Pope Paul I

Pope Paul I (Latin: Paulus I; 700 – 28 June 767) was Pope from 29 May 757 to his death in 767. He first served as a Roman deacon and was frequently employed by his brother, Pope Stephen II, in negotiations with the Lombard kings.

Pope Saint

Paul I
Paul I
Papacy began29 May 757
Papacy ended28 June 767
PredecessorStephen II
SuccessorStephen III
Personal details
BornRome, Exarchate of Ravenna, Byzantine Empire
Died28 June 767
Rome, Papal States
Other popes named Paul
Papal styles of
Pope Paul I
Emblem of the Papacy SE
Reference styleHis Holiness
Spoken styleYour Holiness
Religious styleHoly Father
Posthumous styleSaint
Pope Saint Paul I
Pope
Born700
Rome
Died28 June 767
Rome
Venerated inCatholic Church
CanonizedPre-Congregation
FeastJune 28

Life

Paul was a native of Rome.[1] He and his brother Stephen had been educated for the priesthood at the Lateran palace. After Stephen's death on 26 April 757, Paul prevailed over a faction that wanted to make the Archdeacon Theophylact pope and was chosen his brother's successor by the majority that wished a continuation of the late pope's policy. The new pope's reign was dominated by relations with the Frankish and Lombard kings and with the Eastern emperor. He adopted an independent tone in informing the imperial Exarch in Ravenna of his election, but wrote to Pepin the Younger that the Frankish alliance should be maintained unimpaired. Paul was likely concerned of the danger posed by the Lombard king Desiderius.[2]

The Lombards held the cities of Imola, Osimo, Bologna, and Ancona, which were claimed by Rome, and in 758 seized upon the duchies of Spoleto and Benevento. On his return from suppressing a revolt in Benevento, Desiderius visited Rome and compelled Paul to write to Pepin asking him to concede all the Lombard claims. He promised to return Imola, but on condition that the pope should persuade Pepin to send back Lombard hostages held by the Franks.[2]

In a letter that was to secure the envoys a safe passage through Lombard territory, Paul agreed to the demands of Desiderius and begged Pepin to accede to the wishes of the Lombards by making a treaty of peace and returning the hostages. In a second secret letter, the Paul advised Pepin of the agreement of Desiderius with the Byzantines for the conquest of Ravenna, and implored Pepin to come to the aid of the pope, and to force the Lombard king to yield the towns retained by him.[2]

Pepin found it advisable to maintain good relations with Desiderius, and Paul apparently accomplished little by his double-dealing. Later, however, Pepin gave the pope some support and acted as arbiter between the Roman and Lombard claims.

In 765, papal privileges were restored in Beneventine and Tuscan territory and partially in Spoleto. Meanwhile, the alienation from Constantinople grew greater. Several times, especially in 759, Paul feared that the Eastern Roman Emperor would send an armament against the city of Rome. Paul lived in continual dread lest Eastern Roman ambitions turn the Frankish influence in favor of the Lombards. This was actually attempted, but Pepin held to his original foreign policy regarding Italy.

Paul died in Rome on 28 June 767.[2]

See also

References

  1. ^ McClintock, John; Strong, James (April 15, 1882). "Cyclopaedia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature". Harper – via Google Books.
  2. ^ a b c d "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Pope Paul I". www.newadvent.org.

External links

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Stephen II
Pope
757–767
Succeeded by
Stephen III
760s

The 760s decade ran from January 1, 760, to December 31, 769.

== Events ==

=== 760 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Frankish King Pepin III ("the Short") begins his expedition to Septimania and Aquitaine. He conquers the cities of Carcassone, Toulouse, Rodez and Albi. Duke Waifer of Aquitaine confiscates the Church lands, and plunders Burgundy. Pepin invades Aquitanian-held Berry and the Auvergne, capturing the fortresses of Bourbon and Clermont. Waifer's Basque troops are defeated by the Franks, and deported into northern France with their children and wives.

====== Britain ======

Battle of Hereford: The Welsh kingdoms of Brycheiniog, Gwent and Powys defeat the Mercians under King Offa at Hereford. They free themselves from the influence of the Anglo-Saxons.

Offa's Dyke is constructed, a 150-mile-long (240 km) earthwork which marks the current border with the Welsh kingdoms, between England and Wales (approximate date).

====== China ======

Former emperor Xuanzong is placed under house arrest by the eunuch official Li Fuguo, with the support of Xuanzong's son, Suzong. Li Fuguo is appointed commander of the Imperial Guards, possessing nearly absolute power during Suzong's reign.

The Kingdom of Nanzhao (Nanchao) in modern-day southern China expands into the Irrawaddy River region, first into Burma, then down into northern Laos and Thailand (approximate date).

Lu Yu begins writing The Classic of Tea.

====== Mesoamerica ======

The Maya city of Dos Pilas (modern Guatemala) is abandoned, after the Tamarindito and Petexbatún centres revolt against their Dos Pilas overlord.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

The Church of Santa Sophia is founded by the Lombard duke Arechis II in Benevento (approximate date).

The Kailasa Temple is built on the orders of King Krishna I, of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty (modern India).

=== 761 ===

==== By place ====

====== Britain ======

Battle of Eildon: King Æthelwald of Northumbria faces a rebellion, under a rival claimant to the throne named Oswine, brother of the murdered King Oswulf of Northumbria. The latter is killed after a three-day battle against the forces of Æthelwald, in the Eildon Hills.

Bridei V succeeds his brother Óengus I as king of the Picts (modern Scotland).

====== Europe ======

The city of Oviedo (Northern Spain) is founded by the monks Nolan and John (approximate date).

Construction is completed on the 108-room Castello di Lunghezza outside of Rome, Italy.

====== Abbasid Caliphate ======

An Abbasid Caliphate army reconquers the city of Kairouan (in modern-day Tunisia), from 'Abd al-Rahmān ibn Rustam of the Rustamid dynasty. The latter is forced to flee west, where he creates an autonomous state around Tihert (Tiaret).

Khurshid II, the last ruler (spāhbed) of Tabaristan, poisons himself when he learns that his family has been captured by the Abbasids.

====== Asia ======

The Japanese priest Dōkyō cures Empress Kōken by using prayers and potions. He may have become her lover and certainly becomes her court favorite, arousing the jealousy of Emperor Junnin.

A great Chinese famine in the Huai-Yangtze area, late in the year, drives many people to cannibalism (approximate date).

=== 762 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Vinekh, ruler (khagan) of the Bulgarian Empire, dies after a six-year reign. He is succeeded by Telets, ending the rule of the Vokil clan, and beginning the reign of the Ugain clan.

Al-Ala ibn Mugith, supporter of the Abbasid cause, is defeated by the Umayyad emir of al-Andalus, Abd al-Rahman I, at Beja (modern-day Portugal).

====== Britain ======

King Æthelbert II of Kent dies, and is succeeded by his nephew Eadberht II. He possibly rules all Kent for a time. Sigered, probably an East Saxon, succeeds in West Kent. Eadberht dies after a short reign, followed by Ealhmund as ruler of Kent.

King Æthelwald of Northumbria marries his queen, Æthelthryth, at Catterick (North Yorkshire).

====== Abbasid Caliphate ======

July 30 – Caliph al-Mansur moves the seat of the Abbasid Caliphate from Kufa to the new capital of Baghdad.

September 25 – The Alid Revolt begins: Muhammad al-Nafs al-Zakiyya raises the banner against the Abbasids at Medina, followed by his brother Ibrahim ibn Abdallah at Basra in early 763. Muhammad's rebellion is suppressed, and he is killed by Abbasid troops under Isa ibn Musa.

====== Asia ======

The Chinese official Li Fuguo murders Empress Zhang, wife of Emperor Su Zong. Shortly afterward Su Zong dies of a heart attack; he is succeeded by his son Dai Zong, who kills Li by sending assassins.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Schäftlarn Abbey (Bavaria) is founded by Waltrich, a Benedictine monk of noble family, south of modern-day Munich, Germany.

=== 763 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

June – Battle of Anchialus: Emperor Constantine V sends a Byzantine expeditionary force (800 ships and 9,600 cavalry) to Thrace, to defend the fortress city of Anchialus on the Black Sea Coast. Meanwhile, Telets, ruler (khagan) of the Bulgarian Empire, blocks the mountain passes and takes positions on the heights near Anchialus. During a desperate cavalry charge ,the Bulgars are defeated and many are captured; Telets manages to escape. Constantine enters Constantinople in triumph, and kills all the prisoners.

====== Europe ======

August – Byzantine troops invade the Papal States, in alliance with King Desiderius of the Lombards. King Pepin III ("the Short") intervenes, and begins negotiations between the Lombards and Pope Paul I. Desiderius promises to end the hostilities, but on condition that Pepin sends back Lombard hostages held by the Franks.

====== Britain ======

Ciniod I succeeds Bridei V, as king of the Picts (modern Scotland).

====== Abbasid Caliphate ======

January 21 – Battle of Bakhamra: The Abbasid army under Isa ibn Musa defeats the Alids, and puts an end to their rebellion. The power of the Abbasid Dynasty is consolidated.

====== Asia ======

February 17 – An Lushan Rebellion: Emperor Shi Chaoyi hangs himself to avoid being captured by Tang troops sent by the renegade Li Huaixian, ending the 7-year rebellion against the Tang Dynasty in China.

November 18 – Forces of the Tibetan Empire, under Trisong Detsen, occupy the Tang capital of Chang'an (modern Xi'an) for 15 days, and install a puppet emperor. Tibetans take over the horse pastures.

=== 764 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Domenico Monegario is deposed, after Pope Paul I has demanded donations from Venice. Monegario is blinded and exiled, and succeeded by Maurizio Galbaio as the 7th doge of Venice. During his reign, Venetian wealth is increased via trade.

====== Britain ======

King Offa of Mercia conquers Kent, and brings an end to the rule of kings Ealhmund and Sigered in West Kent. He imposes Mercian overlordship on the kingdom, but allows a local king, Heaberht, to rule there.

====== Asia ======

October 14–21 – Fujiwara no Nakamaro Rebellion: A short-lived revolt led by Fujiwara no Nakamaro is suppressed. Emperor Junnin is deposed after a 6-year reign, and forced into exile. Former empress Kōken reassumes the imperial throne of Japan, and takes the name Shōtoku. She appoints her close associate, the priest Dōkyō, prime minister (taishi), running the government with him. Nakamaro is captured and killed with his wife and children.

==== By topic ====

====== Geography ======

According to the historian Theophanes the Confessor, ice bergs float past Constantinople from the Black Sea (approximate date).

====== Religion ======

Cancor, a Frankish count (possibly of Hesbaye), founds Lorsch Abbey (modern-day Germany).

=== 765 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

King Pepin III ("the Short") restores the papal privileges (see Donation of Pepin) in Benevento and Tuscany territory (and partially in Spoleto).

The Annals of Tigernach tell of a shortage of bread in Ireland.

====== Britain ======

King Æthelwald of Northumbria is deposed at Pincanheale, possibly at a gathering of his own magnates. He is succeeded by Alhred, a distant cousin of the late king Oswulf.

====== Abbasid Caliphate ======

The Zenata Berber tribe of Banu Ifran rebels against the Abbasid Caliphate, and creates an independent state centered around Tlemcen (modern Algeria). Their tribal chief Abu Qurra rebuilds the city (formerly, the Roman colonia Pomaria).

==== By topic ====

====== Agriculture ======

European writings make the first known mention of a three-field system in use in medieval Europe. The crop rotation is the practice of growing a series of different types of crops in the same area in sequential seasons. Under this system, the land of an estate or village is divided into three large fields, and makes a given section of land productive 2 years out of 3, instead of every other year (approximate date).

=== 766 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

August 25 – Emperor Constantine V publicly humiliates 19 high-ranking officials in the Hippodrome of Constantinople, after discovering a plot against him. He executes the leaders, Constantine Podopagouros and his brother Strategios, and blinds and exiles the rest.

Autumn – Siege of Kamacha: Abbasid forces under al-Hasan ibn Qahtaba are defeated at the fortress city of Kamacha, in eastern Cappadocia (modern Turkey). A Byzantine relief army (12,000 men) forces the Abbasids to retreat into Armenia.

Sabin, ruler (khagan) of Bulgaria, flees to the Byzantine fortress city of Mesembria, from where he escapes to Constantinople. Constantine V arranges for the transfer of Sabin's family from Bulgaria.

====== Abbasid Caliphate ======

Baghdad nears completion as 100,000 laborers create a circular city about 2 km in diameter, the "Round City". In the center is a palace built for Caliph al-Mansur. The capital is ringed by three lines of walls (approximate date).

====== Asia ======

The Karluks defeat the Turgesh Khaganate in Central Asia. Most of Turkestan (former Onoq territory) falls under Karluk rule, except west of Lake Aral, where the loose confederation of the Oghuz Turks is about to emerge.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Summer – Patriarch Constantine II is deposed and jailed, after the discovery of Constantine Podopagouros' plot against Constantine V. Nicetas I is appointed patriarch of Constantinople.

Metten Abbey, near the town of Deggendorf (Bavaria), is founded by Gamelbert of Michaelsbuch.

=== 767 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Byzantine–Bulgarian War: Emperor Constantine V invades Bulgaria across the Balkan Mountains, setting afire some settlements around the Bulgarian capital of Pliska. Constantine accepts a peace agreement with Pagan, the Bulgar ruler (khagan), whose land is in anarchy.

====== Europe ======

The Franks, under King Pepin III ("the Short"), destroy resistance in central Aquitaine. They conquer the capital of Bordeaux, and devastate the whole region.

Pepin III receives a Byzantine delegation at his court in Gentilly (southern suburbs of Paris). They discuss foreign policy regarding Italy, and Byzantine Iconoclasm.

====== Africa ======

The Kharijite Berbers of Tlemcen and Tiaret try to conquer Ifriqiya from the Abbasid Caliphate, but fail to capture the capital of Kairouan (modern Tunisia).

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

June 28 – Pope Paul I dies at Rome after a 10-year reign, in which he has protested against Constantine V's revival of Iconoclasm at Constantinople. He gives refuge to Greek monks who were expelled from the Byzantine Empire, and moves the relics of many saints from the catacombs to Roman churches. Duke Toto of Nepi has his layman brother elected to succeed Paul, under the name Constantine II.

=== 768 ===

==== By place ====

====== Frankish Kingdom ======

September 24 – King Pepin III (the Short) dies at Saint-Denis, Neustria. The Frankish Kingdom is divided between his two sons: Charlemagne and Carloman I. According to Salic law Charlemagne receives the outer parts of the kingdom bordering on the sea, namely Neustria, western Aquitaine, and the northern parts of Austrasia; while Carloman is awarded his uncle's former share, the inner parts: southern Austrasia, Septimania, eastern Aquitaine, Burgundy, Provence, Swabia, and the lands bordering Italy.

Waiofar, duke of Aquitaine, and his family are captured and executed by the Franks in the forest of Périgord. Waiofar's kinsman Hunald II succeeds to his claims and continues to fight against Charlemagne.

====== Iberian Peninsula ======

Fruela I (the Cruel), the King of Asturias, is assassinated in Cangas, his capital, after he murders his brother Vimerano. Fruela is succeeded by his cousin Aurelius, who is chosen by the nobility.

In al-Andalus, the Berber tribal chieftain Saqiya ibn Abd al Wahid al-Miknasi leads a rebellion against the Emirate of Córdoba, in the present-day Spanish province of Extremadura.

====== Britain ======

King Alhred of Northumbria marries Princess Osgifu, possibly daughter of the late king Oswulf (approximate date).

====== Asia ======

The Kasuga Shrine is erected at Nara (Japan), by the Fujiwara family. The interior is famous for its many bronze lanterns, as well as the stone lanterns that lead up to the shrine.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

August 7 – Pope Stephen III succeeds Paul I as the 94th pope of the Catholic Church. The antipope Constantine II is overthrown at Rome, through intervention by King Desiderius of the Lombards, after a brief reign (see 767).

Lebuinus, Anglo-Saxon missionary, founds the city of Deventer (modern-day Netherlands), and builds a wooden church on the bank of the River IJssel (approximate date).

Archbishop Elfodd of Gwynedd persuades the Welsh Church to accept the Roman dating of Easter, as agreed by the British Church at the Synod of Whitby (see 664).

=== 769 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

King Charlemagne (Charles "the Great") begins a military campaign against Aquitaine and Gascony. He leads a Frankish army to the city of Bordeaux, where he sets up a fort at Fronsac. His younger brother Carloman I refuses to participate in the uprising, and returns to Burgundy. Hunald, duke of Aquitaine, is forced to flee to the court of Gascony. Lupus II, fearing Charlemagne, turns Hunald over in exchange for peace, and is put in a monastery. Aquitaine and Gascony are subdued into the Frankish Kingdom.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

April 12–15 – Pope Stephen III summons a Lateran Council: the papal election procedure (abuse of which has led to the election of antipopes) is changed, and the iconoclasm of the Council of Hieria is anathematized.

The Monastery of Tallaght is founded by Máel Ruain in Ireland. The monastery becomes a centre of learning and piety, particularly associated with the Céli Dé spiritual reform movement.

Hersfeld Abbey (modern-day Hesse-Nassau), Germany, is founded by Lullus, archbishop of Mainz (approximate date).

763

Year 763 (DCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. The denomination 763 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

767

Year 767 (DCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. The denomination 767 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Antipope Constantine II

Antipope Constantine II (died 769?) was an antipope for over a year, from 28 June 767 to 6 August 768. He was overthrown through the intervention of the Lombards and tortured before he was condemned and expelled from the Church during the Lateran Council of 769.

Upon the death of Pope Paul I various factions contended to secure the appointment of their respective candidates as pope. Constantine, although a layman, was supported by a group of Tuscan nobles, led by his brother. They secured his election by force of arms. The following spring, local authorities, with Lombard support, succeeded in deposing him. The Lombards then attempted to install their own candidate, a priest named Philip. He, in turn, was overthrown the following day by the local authorities who then elected the churchman Stephen. For a short time Constantine retained some support outside the city, which resulted in armed conflict. The supporters of Stephen had the imprisoned Constantine blinded, which, it seems to be generally allowed, Stephen was unable to hinder. After which Constantine was held in close confinement in a monastery.

Concatedral de San Nicolás el Magno

The Catedral San Nicolás el Magno is a Roman Catholic co-cathedral, located in the municipality of Rionegro, Antioquia, Colombia. The church, under the Diocese of Sonsón-Rionegro is dedicated to Saint Nicholas and was elevated to the title of cathedral on 20 April 1968 by Pope Paul I.

Domenico Monegario

Domenico Monegario was the traditional sixth Doge of Venice (756–764).

Frankish Papacy

From 756 to 857, the papacy shifted from the orbit of the Byzantine Empire to that of the kings of the Franks. Pepin the Short (ruled 751–768), Charlemagne (r. 768–814) (co-ruler with his brother Carloman I until 771), and Louis the Pious (r. 814-840) had considerable influence in the selection and administration of popes. The "Donation of Pepin" (756) ratified a new period of papal rule in central Italy, which became known as the Papal States.

This shift was initiated by the Lombards conquering the Exarchate of Ravenna from the Byzantines, strengthened by the Frankish triumph over the Lombards, and ended by the fragmentation of the Frankish Kingdom into West Francia, Middle Francia, and East Francia. Lothair I continued to rule Middle Francia which included much of the Italian peninsula, from 843 to 855.

This period was "a critical time in Rome's transformation from ancient capital to powerful bishopric to new state capital." The period was characterized by "battles between Franks, Lombards and Romans for control of the Italian peninsula and of supreme authority within Christendom."

Lateran Council (769)

The Lateran Council of 769 was a synod held in the Basilica of St. John Lateran to rectify perceived abuses in the papal electoral process which had led to the elevation of the Antipopes Constantine II and Philip. It also condemned the rulings of the Council of Hieria. It is perhaps the most important Roman council held during the 8th century.

Magnanapoli

Magnanapoli is a name given to part of the Quirinal hill in Rome, literally meaning Great Naples. The two most common explanations are that this is a corruption of:

Balnea Pauli (Baths of Paul), name given to the nearby Trajan's Market when it was thought to be a thermal-baths complex built by Pope Paul I

Magnus Neapolitani Regni Connestabilis (Latin, the Great[-man] of the Co-Established Neapolitan Kingdom), a title of members of the Colonna family, deriving from its many fiefs in the Kingdom of Naples. They held many towers in this area (like, but not including, the Torre delle Milizie, which was built to oppose the Colonna's towers), and the corruption could have crept in from a shortened or damaged inscription.Today, piazza Magnanapoli is the site of the following churches:

Santa Caterina a Magnanapoli

Saints Dominic and Sixtus, the university church of the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum.

Paul I

Paul I may refer to:

Paul of Samosata (200–275), 16th bishop of Antioch

Paul I of Constantinople (died c. 350), sixth bishop of Constantinople

Pope Paul I (700–767)

Paul I, Serbian Patriarch, Archbishop of Peć and Serbian Patriarch (c. 1530–1541)

Paul I of Russia (1754–1801), Emperor of Russia

Paul Peter Massad, Maronite Patriarch of Antioch in 1854–1890

Paul of Greece (1901–1964), King of Greece

Pavle, Serbian Patriarch, 44th Patriarch of the Serbian Orthodox Church, in 1990–2009

Pope Paul

Pope Paul may refer to:

Pope Paul I (757–767)

Pope Paul II (1464–1471)

Pope Paul III (1534–1549)

Pope Paul IV (1555–1559)

Pope Paul V (1605–1621)

Pope Paul VI (1963–1978)See also:

Pope John Paul I (1978)

Pope John Paul II (1978–2005)

Pope Stephen III

Pope Stephen III (Latin: Stephanus III; d. 1 February 772) was the Pope from 7 August 768 to his death in 772.

Stephen was a Benedictine monk who worked in the Lateran Palace during the tenure of Pope Zachary. In the midst of a tumultuous contest by rival factions to name a successor to Pope Paul I, Stephen was elected with the support of the Roman officials. He summoned the Lateran Council of 769 which sought to limit the influence of the nobles in papal elections. The Council also opposed iconoclasm.

Quirinus of Tegernsee

Quirinus of Tegernsee, or Quirinus of Rome (not to be confused with Quirinus of Neuss, also sometimes called Quirinus of Rome), is venerated as a martyr and saint of the third century.

According to one tradition, he was beheaded during the reign of Claudius Gothicus (268-70). His corpse was thrown into the Tiber and later found at Tiber Island.According to the legendary Acts of the martyrs Saint Maris and Saint Martha, a Roman martyr Quirinus (Cyrinus) was buried in the Catacomb of Pontian. However, the Itineraries to the graves of the Roman martyrs do not mention him.His legend was later connected with Tegernsee Abbey in Bavaria, where his relics had been translated in the eighth century, during the reign of King Pippin and Pope Zacharias. However, Quirinus' relics may have been translated instead during the papacy of Pope Paul I (term 757-767), around 761.

Remigius of Rouen

Remigius (or Remedius) (died 771) was the illegitimate son of Charles Martel and probably Ruodhaid. He was also the third archbishop of Rouen from 755 to 762. Along with his brothers, he was denied any claim to the legacy of his father. He became archbishop during the reign of his half brother Pepin the Short.

Remigius is also known as Saint Remigius. His feast day is January 19. He was instrumental in implementing the Roman rite and chant in the Gallic church.

Remigius also accompanied Pepin to Italy in 760 with his two brothers (Bernard and Hieronymus) to mediate between Pope Paul I and Desiderius.

Santa Francesca Romana, Rome

Santa Francesca Romana (Italian: Basilica di Santa Francesca Romana), previously known as Santa Maria Nova, is a church in Rome, Italy, situated next to the Roman Forum in the rione Campitelli.

Æthelred I of Northumbria

Æthelred (; c. 762 – 18 April 796), was the king of Northumbria from 774 to 779 and again from 790 until he was murdered in 796. He was the son of Æthelwald Moll and Æthelthryth and possibly became king while still a child after Alhred was deposed.

Æthelwald Moll of Northumbria

Æthelwald Moll was King of Northumbria, the historic petty kingdom of Angles in medieval England, from 759 to 765. He seized power after the murder of Oswulf son of Eadberht; his ancestry and connection to the royal family of Northumbria is unknown. Æthelwald faced at least one rebellion, led by Oswine, perhaps a brother of Oswulf. In 765 a Witenagemot of Northumbrian notables deposed Æthelwald and replaced him with Alhred, a kinsman of his predecessor. After his removal from the throne Æthelwald became a monk, perhaps involuntarily.

Æthelwald's marriage with one Æthelthryth is recorded in 762 at Catterick by Symeon of Durham. He is known to have had at least one son, Æthelred, who later became king.

1st–4th centuries
During the Roman Empire (until 493)
including under Constantine (312–337)
5th–8th centuries
Ostrogothic Papacy (493–537)
Byzantine Papacy (537–752)
Frankish Papacy (756–857)
9th–12th centuries
Papal selection before 1059
Saeculum obscurum (904–964)
Crescentii era (974–1012)
Tusculan Papacy (1012–1044/1048)
Imperial Papacy (1048–1257)
13th–16th centuries
Viterbo (1257–1281)
Orvieto (1262–1297)
Perugia (1228–1304)
Avignon Papacy (1309–1378)
Western Schism (1378–1417)
Renaissance Papacy (1417–1534)
Reformation Papacy (1534–1585)
Baroque Papacy (1585–1689)
17th–20th centuries
Age of Enlightenment (c. 1640-1740)
Revolutionary Papacy (1775–1848)
Roman Question (1870–1929)
Vatican City (1929–present)
21st century
History of the papacy
Virgin Mary
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