Pope Paul IV

Pope Paul IV, C.R. (Latin: Paulus IV; 28 June 1476 – 18 August 1559), born Gian Pietro Carafa, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 23 May 1555 to his death in 1559.[1][2] While serving as papal nuncio in Spain, he developed an anti-Spanish outlook that later coloured his papacy. A part of Papal States was invaded by Spain during his papacy and in response to this, he called for a French military intervention. To avoid a conflict at the same time of the Italian War of 1551–1559, the Papacy and Spain reached a compromise with the Treaty of Cave: French and Spanish forces left the Papal States and the Pope adopted a neutral stance between France and Spain.[3]

Carafa was appointed bishop of Chieti, but resigned in 1524 in order to found with St. Cajetan the Congregation of Clerics Regular (Theatines). Recalled to Rome, and made Archbishop of Naples, he was instrumental in setting up the Roman Inquisition, and was opposed to any dialogue with the emerging Protestant party in Europe. Carafa was elected pope in 1555 through the influence of Cardinal Alessandro Farnese in the face of opposition from Emperor Charles V. His papacy was characterized by strong nationalism in reaction to the influence of Philip II of Spain and the Habsburgs. He compelled the Jews of Rome to wear distinctive clothing and confine themselves to a ghetto. The appointment of Carlo Carafa as Cardinal Nephew damaged the papacy further when Paul was forced to remove him from office following a scandal. He curbed many clerical abuses in Rome, but his methods were seen as harsh.


Paul IV
Bishop of Rome
Papacy began23 May 1555
Papacy ended18 August 1559
PredecessorMarcellus II
SuccessorPius IV
Consecration18 September 1505
by Oliviero Carafa
Created cardinal22 December 1536
by Paul III
Personal details
Birth nameGian Pietro Carafa
Born28 June 1476
Capriglia Irpina, Kingdom of Naples
Died18 August 1559 (aged 83)
Rome, Papal States
Previous postCardinal-Priest of San Pancrazio fouri le Mura (1536–55)
Other popes named Paul
Papal styles of
Pope Paul IV
C o a Paulo IV
Reference styleHis Holiness
Spoken styleYour Holiness
Religious styleHoly Father
Posthumous styleNone

Early life

Gian Pietro Carafa was born in Capriglia Irpina, near Avellino, into a prominent noble family of Naples.[2] His father Giovanni Antonio Carafa died in West Flanders in 1516 and his mother Vittoria Camponeschi was the daughter of Pietro Lalle Camponeschi, 5th Conte di Montorio, a Neapolitan nobleman, and wife Dona Maria de Noronha, a Portuguese noblewoman of the House of Pereira.[1]

Church career


He was mentored by Cardinal Oliviero Carafa, his relative, who resigned the see of Chieti (Latin Theate) in his favour. Under the direction of Pope Leo X, he was ambassador to England and then papal nuncio in Spain, where he conceived a violent detestation of Spanish rule that affected the policies of his later papacy.[1]

However, in 1524, Pope Clement VII allowed Carafa to resign his benefices and join the ascetic and newly founded Congregation of Clerks Regular, popularly called the Theatines, after Carafa's see of Theate. Following the sack of Rome in 1527, the order moved to Venice. But Carafa was recalled to Rome by the reform-minded Pope Paul III (1534–49), to sit on a committee of reform of the papal court, an appointment that forecast an end to a humanist papacy and a revival of scholasticism, for Carafa was a thorough disciple of Thomas Aquinas.[1]


In December 1536 he was made Cardinal-Priest of S. Pancrazio and then Archbishop of Naples.

The Regensburg Colloquy in 1541 failed to achieve any measure of reconciliation between Catholics and Protestants in Europe, but instead saw a number of prominent Italians defect to the Protestant camp. In response, Carafa was able to persuade Pope Paul III to set up a Roman Inquisition, modelled on the Spanish Inquisition with himself as one of the Inquisitors-General. The Papal Bull was promulgated in 1542 and Carafa vowed, "Even if my own father were a heretic, I would gather the wood to burn him".[4]

Election as pope

He was a surprise choice as pope to succeed Pope Marcellus II (1555); his severe and unbending character combined with his advanced age and Italian patriotism meant under normal circumstances he would have declined the honor. He accepted apparently because Emperor Charles V was opposed to his accession.[1]


As pope his nationalism was a driving force; he used the office to preserve some liberties in the face of fourfold foreign occupation. Like Pope Paul III, he was an enemy of the Colonna family. His treatment of Giovanna d'Aragona, who had married into that family, drew further negative comment from Venice. This because she had long been a patron of artists and writers.[5]

As Cardinal-nephew, Carlo Carafa became his uncle's chief political adviser. Having accepted a pension from the French, Cardinal Carafa worked to secure a French alliance.[6] Carlo's older brother Giovanni was made commander of the papal forces and Duke of Paliano after the pro-Spanish Colonna were deprived of that town in 1556. Another nephew, Antonio, was given command of the Papal guard and made Marquis of Montebello. Their conduct became notorious in Rome. However at the conclusion of the disastrous war with Philip II of Spain in the Italian War of 1551–59 and after many scandals, in 1559 the Pope publicly disgraced his nephews and banished them from Rome.[6]

With the Protestant Reformation, the Papacy required all Roman Catholic rulers to consider Protestant rulers as heretics, thus making their realms illegitimate under customary international law. Consequently, Europe's Catholic monarchs considered Ireland a feudal fief of the Papacy, to be granted to any Catholic sovereign who managed to secure the island Kingdom from the control of its Protestant monarchs. Paul IV issued a papal bull in 1555, Ilius, per quem Reges regnant, recognising Philip and Mary as King and Queen of England and its dominions including Ireland.[7] He also angered people in England by insisting on the restitution of property confiscated during the dissolution, and rejected the claim of Elizabeth I of England to the Crown.[1]

Paul IV was violently opposed to the liberal Giovanni Cardinal Morone whom he strongly suspected of being a hidden Protestant, so much that he had him imprisoned. In order to prevent Morone from succeeding him and imposing what he believed to be his Protestant beliefs on the Church, Pope Paul IV codified the Catholic Law excluding heretics and non-Catholics from receiving or legitimately becoming Pope, in the bull Cum ex apostolatus officio.

Paul IV was rigidly orthodox, austere in life, and authoritarian in manner. He affirmed the Catholic doctrine of extra ecclesiam nulla salus ("Outside the Church there is no salvation"). He used the Holy Office to suppress the Spirituali, a Catholic group deemed heretical. The strengthening of the Inquisition continued under Paul IV, and few could consider themselves safe by virtue of position in his drive to reform the Church; even cardinals he disliked could be imprisoned.[8] He appointed inquisitor Michele Ghislieri, the future Pope Pius V, to the position of Supreme Inquisitor despite the fact as Inquisitor of Como, Ghislieri's persecutions had inspired a citywide rebellion, forcing him to flee in fear for his life.[9]

Vicolo Capocciuto, Roman Ghetto by Franz Roesler c.1880

On 17 July 1555, Paul IV issued one of the most infamous papal bulls in Church history. The bull, Cum Nimis Absurdum (the title stemmed from its opening phrase, "Since it is absurd") ordered the creation of a Jewish ghetto in Rome. The pope set its borders near the Rione Sant'Angelo, an area where large numbers of Jews already resided, and ordered it walled off from the rest of the city. A single gate, locked every day at sundown, was the only means of reaching the rest of the city. The Jews themselves were forced to pay all design and construction costs related to the project, which came to a total of roughly 300 scudi. The bull restricted Jews in other ways as well. They were forbidden to have more than one synagogue per city—leading, in Rome alone, to the destruction of seven "excess" places of worship. All Jews were forced to wear distinctive yellow hats, especially outside the ghetto, and they were forbidden to trade in everything but food and secondhand clothes.[10] Christians of all ages were encouraged to treat the Jews as second-class citizens; for a Jew to defy a Christian in any way was to invite severe punishment, often at the hands of a mob. By the end of Paul IV's five-year reign the number of Roman Jews had dropped by half.[9] Yet his anti-semitic legacy endured for over 300 years: the ghetto he established ceased to exist only with the dissolution of the Papal States in 1870. Its walls were torn down in 1888.

According to Leopold von Ranke, a rigid austerity and an earnest zeal for the restoration of primitive habits became the dominant tendency of his Papacy. Monks who had left their monasteries were expelled from the city and from the Papal States. He would no longer tolerate the practice by which one man had been allowed to enjoy the revenues of an office while delegating its duties to another.[11]

All begging was forbidden. Even the collection of alms for Masses, which had previously been made by the clergy, was discontinued. A medal was struck representing Christ driving the money changers from the Temple. Paul IV put in place a reform of the papal administration designed to stamp out trafficking of principal positions in the Curia.[6] All secular offices, from the highest to the lowest, were assigned to others based on merit. Important economies were made, and taxes were proportionately remitted. Paul IV established a chest, of which only he held the key, for the purpose of receiving all complaints that anyone desired to make.[11]

During his papacy, censorship reached new heights.[12] Among his first acts as Pope was to cut off Michelangelo's pension, and he ordered the nudes of The Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel be painted more modestly (a request that Michelangelo ignored) (the beginning of the Vatican's Fig leaf campaign). Paul IV also introduced the Index Librorum Prohibitorum or "Index of Prohibited Books" to Venice, then an independent and prosperous trading state, in order to crack down on the growing threat of Protestantism. Under his authority, all books written by Protestants were banned, together with Italian and German translations of the Latin Bible.


Paul IV's health began to break down in May 1559. He rallied in July, holding public audiences and attending meetings of the Inquisition. But he engaged in fasting, and the heat of the summer wore him down again. He was bedridden, and on 17 August it became clear he would not live. Cardinals and other officials gathered at his bedside on 18 August, where Paul IV asked them to elect a "righteous and holy" successor and to retain the Inquisition as "the very basis" of the Catholic Church's power. By 2 or 3 PM, he was close to death, and died at 5 PM.[13]

The people of Rome did not forget what they had suffered because of the war he had brought on the State. Crowds of people gathered at the Piazza del Campidoglio and began rioting even before Paul IV died.[14] His statue, erected before the Campidoglio just months before, had a yellow hat placed on it (similar to the yellow hat Paul IV had forced Jews to wear in public). After a mock trial, the statue was decapitated.[14] It was then thrown into the Tiber.[15]

The crowd broke into the three city jails and freed more than 400 prisoners, then broke into the offices of the Inquisition at the Palazzo dell' Inquisizone near to the Church of San Rocco. They murdered the Inquisitor, Tommaso Scotti, and freed 72 prisoners. One of those released was Dominican John Craig, who later was a colleague of John Knox. The people ransacked the palace, and then set it afire (destroying the Inquisition's records).[13] That same day, or the next day (records are unclear), the crowd attacked the Church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva. The intercession of some local nobility dissuaded them from burning it and killing all those within.[16] On the third day of rioting, the crowd removed the Carafa family coat of arms from all churches, monuments, and other buildings in the city.[15]

The crowd dedicated to him the following pasquinata:[17]

Carafa hated by the devil and the sky
is buried here with his rotting corpse,
Erebus has taken the spirit;
he hated peace on earth, our faith he contested.
he ruined the church and the people, men and sky offended;
treacherous friend, suppliant with the army which was fatal to him.
You want to know more? Pope was him and that is enough.

Such hostile views have not mellowed much with time; modern historians tend to view his papacy as an especially poor one. His policies stemmed from personal prejudices—against Spain, for example, or the Jews—rather than any overarching political or religious goals. In a time of precarious balance between Catholic and Protestant, his adversarial nature did little to slow the latter's spread across northern Europe. His anti-Spanish feelings alienated the Habsburgs, arguably the most powerful Catholic rulers in Europe, and his ascetic personal beliefs left him out of touch with the artistic and intellectual movements of his era (he often spoke of whitewashing the Sistine Ceiling). Such a reactionary attitude alienated clergy and laity alike: historian John Julius Norwich calls him "the worst pope of the 16th century."[9]

Four or five hours after his death, Paul IV's body was taken to the Cappella Paolina in the Apostolic Palace. It lay in repose, and a choir sang the Office of the Dead on the morning of 19 August. Cardinals and many others then paid homage to Paul IV ("kissed the feet of the pope"). The canons of St. Peter's Basilica refused to take his body into the basilica unless they were paid the customary money and gifts. Instead, the canons sang the usual office in the Cappella del Santissimo Sacramento (Chapel of the Blessed Sacrament). Paul IV's body was taken to the Sistine Chapel in the Apostolic Palace at 6 PM.[15]

Paul IV's nephew, Cardinal-nephew Carlo Carafa, arrived in Rome late on 19 August. Worried that the rioters might break in and desecrate the pope's corpse, at 10 PM Cardinal Carafa had Pope Paul IV buried without ceremony next to the Cappella del Volto Santo (Chapel of the Holy Face) in St. Peter's. His remains stayed there until October 1566, when his successor as pope, Pius V, had them transferred to Santa Maria sopra Minerva. In the chapel founded by Paul IV's uncle and mentor, Cardinal Oliviero Carafa, a tomb was created by Pirro Ligorio and Paul IV's remains placed therein.[15]

In fiction

Paul IV's title in the Prophecy of St. Malachy is "Of the Faith of Peter".[18]

As Paul IV, Carafa appears as a character in John Webster's Jacobean revenge drama The White Devil (1612).[19]

In the novel Q by Luther Blissett, while not appearing himself, Gian Pietro Carafa is mentioned repeatedly as the cardinal whose spy and agent provocateur, Qoelet, causes many of the disasters to befall Protestants during the Reformation and the Roman Church's response in the 16th century.[20]

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f Wikisource-logo.svg Loughlin, James F. (1913). "Pope Paul IV" . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  2. ^ a b public domain Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Pope Paul IV". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 956.
  3. ^ (Firm), John Murray (1908). "Handbook for Rome and the Campagna".
  4. ^ MacCulloch, Dairmuid. Reformation in Europe, London, 2005
  5. ^ Robin, Larsen and Levin. Encyclopedia of Women in the Renaissance. p. 24.
  6. ^ a b c John, Eric. The Popes, Hawthorne Books, New York
  7. ^ "Crown of Ireland Act 1542". Heraldica. 25 July 2003. Retrieved 1 November 2012.
  8. ^ Will Durant (1953). The Renaissance. Chapter XXXIX: The Popes and the Council: 1517–1565.
  9. ^ a b c Norwich, John Julius (2011). Absolute Monarchs. New York: Random House. p. 316. ISBN 978-1-4000-6715-2.
  10. ^ Coppa, Frank J. (2006). The Papacy, the Jews, and the Holocaust. Washington: Catholic University of America Press. p. 29. ISBN 9780813215952.
  11. ^ a b Wines, Roger. Leopold von Ranke: The Secret of World History, (1981)
  12. ^ Deming 2012, p. 36.
  13. ^ a b Setton, Kenneth M. (1984). The Papacy and the Levant, 1204-1571. Volume IV: The Sixteenth Century. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society. p. 718. ISBN 978-0871691149.
  14. ^ a b Stow, Kenneth (2001). Theater of Acculturation: The Roman Ghetto in the 16th Century. Seattle: University of Washington Press. p. 41. ISBN 978-0295980256.
  15. ^ a b c d Setton, Kenneth M. (1984). The Papacy and the Levant, 1204-1571. Volume IV: The Sixteenth Century. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society. p. 719. ISBN 978-0871691149.
  16. ^ Setton, Kenneth M. (1984). The Papacy and the Levant, 1204-1571. Volume IV: The Sixteenth Century. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society. pp. 718–719. ISBN 978-0871691149.
  17. ^ Claudio Rendina, I papi, p. 646
  18. ^ "Prophecies of Future Popes". The Month: An Illustrated Magazine of Literature, Science and Art. June 1899. p. 572.
  19. ^ Rist, Thomas (2008). Revenge Tragedy and the Drama of Commemoration in Reforming England. Aldershot, England: Ashgate. p. 121. ISBN 9780754661528.
  20. ^ Garber, Jeremy (Winter 2006). "Reading the Anabaptists: Anabaptist Historiography and Luther Blissett's 'Q'". The Conrad Grebel Review. 24 (1). Archived from the original on 29 November 2014.


External links

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Giovanni Salviati
Cardinal-bishop of Albano
Succeeded by
Ennio Filonardi
Cardinal-bishop of Sabina
Succeeded by
François de Tournon
Preceded by
Philippe de la Chambre
Cardinal-bishop of Frascati
Succeeded by
Jean du Bellay
Preceded by
Giovanni Salviati
Cardinal-bishop of Porto
Preceded by
Giovanni Domenico de Cupi
Cardinal-bishop of Ostia
Preceded by
Marcellus II
23 May 1555 – 18 August 1559
Succeeded by
Pius IV

Year 1559 (MDLIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Andrea Matteo Acquaviva d'Aragona

Andrea Matteo Acquaviva d'Aragona (died 1576) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Archbishop of Cosenza (1573–1576) and Bishop of Venafro (1558–1573).

Angelo Massarelli

Angelo Massarelli (1510–1566) was the Roman Catholic bishop of Bishop of Telese o Cerreto Sannita (1557–1566). He is best known for keeping the Acts of the Council of Trent, which were the minutes of the council, and published only 300 years after the council was held.

Antonio Elio

Antonio Elio or Antonio Helius (1506–1576) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Capodistria (1572–1576), Titular Patriarch of Jerusalem (1558–1572), and Bishop of Pula (1548–1566).

Cristóbal Rojas Sandoval

Cristóbal Rojas Sandoval (26 June 1502 – 22 September 1580) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Archbishop of Seville (1571–1580),Bishop of Córdoba (1562–1571),Bishop of Badajoz (1556–1562),

and Bishop of Oviedo (1546–1556).

Cum ex apostolatus officio

Cum ex apostolatus officio is the name of a papal bull issued by Pope Paul IV on 15 February 1559 as a codification or explicitation of the ancient Catholic law that only Catholics can be elected Popes, to the exclusion of non-Catholics, including former Catholics who have become public and manifest heretics.

The immediate provocation was Pope Paul's suspicion that Cardinal Giovanni Morone, who was popular and expected to succeed him, was secretly a Protestant. Pope Paul IV believed that it was necessary to prevent or negate Morone's possible election as his successor. He wanted to set it in Church law that no manifest heretic can lawfully hold the Office of St. Peter.

Cum nimis absurdum

Cum nimis absurdum was a papal bull issued by Pope Paul IV dated 14 July 1555. It takes its name from its first words: "Since it is absurd and utterly inconvenient that the Jews, who through their own fault were condemned by God to eternal slavery..."

The bull revoked all the rights of the Jewish community and placed religious and economic restrictions on Jews in the Papal States, renewed anti-Jewish legislation and subjected Jews to various degradations and restrictions on their personal freedom.

The bull established the Roman Ghetto and required the Jews of Rome, which had existed as a community since before Christian times and numbered about 2,000 at the time, to live in it. The Ghetto was a walled quarter with three gates that were locked at night. Under the bull, Jewish males were required to wear a pointed yellow hat, and Jewish females a yellow kerchief. Jews were required to attend compulsory Catholic sermons on the Jewish shabbat.

The bull also subjected Jews to various other restrictions such as a prohibition on property ownership and practising medicine among Christians. Jews were allowed to practice only unskilled jobs, as rag men, secondhand dealers or fish mongers. They could also be pawnbrokers.

Paul IV's successor, Pope Pius IV, enforced the creation of other ghettos in most Italian towns, and his successor, Pope Pius V, recommended them to other bordering states. The Papal States ceased to exist on 20 September 1870 when they were incorporated in the Kingdom of Italy, but the requirement that Jews live in the ghetto was only formally abolished by the Italian state in 1882.

Fausto Caffarelli

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Gaspare Viviani

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Giacomo Lomellino del Canto (died 9 August 1575) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Archbishop of Palermo (1571–1575), Bishop of Mazara del Vallo (1562–1571),

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House of Carafa

The House of Carafa is a noble Neapolitan family of Italian nobles, clergy, and men of arts, known from the 12th century. The family rose to prominence during the 14th century, under the Angevin rule in Naples and established itself as one of the leading noble families of southern Italy in the 15th century under the Aragonese dynasty. Across the time, the family split in many lines, the most important being the Princes of Roccella, the Dukes of Andria, the Princes of Stigliano, the Dukes of Maddaloni, the Dukes of Nocera and the Dukes of Noja. The family gave sixteen cardinals to the Church, including one pope, Paul IV.

Members included:

Oliviero Carafa (1430 – 20 January 1511), cardinal

Giovanni Pietro Carafa (1476–1559), became Pope Paul IV from May 1555 until his death

Gianvincenzo Carafa (1477-1541), cardinal

Diomede Carafa (1492-1560), cardinal

Carlo Carafa (1517-1561), cardinal, a nephew of Pope Paul IV; Executed in Rome on 6 March 1561

Prince Giovanni Carafa, Duke of Paliano (d. 1561), a nephew of Pope Paul IV; under the next pope Pius IV. He was tried and beheaded in 1561 at Tor di Nona, two days after the execution of his brother Cardinal Carlo Carafa

Cardinal Antonio Carafa (1538–1591), also a nephew of Pope Paul IV

Cardinal Alfonso Carafa (1540 – 1565, aged 25), son of Antonio Carafa Marquis of Montebello, and grandnephew of Pope Paul IV

Fabrizio Carafa (bishop) (1588–1651), former Bishop of Bitonto

Fabrizio Carafa (died 1590), Duke of Andria; famously murdered by noted composer Carlo Gesualdo, known as Gesualdo da Venosa (1566–1613), Prince of Venosa and Count of Conza, for having an affair with Gesualdo's wife

Girolamo Caraffa (1564–1633), Marquis of Montenegro, a general in Spanish and Imperial service

Decio Carafa (1556–1626), cardinal

Pier Luigi Carafa (1581-1655), cardinal

Porzia Carafa, mother of Pope Innocent XII (1615-1700)

Don Giuseppe Carafa (d. 1647), Neapolitan aristocrat who was killed in July 1647 during the early stages of the Revolt of Masaniello against Spanish Habsburg rule

Vincenzo Carafa (1585-1649), General Superior of Jesuit Order

Francesco Maria Carafa (died in prison, 1642), 5th Duke of Nocera, a Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece; Viceroy of Aragon and Viceroy of Navarre

Gregorio Carafa (1615–1690), Grand Master of the Order of St. John from 1680–90

Antonio Carafa (1646–1693); Imperial Field Marshal and Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece

Pierluigi Carafa (1677–1755), former Dean of the College of Cardinals

Francesco Carafa di Trajetto (1722-1818), cardinal

Ettore Carafa (1767-1799), late 18th-century Neapolitan Republican

Michele Carafa (1787-1872), 19th-century Italian composer

Domenico Carafa della Spina di Traetto (1805–1879), cardinal

Lorenzo Strozzi

Lorenzo Strozzi (December 3, 1513 – December 14, 1571) was an Italian abbot and cardinal. He was the son of Filippo Strozzi, a member of the powerful Strozzi family of Florence, and Clarice de' Medici.

Lorenzo Strozzi was born in Florence. His ecclesiastical career developed in France, first as abbot of Saint-Victor in Marseille (which he renounced in 1561), later as abbot of Villar San Costanzo at Staffarda, and then as bishop of Béziers in 1548. He fought firmly the spread of Calvinism in Languedoc, supported by the French queen Catherine de' Medici, who had grown up with Lorenzo after her father's death.

He was created cardinal by Pope Paul IV in the consistory of March 15, 1557, with the title of Santa Balbina.

Later he was archbishop of Albi (1561), archbishop of Aix-en-Provence (1568-1571) and archbishop of Siena from 1568.

He died at Avignon in 1571.

May 1555 papal conclave

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Muzio Calini

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Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Naples

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bishops.In the foreword to the Summa Theologica, the famous theological summary of the Catholic Church's doctrines, where a biography of the author, Saint Thomas Aquinas, is found, it is mentioned that he was offered the post of Archbishop of Naples (in the 1200s), which even then was one of the most prominent archdioceses, but turned it down.

Sacra Consulta

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San Pancrazio

The church of San Pancrazio (English: St Pancras; Latin: S. Pancratii) is a Roman Catholic ancient basilica and titular church founded by Pope Symmachus in the 6th century in Rome, Italy. It stands in via S. Pancrazio, westward beyond the Porta San Pancrazio that opens in a stretch of the Aurelian Wall on the Janiculum.

The Cardinal Priest of the Titulus S. Pancratii is Antonio Cañizares Llovera. Among the previous titulars, Pope Paul IV (15 January-24 September 1537) and Pope Clement VIII (18 December 1585-30 January 1592).

Santa Cruz Cathedral Basilica, Kochi

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The basilica serves as the Cathedral church of the Diocese of Cochin.

It was built originally by the Portuguese and elevated to a Cathedral by Pope Paul IV in 1558, was spared by the Dutch conquerors who destroyed many Catholic buildings. Later the British demolished the structure and João Gomes Ferreira commissioned a new building in 1887. Consecrated in 1905, Santa Cruz was proclaimed a Basilica by Pope John Paul II in 1984.

University of Évora

The University of Évora (Universidade de Évora) is a public university in Évora, Portugal. It is the second oldest university in the country, established in 1559 by then cardinal Henry, and receiving University status in April of the same year from Pope Paul IV, as documented in his Cum a nobis papal bull. Running under the aegis of the Society of Jesus (also known as Jesuits) meant that the university was a target of the Marquis of Pombal's Jesuit oppression, being closed down permanently in 1779 and its masters either incarcerated or exiled.It was reopened nearly two hundred years later in 1973 as Instituto Universitário de Évora (University Institute of Évora) by decree of the Minister of Education, José Veiga Simão, in the site of the older university, as part of a set of education policies during the early 1970s that were attempting to reshape Portuguese higher education. Six years later, in 1979, the name was changed to Universidade de Évora.

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13th–16th centuries
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Age of Enlightenment (c. 1640-1740)
Revolutionary Papacy (1775–1848)
Roman Question (1870–1929)
Vatican City (1929–present)
21st century
History of the papacy
Bible and
By country
of the faithful
Early Church
Late antiquity
Early Middle Ages
High Middle Ages
Late Middle Ages
19th century
20th century
21st century

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