive in the northern region of the Caucasus, between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. They send envoys to the Byzantines in Lazica (modern Georgia). Like the Huns, the Avars are the former elite of a central Asian federation, which has been forced to flee westwards.

====== Asia ======

December 14 – The 557 Constantinople earthquake occurs.

The Western Wei dynasty ends: Yuwen Hu deposes emperor Gong Di, and places Yuwen Tai's son Xiaomin on the throne. Yuwen Hu becomes regent and establishes the Northern Zhou dynasty in China.

Ming Di is made emperor, after his younger brother Xiao Min Di is arrested while trying to assume power. Xiao Min Di is deposed and executed by Yuwen Hu.

The Liang dynasty ends: Chen Wu Di, a distinguished general, becomes the first emperor of the Chen dynasty in Southern China.

The Göktürks under Muqan Qaghan ally with the Persian Empire, and destroy the Hephthalites (White Huns) in Central Asia.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

King Chlothar I of the Franks founds the Abbey of St. Medard at Soissons (Northern France).

The Jiming Temple in Nanjing is built; the Buddhist pagoda is located near Xuanwu Lake.

=== 558 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

May 7 – In Constantinople, the dome of the Hagia Sophia collapses due to an earthquake. Emperor Justinian I orders the dome to be rebuilt.

====== Europe ======

The Avars and the Slavs occupy the Hungarian Plain on the Balkans. The threat of Avar domination prompts the Lombards to migrate to Italy.

December 13 – King Chlothar I reunites the Frankish Kingdom after his brother Childebert I dies, becoming sole ruler of the Franks.

Conall mac Comgaill becomes king of Dál Riata, a Gaelic overkingdom on the western coast of Scotland.

====== Asia ======

Istämi, ruler of the Western Turkic Khaganate, establishes diplomatic relations with the Byzantine Empire.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

December 23 – The Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés is dedicated by Germain, bishop of Paris.

The Bangor Abbey is founded by the Irish abbot Comgall in Northern Ireland (approximate date).

The Guanghua Temple in Putian (China) is built during the Chen Dynasty, under Emperor Chen Wu Di.

=== 559 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Winter – The Kutrigurs and Huns under Zabergan cross the frozen Danube River, and invade the Balkans. They raid Thracia and Macedonia, but are driven back near Constantinople by a Byzantine force under Belisarius. Outside the city walls he defeats the "barbarians" with his veteran cavalry (bucellarii), and a few thousand hastily raised levies.

====== Britain ======

Glappa succeeds his father Ida as king of Bernicia (North East England). During his rule, Anglian settlers expand their territory in what is now southeastern Scotland.

====== Asia ======

First successful human flight: a manned kite lands in the proximity of Ye, China. Emperor Wen Xuan Di sponsors the flight; Yuan Huangtou, a prisoner, is the unwilling aviator; other imprisoned kite flyers also fly, but those die and Yuan survives. Yuan is executed afterwards.

Wen Di, age 37, succeeds his uncle Chen Wu Di as emperor of the Chen Dynasty. During his reign, he consolidates the state against the rebellious warlords.

The city-state Ara Gaya, a member of the Gaya confederacy, surrenders to Silla in the Korean peninsula.

Pyeongwon becomes ruler of the Korean kingdom of Goguryeo.

556

Year 556 (DLVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. The denomination 556 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

560s

The 560s decade ran from January 1, 560, to December 31, 569.

== Events ==

=== 560 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Alboin succeeds his father Audoin after his death, as king of the Lombards.

====== Britain ======

Adda succeeds his brother Glappa as king of Bernicia (approximate date).

Ælla becomes king of Deira (this according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle).

Ceawlin succeeds his father Cynric as king of Wessex (approximate date).

Custennin ap Cado abdicates as king of Dumnonia (South West England).

Elidyr of Strathclyde invades Gwynedd (Wales) and tries to expel his brother-in-law, king Rhun Hir ap Maelgwn.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Columba quarrels with Finnian of Moville over authorship of a psalter, leading to a pitched battle the next year.

=== 561 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

November 29 – King Chlothar I ("the Old") dies at Compiègne at age 64. The Merovingian Dynasty is continued by his four sons (Charibert I, Guntram, Sigebert I and Chilperic I), who divide the Frankish Kingdom and rule from the capitals at Paris, Orléans, Reims and Soissons, respectively.

====== Britain ======

The Battle of Cúl Drebene (modern Ireland) is fought between the Northern and Southern Uí Néill (approximate date).

====== Asia ======

Winter – Wu Cheng Di succeeds his brother Xiao Zhao Di, who dies from injuries suffered while hunting, as Chinese emperor of Northern Qi.

====== Americas ======

Sky Witness is crowned as leader of Calakmul.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

March 4 – Pope Pelagius I dies in Rome after a five-year reign, and is succeeded by John III as the 61st pope.

Jnanagupta, a Buddhist monk from Gandhara (Pakistan), begins translating Buddhist texts into Chinese.

The First Council of Braga is held. The council condemns the doctrine of Priscillianism.

=== 562 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Emperor Justinian I signs a peace treaty with the Persian Empire. The status quo ante is restored, with Lazica (modern Georgia) in Byzantine hands.

Belisarius stands trial for corruption in Constantinople, possibly with Procopius acting as praefectus urbi. He is found guilty and sent to prison.

End of the Lazic War: In the Fifty-Year Peace Treaty, King Khosrau I recognises Lazica as a Byzantine vassal state for an annual payment of 5,000 pounds of gold each year.

December 23 – Justinian I re-consecrates Hagia Sophia after its dome is rebuilt. Paul the Silentiary, Byzantine poet, writes an epic poem (Ekphrasis).

====== Europe ======

King Sigebert I repels an attack on Austrasia by the Avars at Regensburg (Germany). He moves his capital from Reims to Metz (approximate date).

====== Asia ======

Spring – Xiao Ming Di, age 20, succeeds his father Xuan Di as emperor of the Chinese Liang Dynasty.

Silla, by order of king Jinheung, wages war upon Gaya (Three Kingdoms of Korea) and conquers it.

The secondary capital Taiyuan in Northern Qi is rebuilt and becomes a center of Buddhism.

====== Mesoamerica ======

The Maya state of Caracol (Belize) defeats King Wak Chan K'awiil (Double Bird) of Tikal in battle during the First Tikal-Calakmul War, ending his dynasty.

=== 563 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Emperor Justinian I pardons Belisarius; he orders his release from prison, and restores his properties and honours. He permits the general to live in obscurity, and gives him a veterans' pension.

The new Hagia Sophia (cost: 20,000 pounds of gold), with its numerous chapels and shrines, octagonal dome and mosaics, becomes the centre and most visible monument of Eastern Orthodoxy.

====== Europe ======

The Tauredunum event: A mountain landslide into the Rhone river destroys a fort and two villages, and creates a tsunami in Lake Geneva. The wave which reaches Lausanne is thirteen metres high, and eight metres high by the time it hits Geneva. Describing the event, Marius Aventicensis writes that the tsunami "devastated very old villages with their men and cattle, it even destroyed many sacred places", and swept away "the bridge in Geneva, windmills and men".

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Columba, Irish missionary monk, travels to Scotland with twelve companions. He lands on the Kintyre Peninsula, near Southend, and begins his evangelising mission to the Picts. On the island of Iona, he founds a monastery (Iona Abbey) on the west coast in the Inner Hebrides.

=== 564 ===

==== By place ====

====== Britain ======

Cadoc, abbot of Llancarfan (Wales), settles in Weedon and is made bishop (approximate date).

August 22 – Columba reports seeing the Loch Ness Monster at the River Ness (according to the "Life of St. Columba").

====== Mesoamerica ======

Tulum, Maya walled city, on the Yucatán Peninsula (modern Mexico) is first mentioned on a stele inscription.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Samson of Dol, one of seven founder saints of Brittany, attends a council in Paris and witnesses several royal decrees (approximate date).

=== 565 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

November 15 – Justin II succeeds his uncle Justinian I as emperor of the Byzantine Empire. He begins his reign by refusing subsidies to the Avars, who conduct several large-scale raids through the Balkan Peninsula.

Justin II recalls his cousin Justin (pretender to the throne) to Constantinople; after accusations against him he is placed under house arrest.

Justin II sends his son-in-law Baduarius (magister militum) with a Byzantine army, to support the Gepids in their war against the Lombards.

The Madaba Map is made in the Byzantine church of Saint George. The floor mosaic contains the depiction of the Holy Land (approximate date).

====== Britain ======

Columba, Irish missionary, spots the Loch Ness Monster on the River Ness present day Scotland and saves the life of a Pict (approximate date).

====== Europe ======

Summer – Alboin succeeds his father Audoin as king of the Lombards. A war erupts with the Gepids, led by King Cunimund (approximate date).

====== Asia ======

Gao Wei succeeds his father Wu Cheng Di as ruler of the Chinese Northern Qi Dynasty. Wu Cheng Di becomes a regent and Grand Emperor.

The Uyghurs are defeated by the Göktürks, who expand their territory in Central Asia (approximate date).

==== By topic ====

====== Arts and sciences ======

Agathias begins to write a history, beginning where Procopius finished his work.

====== Religion ======

January 22 – Patriarch Eutychius of Constantinople is deposed as Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople by Justinian I after he refuses the Byzantine Emperor's order to adopt the tenets of the Aphthartodocetae, a sect of Monophysites. From April 12 he is replaced by John Scholasticus.

Columba begins preaching in the Orkney Islands (approximate date).

=== 566 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

A Byzantine army, under command of Baduarius, assists the Gepids in their war against the Lombards. The Byzantines win the first battle in the lower Danube (Moesia), but the Gepid king Cunimund refuses to hand back the fortress city of Sirmium (modern Serbia) as he had promised.

Emperor Justin II, facing an empty treasury, breaks the treaty with the Gepids that has existed since 565. King Alboin of the Lombards makes an alliance with the Avars under Bayan I, at the expense of tough conditions. They demand a tenth of the Lombards' cattle and half of the war booty.

Justin II sends his cousin Justin to exile in Alexandria, where he is installed as Augustal prefect of Egypt. There he is murdered in his sleep, and his head is cut off and brought to Constantinople. Probably by assignment of empress Sophia.

====== Europe ======

Ainmuire mac Sétnai becomes High King of Ireland and rules from 566–569 (this according to the Book of Leinster).

====== Asia ======

Fei Di, age 12, succeeds his father Wen Di as emperor of the Chinese Chen Dynasty. He honors his grand-aunt Zhang Yao'er with the title of Grand Empress and she becomes his regent.

Kirtivarman I succeeds his father Pulakeshin I as king of the Chalukya Dynasty (India). During his rule he completes the subjugation of the Kadambas and annexes the port of Goa.

====== Unidentified ======

A major volcanic eruption occurs in the Antarctic.

=== 567 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

The Lombard–Gepid War (567) ends with a Lombard-Avar victory, and the annihilation of the Gepids.

Sigebert I, king of Austrasia, marries Brunhilda, and his half brother Chilperic I marries Galswintha, both daughters of the Visigothic king Athanagild.

King Charibert I dies without an heir; his realm (region Neustria and Aquitaine) is divided between his brothers Guntram, Sigebert I and Chilperic I.

Liuva I succeeds his predecessor Athanagild after an interregnum of five months and becomes king of the Visigoths.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

The Second Council of Tours is held. It decrees that any cleric found in bed with his wife will be excommunicated.

John III, patriarch of Constantinople, organizes a compromise between the Chalcedonians and Monophysites.

=== 568 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Spring – The Lombards, led by King Alboin, cross the Julian Alps. Their invasion of Northern Italy is almost unopposed; withered Byzantine forces, that remain in the Po Valley and are based at Ravenna, are no match for the overwhelming Lombard incursion. Residents of the Italian countryside flee at the Lombards' approach. Some retreat to the barrier islands along the shore of the Northern Adriatic Sea, where they establish permanent settlements: the nascent city of Venice.

The Byzantines abandon present-day Lombardy and Tuscany, to establish a frontier march in the hills south of Ravenna (still known as Il Marche). Bavarians, Sarmatians, Saxons and Taifali, join the invasion en route. As they advance, the vacuum left behind them on the Balkan Peninsula is filled by Avars, Bulgars and Slavs.

Sigebert I, king of Austrasia, repels a second attack from the Avars. His half brother Chilperic I strangles his wife Galswintha at the instigation of his mistress Fredegund.

Liuvigild is declared co-king and heir after the second year of reign of his brother Liuva I. He becomes ruler over the Visigoths in Hispania Citerior (Eastern Spain).

Mummolus, Gallo-Roman prefect, defeats the Lombards at Embrun and expels them from Provence (Southern Gaul).

Avar Khaganate attempts to expel Kutrigurs who had fled the Göktürks, ordering them to go south of the Sava River; those who leave generally fall under rule of the Turks.

====== Britain ======

Æthelric succeeds his brother Adda as king of Bernicia (modern Scotland). He rules from 568–572 (approximate date).

Battle of Wibbandun: Ceawlin of Wessex defeats Æthelberht of Kent (according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle).

====== Asia ======

The Turks and Sassanids succeed in destroying the Hepthalites on the eastern frontier (approximate date).

A Turkish khan sends emissaries to the Byzantine Empire (approximate date).

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Emperor Justin II and his wife Sophia send the Cross of Justin II ("Vatican Cross") to Rome, to improve the relations with the Byzantine Empire.

Paulinus I, patriarch of Aquileia, flees with the treasures of his church and transfers them to the island of Grado.

=== 569 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Emperor Justin II and his wife Sophia send a relic of the "True Cross" to the Frankish princess Radegund, who has founded a monastery at Poitiers.

The Garamantian Kingdom (modern Libya) signs a peace treaty with the Byzantine Empire. The capital city of Garama is converted to Christianity.

====== Europe ======

September – The Lombards conquer Milan, Pavia (which king Alboin chooses as his new capital) and other cities in the Po Valley (Northern Italy).

Gisulf I, nephew of Alboin, is appointed as the first duke of Friuli (approximate date).

====== Arabia ======

Al-Mundhir III succeeds his father Al-Harith V and becomes king of the Ghassanids.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

The Nubian kingdom of Alodia is converted to Christianity by Byzantine missionaries (according to John of Ephesus).

John of Ephesus completes his "Biographies of Eastern Saints" (approximate date).

November 19 – In Poitiers the "Vexilla Regis" is first sung during the Procession.

561

Year 561 (DLXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. The denomination 561 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Byzantine Papacy

The Byzantine Papacy was a period of Byzantine domination of the Roman papacy from 537 to 752, when popes required the approval of the Byzantine Emperor for episcopal consecration, and many popes were chosen from the apocrisiarii (liaisons from the pope to the emperor) or the inhabitants of Byzantine-ruled Greece, Syria, or Sicily. Justinian I conquered the Italian peninsula in the Gothic War (535–554) and appointed the next three popes, a practice that would be continued by his successors and later be delegated to the Exarchate of Ravenna.

With the exception of Pope Martin I, no pope during this period questioned the authority of the Byzantine monarch to confirm the election of the bishop of Rome before consecration could occur; however, theological conflicts were common between pope and emperor in the areas such as monothelitism and iconoclasm.

Greek-speakers from Greece, Syria, and Sicily replaced members of the powerful Roman nobles in the papal chair during this period. Rome under the Greek popes constituted a "melting pot" of Western and Eastern Christian traditions, reflected in art as well as liturgy.

Christianity in the 6th century

In 6th-century Christianity, Roman Emperor Justinian launched a military campaign in Constantinople to reclaim the western provinces from the Germans, starting with North Africa and proceeding to Italy. Though he was temporarily successful in recapturing much of the western Mediterranean he destroyed the urban centers and permanently ruined the economies in much of the West. Rome and other cities were abandoned. In the coming centuries the Western Church, as virtually the only surviving Roman institution in the West, became the only remaining link to Greek culture and civilization.

In the East, Roman imperial rule continued through the period historians now call the Byzantine Empire. Even in the West, where imperial political control gradually declined, distinctly Roman culture continued long afterwards; thus historians today prefer to speak of a "transformation of the Roman world" rather than a "Fall of Rome." The advent of the Early Middle Ages was a gradual and often localised process whereby, in the West, rural areas became power centres whilst urban areas declined. Although the greater number of Christians remained in the East, the developments in the West would set the stage for major developments in the Christian world during the later Middle Ages.

First seven ecumenical councils

In the history of Christianity, the first seven ecumenical councils include the following: the First Council of Nicaea in 325, the First Council of Constantinople in 381, the Council of Ephesus in 431, the Council of Chalcedon in 451, the Second Council of Constantinople in 553, the Third Council of Constantinople from 680–681 and finally, the Second Council of Nicaea in 787.

These seven events represented an attempt by Church leaders to reach an orthodox consensus, restore peace and develop a unified Christendom. Eastern Orthodox Christians, Oriental Orthodox Christians, the Church of the East, Anglican, Old Catholic, and Roman Catholics, all trace the legitimacy of their clergy by apostolic succession back to this period and beyond, to the earlier period referred to as Early Christianity.

This era begins with the First Council of Nicaea, which enunciated the Nicene Creed that in its original form and as modified by the First Council of Constantinople of 381 was seen by all later councils as the touchstone of orthodoxy on the doctrine of the Trinity.

The Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church accept all seven of these councils as legitimate ecumenical councils. The Oriental Orthodox Churches accept only the first three, while the Church of the East accepts only the first two. There is also one additional council (the Quinisext Council), which was held between the sixth and seventh ecumenical councils (in AD 692), and which issued organizational, liturgical and canonical rules but did not discuss theology. It is accepted as ecumenical by the Eastern Orthodox Church alone, however the Eastern Orthodox do not give it a number, but rather count it as a continuation of the sixth council. The Catholic Church does not accept the Quinisext Council, but both the Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church consider that there have been more ecumenical councils after the first seven (see: Eighth ecumenical council, Ninth ecumenical council, and Catholic ecumenical councils).

Papal apocrisiarius

The apocrisiarius or apocrisiary was the legate from the Pope to the Patriarch of Constantinople, circa 452-743, equivalent to the modern nunciature.

Papal selection before 1059

There was no fixed process for papal selection before 1059. Popes, the bishops of Rome and the leaders of the Catholic Church, were often appointed by their predecessors or secular rulers. While the process was often characterized by some capacity of election, an election with the meaningful participation of the laity was the exception to the rule, especially as the popes' claims to temporal power solidified into the Papal States. The practice of papal appointment during this period would later give rise to the jus exclusivae, a veto right exercised by Catholic monarchies into the twentieth century.

The lack of an institutionalized process for papal succession was prone to religious schism, and several papal claimants before 1059 are currently regarded by the Church as antipopes. Furthermore, the frequent requirement of secular approval of elected popes significantly lengthened periods of sede vacante and weakened the papacy. In 1059, Pope Nicholas II succeeded in limiting future papal electors to the cardinals with In nomine Domini, creating standardized papal elections that would eventually evolve into the papal conclave.

Pelagius (disambiguation)

Pelagius (c. 360 to 435), a British monk - his name became associated with the doctrine of Pelagianism.

The name Pelagius can also refer to:

Pope Pelagius I, pope 556 to 561

Pope Pelagius II, pope 579 to 590

Saint Pelagius of Cordova, Galician Christian child-martyr

Saint Pelagius of Constance - child martyr

Pelagius of Asturias, first king of Asturias

Pelagius of Oviedo, medieval bishop

Alvarus Pelagius, a Franciscan canonist

Pope Gregory V

Pope Gregory V, born Bruno of Carinthia (Latin: Gregorius V; c. 972 – 18 February 999) was Pope from 3 May 996 to his death in 999.

Pope John III

Pope John III can also refer to Pope John III of Alexandria.Pope John III (Latin: Ioannes III; d. 13 July 574) was Pope from 17 July 561 to his death in 574. He was born in Rome of a distinguished family. The Liber Pontificalis calls him a son of one Anastasius. His father bore the title illustris, more than likely being a vir illustris ("illustrius man", high-ranking member of the Roman Senate).

Pope Pelagius

Pelagius has been the papal name of two popes of the Roman Catholic Church. The name is the Latin form of the Greek name Πελαγιος (Pelagios), which was derived from πελαγος (pelagos) "the sea".

Pope Pelagius I (556–561)

Pope Pelagius II (579–590)

Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Catania

The archdiocese of Catania (Latin: Archidioecesis Catanensis) is a Roman Catholic ecclesiastic territory in Sicily, southern Italy, with its seat in Catania. It was elevated to an archdiocese in 1859, and became a metropolitan see in 2000. Its suffragans are the diocese of Acireale and the diocese of Caltagirone.

Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Perugia-Città della Pieve

The Italian Catholic Archdiocese of Perugia-Città della Pieve (Latin: Archidioecesis Perusina-Civitatis Plebis) was historically the Diocese of Perugia. It became the Archdiocese of Perugia in 1882, but without suffragans. It acquired suffragan dioceses in 1972. It was united in 1986 with the Diocese of Città della Pieve.

Roman Catholic Diocese of Civitavecchia-Tarquinia

The Italian Catholic Diocese of Civitavecchia-Tarquinia (Latin: Dioecesis Centumcellarum-Tarquiniensis) is in Lazio, and has existed under this name since 1986. The diocese is directly subject to the Holy See.

Roman Catholic Diocese of Teano-Calvi

The Diocese of Teano-Calvi (Latin: Dioecesis Theanensis-Calvensis) is a Roman Catholic ecclesiastical territory in Campania, southern Italy, created in 1986. It is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Naples. The historic Diocese of Teano and Diocese of Calvi Risorta were united in 1818, forming the diocese of Calvi e Teano. In 2014, in the diocese of Teano-Calvi there was one priest for every 1,197 Catholics.

Saint Hermes

Saint Hermes, born in Greece, died in Rome as a martyr in 120, is venerated as a saint by the Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church. His name appears in the Martyrologium Hieronymianum as well as entries in the Depositio Martyrum (354). There was a large basilica over his tomb that was built around 600 by Pope Pelagius I. It was restored by Pope Adrian I. A catacomb in the Salarian Way bears his name.

In the Roman Rite, his feast is on 28 August. Under that date, he appears in the Roman Martyrology, the official but professedly incomplete list of saints recognized by the Catholic Church. The entry is as follows: "In the Cemetery of Basilia on the Old Salarian Way, Saint Hermes, Martyr, whom, as reported by Saint Damasus, Greece sent forth, but Rome kept as its citizen when he died for the holy name."His existence is attested by his early cult. However, his Acts, included in those of Pope St. Alexander I, are legendary. They state that Hermes was a martyr with companions in Rome, who were killed at the orders of a judge named Aurelian. Hermes was a wealthy freedman.

Santi Apostoli, Rome

Santi Dodici Apostoli (Church of the Twelve Holy Apostles; Latin: SS. Duodecim Apostolorum), commonly known simply as Santi Apostoli, is a 6th-century Roman Catholic parish and titular church and minor basilica in Rome, Italy, dedicated originally to St. James and St. Philip whose remains are kept here, and later to all Apostles. Today, the basilica is under the care of the Conventual Franciscans, whose headquarters in Rome is in the adjacent building.

The Cardinal Priest of the Titulus XII Apostolorum is Angelo Scola. Among the previous Cardinal Priests are Pope Clement XIV, whose tomb by Canova is in the basilica, and Henry Benedict Stuart.

1st–4th centuries
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including under Constantine (312–337)
5th–8th centuries
Ostrogothic Papacy (493–537)
Byzantine Papacy (537–752)
Frankish Papacy (756–857)
9th–12th centuries
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Saeculum obscurum (904–964)
Crescentii era (974–1012)
Tusculan Papacy (1012–1044/1048)
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Viterbo (1257–1281)
Orvieto (1262–1297)
Perugia (1228–1304)
Avignon Papacy (1309–1378)
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