Pope Nicholas IV

Pope Nicholas IV (Latin: Nicolaus IV; 30 September 1227 – 4 April 1292), born Girolamo Masci, Pope from 22 February 1288 to his death in 1292. He was the first Franciscan to be elected pope.[1]

Pope

Nicholas IV
NicholasIV
Papacy began22 February 1288
Papacy ended4 April 1292
PredecessorHonorius IV
SuccessorCelestine V
Orders
Consecration1281
Created cardinal12 March 1278
by Nicholas III
Personal details
Birth nameGirolamo Masci
Born30 September 1227
Lisciano, Marche, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
Died4 April 1292 (aged 64)
Rome, Papal States
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Coat of armsNicholas IV's coat of arms
Other popes named Nicholas
Papal styles of
Pope Nicholas IV
C o a Niccolo IV

Early life

Jerome Masci (Girolamo Masci) was born on 30 September 1227 at Lisciano, near Ascoli Piceno.[2][3] He was a pious, peace-loving man whose goals as a Franciscan friar were to protect the Church, promote the crusades, and root out heresy. According to Heinrich of Rebdorf, he was a Doctor of Theology.[4] As a Franciscan friar, he had been elected the Order's superior (minister) for Dalmatia during the Franciscan general chapter held at Pisa in 1272. Pope Gregory X (1271-1276), was sending a legate to the Greek Emperor, Michael Palaiologos, in 1272, to invite the participation of Greek prelates in the Second Council of Lyons. The Pope's ambition was to achieve a reunion of Eastern and Western Christendom. St Bonaventure, then Minister General of the Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans) was asked to select four Franciscans to accompany the Legation as Nuncios. He chose Friar Jerome Masci as one of the four.[5] When Bonaventure, died suddenly during the fifth session of the Order's General Chapter at Lyons on 15 July 1274, Friar Jerome Masci was elected to succeed him as the Franciscan Minister General, even though he was absent at the time, only then returning with the Greek delegates from the embassy to Constantinople.[6]

Jerome was the associate of John of Vercelli, Master General of the Dominican Order, when the latter was sent by Pope Nicholas III (Giovanni Caetani Orsini) on 15 October 1277, to arrange a peace between Philip IV of France and Alfonso III of Aragon. Jerome and John of Vercelli were again appointed to the same task on 4 April 1278.[7] At the same time, Jerome was ordered to continue for the time being as the Franciscan Minister General.[8]

In 1278 Jerome was made Cardinal Priest by Pope Nicholas III, and at some point after 16 May 1279 was assigned the titular church of Santa Pudenziana. Even after his appointment as a cardinal, he was allowed to remain as Minister General of the Franciscans until the next general chapter. In the event, however, he was unable to attend the chapter for reasons of ill health, as a letter of apology of Pope Nicholas III, written in May 1279, indicates.[9] On 12 April 1281 he was promoted Cardinal Bishop of Palestrina by Pope Martin IV.[10]

Pontificate

Papal conclave

After the death of Pope Honorius IV on 3 April 1287, the Conclave was held in Rome, at the papal palace next to Santa Sabina on the Aventine Hill, where Pope Honorius had died.[11] This was in accordance with the Constitution "Ubi Periculum" of Pope Gregory X. At the beginning, in April, there were thirteen cardinals in Rome; three Cardinals—Gerardo Bianchi, Giovanni Boccamati, and Jean Cholet—did not attend at all. The Sacred College was for a time hopelessly divided in its selection of a successor. When six of the electors died during the year 1287 (Ancher Pantaleon, Geoffrey de Bar, Hugh of Evesham, Giordano Orsini, Comes de Casanate, and Goffredo of Alatri—some, at least, carried off by fever), the others, with the sole exception of Jerome Masci, left the Conclave and returned to their homes. It was not until the following year that they reassembled. The electors at that time were seven in number: Jerome Masci, along with Latino Malabranca, Bentivenga de Bentivengis, Bernard de Languissel, Matteo Rosso Orsini, Giacomo Colonna, and Benedetto Caetani. On 15 February 1288, the survivors unanimously elected Jerome Masci, to the papacy on the first scrutiny. It is said that the Cardinals were impressed by his steadfastness in remaining at the papal palace, but there is no real documentation as to their motives. As he admitted in his electoral manifesto, Cardinal Masci was extremely reluctant to accept,[12] and indeed he persisted in his refusal for an entire week. Finally, on 22 February, he gave in and agreed.[13] He became the first Franciscan pope and chose the name Nicholas IV in remembrance of Nicholas III, who had made him a Cardinal.[10]

New Cardinals

Given the considerable losses to the numbers of the Sacred College in 1286 and 1287, it is not surprising that Nicholas IV quickly proceeded to fill vacancies. What is surprising is that he did not even reach the number of cardinals who were alive under Honorius IV, let alone exceed it. On 16 May 1288, he named six new cardinals: Bernardus Calliensis, Bishop of Osimo (who died in 1291), Hugues Aiscelin (Seguin) de Billon, OP, of the diocese of Clermont in the Auvergne;[14] Matthew of Aquasparta in Tuscany, Minister General of the Franciscans since 1287; Pietro Peregrosso of Milan, the Vice-Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church; Napoleone Orsini; and Pietro Colonna.[15]

Nicholas IV issued an important constitution on 18 July 1289, which granted to the cardinals one-half of all income accruing to the Holy See and a share in the financial management, thereby paving the way for that independence of the College of Cardinals which, in the following century, was to be of detriment to the papacy.

Actions

In regard to the question of the Sicilian succession, as feudal suzerain of the kingdom, Nicholas annulled the treaty, concluded in 1288 through the mediation of Edward I of England, which confirmed James II of Aragon in the possession of the island of Sicily. This treaty had not properly seen to papal interests. In May 1289 he crowned King Charles II of Naples and Sicily after the latter had expressly recognized papal suzerainty, and in February 1291 concluded a treaty with Kings Alfonso III of Aragon and Philip IV of France looking toward the expulsion of James from Sicily.[10]

In 1288 Nicholas met with the Nestorian Christian Rabban Bar Sauma from China.

In August 1290 he granted the status of studium generale to the university that King Denis of Portugal has just founded a few months earlier in the city of Lisbon.[16]

The loss of Acre in 1291 stirred Nicholas IV to renewed enthusiasm for a crusade. He sent missionaries, among them the Franciscan John of Monte Corvino,[1] to labour among the Bulgarians, Ethiopians, Mongols, Tatars and Chinese.

Death

Nicholas IV died in Rome on 4 April 1292, in the palace which he had built next to the Liberian Basilica (S. Maria Maggiore). He was buried in the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore.[17] His epitaph reads: "Here lies Nicolas IV son of St. Francis" (Hic requiescit / Nicolaus PP Quartus / Filius Beati Francisci).[18]

Taxatio

The 1291–92 Taxatio he initiated, which was a detailed valuation for ecclesiastical taxation of English and Welsh parish churches and prebends, remains an important source document for the mediaeval period. An edition was reprinted by the Record Commission in 1802 as Taxatio Ecclesiastica Angliae et Walliae Auctoritate.[19]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b McBrien, Richard P., Live of the Popes, p.226, Harper Collins, 2000
  2. ^ Hourihane, Colum (2012). The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture, Volume 2. OUP USA. p. 441. ISBN 978-0195395365.
  3. ^ Kelly, J N D; Walsh, Michael (2010). A Dictionary of Popes. Oxford: OUP Oxford. p. 207. ISBN 978-0199295814.
  4. ^ Marquardi Freheri, Rerum Germanicarum Scriptores editio tertia (curante Burcardo Gotthelffio Struvio) Tomus Primus (Argentorati: sumptibus Ioannis Reinholdi Dulsseckerii 1717), p. 605.
  5. ^ Luca Wadding, Annales Minorum IV second edition (edited by J. M. Fonseca) (Rome 1732), p. 345. Their instructions, drawn up by Pope Gregory, are printed at pp. 353-355.
  6. ^ Luke Wadding, Annales Minorum IV second edition (edited by J.M. Fonseca) (Rome 1732), p. 399 and 411.
  7. ^ August Potthast, Regesta Pontificum Romanorum II (Berlin 1875), nos. 21165, 21294-21295; 21310; and see A. Theiner, Caesaris S.R.E. Card. Baronii Annales Ecclesiastici 22 (Bar-le-Duc 1870), under the year 1277, no. 47, p. 402.
  8. ^ Potthast, no. 21356.
  9. ^ Potthast, no. 21582.
  10. ^ a b c Weber, Nicholas. "Pope Nicholas IV." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 11. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911. 29 Jan. 2015. Conrad Eubel, Hierarchia catholica medii aevi I, editio altera, (Monasterii 1913), pp. 10, 37, 46; and cf. p. 206.
  11. ^ Sede Vacante and Conclave of 1287-1288 (Dr. J. P. Adams).
  12. ^ Judicia Dei abyssus in A. Theiner, Caesaris S.R.E. Card. Baronii Annales Ecclesiastici 23 (Bar-le-Duc 1871), under the year 1288, § 5; p. 25; V. Langlois, Registres de Nicolas IV I, pp. 1-3 no. 1 (February 23, 1288).
  13. ^ This is the story told by Heinrich of Rebdorf, in Marquardi Freheri, Rerum Germanicarum Scriptores editio tertia (curante Burcardo Gotthelffio Struvio) Tomus Primus (Argentorati: sumptibus Ioannis Reinholdi Dulsseckerii 1717), p. 605.
  14. ^ Hugues Aiscelin was Master of the Sacred Palaces, appointed either by Martin IV or Honorius IV: J. Catalano, De magistro sacri palatii apostolici (Rome 1751), pp. 62-63.
  15. ^ Conradus Eubel, Hierarchia catholica medii aevi I, editio altera (Monasterii 1913), p. 11.
  16. ^ The Papacy and the Rise of the Universities, Gaines Post, Education and Society in the Middle Ages and Renaissance, Vol. 54, ed. William J. Courtney, Jurgen Miethke, Frank Rexroth and Jacques Verger, (Brill, 2017), 188.
  17. ^ A. Theiner, Caesaris S.R.E. Card. Baronii Annales Ecclesiastici 23 (Bar-le-Duc 1870), under the year 1292, § 17, p. 123. Richard P. McBrien, Live of the Popes, 226. His sepulchral inscription is recorded by Vincenzo Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chiese di Roma XI (Roma 1877), p. 11, no. 6.
  18. ^ Marioli, Luigi (2014). "Premessa". In Callori di Vignale, Flavia; Santamaria, Ulderico (eds.). Il Calice di Guccio di Mannaia (in Italian). Edizioni Musei Vaticani. p. 10. ISBN 9788882713300.
  19. ^ The Taxatio Project Archived 2016-06-29 at the Wayback Machine, Humanities Research Institute, University of Sheffield

Bibliography

  • Otto Schiff, Studien zur Geschichte Papst Nikolaus' IV. (Berlin 1897) (Historiswche Studien 5).
  • Gustavo Parisciani, Nicolò IV, fra Girolamo Masci d' Ascoli, primo papa francescano. VII centenario del pontificato 1288-1292. (Ancona 1988).
  • Antonio Franchi, Nicolaus papa IV 1288-1292 (Girolamo d'Ascoli) (Ascoli Piceno 1990).
  • Giulia Barone, "Niccolo IV," Enciclopedia dei papi (Roma 2000) I, pp. 455–459.
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Bonaventure
Minister General
of the Order of Friars Minor

1274–1279
Succeeded by
Bonagratia de San Giovanni in Persiceto
Preceded by
Pope Honorius IV
Pope
22 February 1288 – 4 April 1292
Succeeded by
Pope Celestine V
1287–88 papal election

The papal election of 1287–88 (April 4 – February 22) was the deadliest papal election in the history of the Roman Catholic Church, with six (or five) of the sixteen (or fifteen) cardinal electors perishing during the deliberations. Eventually, the cardinals elected Girolamo Masci, O.Min. as Pope Nicholas IV, almost a year after the death of Pope Honorius IV, who died on April 3, 1287. Nicholas IV was the first Franciscan pope.The cardinals' deaths are usually attributed to malaria. After the deaths of the six cardinals, the remaining electors—with the exception of Masci—left Rome and reassembled on 15 February 1288. When the Cardinals reassembled in February, 1288, there were seven electors left: Latino Malabranca, Bentivenga de Bentivengis, Girolamo Masci, Bernard de Languissel, Matteo Rosso Orsini, Giacomo Colonna, and Benedetto Caetani. Upon finding that Masci had remained at Santa Sabina in Rome the reassembled cardinals immediately elected him, but he refused until he was re-elected on February 22. It was thought at the time that Masci had survived by keeping a fire burning in his room to "purify" the pestilential vapors, or mal aria thought to cause the disease.

The election was held near Santa Sabina on Aventine Hill in the Savelli palace, Corte Savella, which Honorius IV had built and used as the de facto papal residence. According to Smith, Nicholas IV was, like his predecessor, "an undisguised partisan of the French interest" and "another example of the dishonest use of spiritual authority for political ends, by releasing Charles II of Naples from an inconvenient oath to Alfonso III of Aragon".

1292

Year 1292 (MCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

1292–94 papal election

The papal election of 1292–94 (from April 5, 1292 to July 5, 1294), was the last papal election which did not take the form of a papal conclave (in which the electors are locked in seclusion cum clave—Latin for "with a key"—and not permitted to leave until a new Bishop of Rome has been elected). After the death of Pope Nicholas IV on April 4, 1292, the eleven surviving cardinals (a twelfth died during the sede vacante) deliberated for more than two years before electing the third of six non-cardinals to be elected pope during the Late Middle Ages: Pietro da Morrone, who took the name Pope Celestine V.

Contemporary sources suggest that Morrone was hesitant to accept his election when word of the cardinals' decision reached his mountain-top hermitage. His ascetic life left him largely unprepared for the day-to-day responsibilities of the papacy, and he quickly fell under the influence of the Neapolitan monarchy of Charles of Anjou, to the dissatisfaction of even the pro-Angevin cardinals within the College. Celestine V resigned on 13 December 1294.

Arghun

Arghun Khan a.k.a. Argon (Mongolian Cyrillic: Аргун хан; c. 1258 – 7 March 1291) was the fourth ruler of the Mongol empire's Ilkhanate, from 1284 to 1291. He was the son of Abaqa Khan, and like his father, was a devout Buddhist (although pro-Christian). He was known for sending several embassies to Europe in an unsuccessful attempt to form a Franco-Mongol alliance against the Muslims in the Holy Land. It was also Arghun who requested a new bride from his great-uncle Kublai Khan. The mission to escort the young Kökötchin across Asia to Arghun was reportedly taken by Marco Polo. Arghun died before Kökötchin arrived, so she instead married Arghun's son, Ghazan.

Buluqhan Khatun

Buluqhan Khatun (died ca. 1286) (lit. "Queen Buluqhan"), also Bulughan, Bulukhan, Bolgana, Bulugan, or Zibeline for Marco Polo (Chinese language|Chinese: 卜鲁罕), was a 13th-century Mongol princess, and the principal wife of the Mongol Ilkhanid ruler Abagha (1234–1282). She belonged to the Mongol tribe of the Bayaut (also Baya'ud, Chinese: 伯牙吾). Her name 'Bulughan' means 'sable' in Mongolian language.

Though childless herself, she raised her step-grandsons (by Abagha's son Arghun) Ghazan and Öljeitü, both of whom later succeeded Arghun, and eventually converted to Islam. Arghun had Öljeitü baptized at birth, and gave him the name "Nicholas" after Pope Nicholas IV.When Bulughan died in 1286, her husband Arghun asked Kublai Khan to send him one of Bulughan's relatives as a new bride. The choice fell to Kökötchin ("Blue, or Celestial, Dame"), who was escorted by Marco Polo on her journey from Kaan-baligh (Beijing). The party traveled by sea, departing from the southern port city of Quanzhou and sailing to Sumatra, and then to Persia, via Sri Lanka and India. They arrived in 1291; however, Arghun had been killed before her arrival by conspirators, so Kökötchin married Arghun's son Ghazan, becoming his principal wife.

Campanus of Novara

Campanus of Novara (c. 1220 – 1296) was an Italian mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, and physician who is best known for his work on Euclid's Elements. In his writings he refers to himself as Campanus Nouariensis; contemporary documents refer to him as Magister Campanus; and the full style of his name is Magister Campanus Nouariensis. He is also referred to as Campano da Novara, Giovanni Campano or similar. Later authors (from the 16th century on) sometimes applied the forename Johannes Campanus or Iohannes Campanus.His date of birth is uncertain but may have been as early as the first decade of the 13th century and the place of birth was probably Novara in Lombardy. He served as chaplain to Pope Urban IV, Pope Adrian V, Pope Nicholas IV, and Pope Boniface VIII. His contemporary Roger Bacon cited Campanus as one of the two "good" (but not "perfect") mathematicians indicating that Bacon considered Campanus as excellent or one of the greatest mathematicians of their time. A number of benefices were conferred upon him and he was relatively wealthy at the time of his death. He died at Viterbo in 1296. The crater Campanus on the Moon is named after him.

Cardinals created by Nicholas IV

Pope Nicholas IV (r. 1288–1292) created six Cardinals in one consistory celebrated on May 16, 1288:

Bernardo de Berardi (Berardus Calliensis), bishop of Osimo — cardinal-bishop of Palestrina, † August 5, 1291

Hugh Aycelin, O.P. — cardinal-priest of S. Sabina, then cardinal-bishop of Ostia e Velletri (August 1294), † December 28, 1297

Matteo de Acquasparta, O.F.M., minister general of his order — cardinal-priest of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, then cardinal-bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina (September 22, 1291), † October 28, 1302

Pietro Peregrosso, vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church — cardinal-deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro, then cardinal-priest of S. Marco (December 18, 1288), † August 1, 1295

Napoleone Orsini Frangipani — cardinal-deacon of S. Adriano, † March 23, 1342

Pietro Colonna — cardinal-deacon of S. Eustachio; deposed on May 10, 1297 by Pope Boniface VIII; restored by Clement V on December 15, 1305 as cardinal-deacon without a title; then cardinal-deacon of S. Angelo (March 2, 1317), † January 7, 1326

Charles II of Naples

Charles II, also known as Charles the Lame (French: Charles le Boiteux; Italian: Carlo lo Zoppo; 1254 – 5 May 1309), was King of Naples, Count of Provence and Forcalquier (1285–1309), Prince of Achaea (1285–1289), and Count of Anjou and Maine (1285–1290); he also styled himself King of Albania and claimed the Kingdom of Jerusalem from 1285. He was the son of Charles I of Anjou—one of the most powerful European monarchs in the second half of the 13th century—and Beatrice of Provence. His father granted Charles the Principality of Salerno in the Kingdom of Sicily (or Regno) in 1272 and made him regent in Provence and Forcalquier in 1279.

After the riot known as the Sicilian Vespers against Charles' father, the island of Sicily became an independent kingdom under the rule of Peter III of Aragon in 1282. A year later, his father made Charles regent in the mainland territories of the Regno (or the Kingdom of Naples). Charles held a general assembly where unpopular taxes were abolished and the liberties of the noblemen and clerics were confirmed. He could not prevent the Aragonese from occupying Calabria and the islands in the Gulf of Naples. The Sicilian admiral, Roger of Lauria, captured him in a naval battle near Naples in 1284. For he was still in prison when his father died on 7 January 1285, his realms were ruled by regents.

Charles Martel of Anjou

Charles Martel (Hungarian: Martell Károly; 8 September 1271 – 12 August 1295) of the Angevin dynasty was the eldest son of king Charles II of Naples and Maria of Hungary, the daughter of King Stephen V of Hungary.

The 18-year-old Charles Martel was set up by Pope Nicholas IV and the ecclesiastical party as the titular King of Hungary (1290–1295) as successor of his maternal uncle, the childless Ladislaus IV of Hungary against whom the Pope had already earlier declared a crusade.

He never managed to govern the Kingdom of Hungary, where an agnate of the Árpád dynasty, his cousin Andrew III of Hungary ruled at that time. Charles Martel was, however, successful in asserting his claim in the Kingdom of Croatia, then in personal union with Hungary.

Charles Martel died of the plague in Naples. His son, Charles (or Charles Robert), later succeeded in winning the throne of Hungary.Charles was apparently known personally to Dante: in the Divine Comedy, the poet speaks warmly of and to Charles's spirit when they meet in the Heaven of Venus (in Paradiso VIII).

Dunster Priory

Dunster Priory was established as a Benedictine monastery around 1100 in Dunster, Somerset, England.

The first church in Dunster was built by William de Mohun who gave the church and the tithes of several manors and two fisheries, to the Benedictine Abbey at Bath. The priory, which was situated just north of the church, became a cell of the abbey. The church was shared for worship by the monks and the parishioners, however this led to several conflicts between them. One outcome was the carved rood screen which divided the church in two with the parish using the west chancel and the monks the east. The priory church is now in parochial use as the Priory Church of St George which still contains 12th and 13th century work, although most of the current building is from the 15th century. It has been designated as a Grade I listed building.By 1291 the priory had income from lands and rents of £5 13s. 3d., and from churches and ecclesiastical dues of £13 7s. 4d. according to the taxatio of Pope Nicholas IV. In 1332 it became more separated from the Abbey at Bath and became a priory in its own right. In the "Valor Ecclesiasticus" of 1535 the net annual income of the Dunster Tithe Barn is recorded as being £37.4.8d (£37 23p), with £6.13s7d ( £6.68p ) being passed on to the priory in Bath.The Dunster Dovecote, on Priory Green opposite the Tithe Barn, is approximately 19 feet (5.8 m) high and 19 feet (5.8 m) in diameter, with walls around 4 feet (1.2 m) thick. There are five hundred and forty nest-holes. It would originally have belonged to the priory. Domestic pigeons were kept to provide squabs, a luxury food from the breast meat of young pigeons. From the 12th century until 1619, only Lords of the Manor and parish priests were allowed to keep them.

The tithe barn itself, a grade II listed building, dates from the 14th century but has been much altered and only a limited amount of the original features survive. It has a cruciform plan. The east front has central double doors of heavy oak with a chamfered frame. The Somerset Buildings Preservation Trust (SBPT) has co-ordinated a £550,000 renovation project to turn it into a multi-purpose community hall under a 99-year lease at a pepper-corn rent, by the Crown Estate Commissioners who own the building.In 1346 Cleeve Abbey built a nunnery in Dunster, but it was never inhabited by nuns and was used as a guest house. The former guest house of Dunster Priory, which was built in the 15th century, is now the Luttrell Arms Hotel.The priory was dissolved as part of the dissolution of the monasteries in 1539.

Isaac ben Mordecai

Isaac ben Mordecai, known as Maestro Gajo, was an Italian Jewish physician. He acted as physician to Pope Nicholas IV or Pope Boniface VIII, at the end of the thirteenth century.

For him Nathan of Cento translated into Hebrew an Arabic work by 'Ammar ibn Ali al-Mauṣili, on the cure of diseases of the eye. Gajo was held in great esteem by the physicians Zerahiah ben Shealtiel Ḥen and Hillel ben Samuel of Verona. From Forlì, the latter wrote to Gajo two long letters (see "Ḥemdah Genuzah," pp. 18-22) on the dispute concerning Maimonides's doctrines, which Gajo followed with interest.

Jacopo Torriti

Jacopo Torriti or Turriti was an Italian painter and mosaic maker who lived in the 13th century.

He worked in the decoration especially in the apse of San Giovanni in Laterano and Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome. Those in the Lateran were carried out in conjunction with the Franciscan friar, Jacopo Camerino. They were executed between the years 1287 and 1292, and though in imitation of the style of Cimabue.

There are no written documents about his life. In 1291 he signed the apse mosaics in the basilica San Giovanni in Laterano in Rome, which was nearly all redone in 1878. The mosaics of the apse in Santa Maria Maggiore were executed by him in 1295. They depict the Coronation of the Virgin by Christ in a large medallion. The medallion is encircled with a sprawling floral ornament with flowers, birds and animals, this probably original from the 4th century. In the lower strip of the mosaic we can see the standing figures of St Peter, St Paul and Pope Nicholas IV (left side), and St John the Baptist, St James the Great, St Antony and Jacopo Colonna (right side). The walls are decorated with scenes from the life of Mary. The apse of Santa Maria Maggiore is the most important surviving example of Roman mosaic art from the late Middle Ages.

Torriti probably participated in the execution of some frescoes in the upper church of Basilica of San Francesco d'Assisi and frescoes in Abbey of Tre Fontane close to Rome.

In France, a painting of Jacopo Torriti is exposed at the Museum of Grenoble (Santa Lucia).

King of the Slavs

King of the Slavs (Latin: rex Sclavorum, Sclavorum rex) was a title denoting some Slavic rulers, as well as Germanic rulers that conquered Slavs, in the Middle Ages in European sources, such as Papal correspondence.

Papal use is bolded.

SlavicSamo, ruler of Slavs (623–658); in the Frankish Annals

Drogoviz, ruler of the Veleti (789); in Annales Mettenses priores in c. 805

Trpimir I, ruler of Croatia (845–864); erroneously by Gottschalk in the 840s

Svatopluk I of Moravia, ruler of Moravia (870–894); by Pope Stephen V in 885

Michael, ruler of Zahumlje (913–926); erroneously in the Annales Barenses

Mihailo Vojislavljević, ruler of Duklja/Zeta (Montenegro) (1050–1081); by Pope Gregory VII in 1077

Bodin Vojislavljević, ruler of Duklja/Zeta (Montenegro) (1081–1101); by the chronicle of Orderic Vitalis, relating to events of 1096

Stefan Dragutin, ruler of Serbia (1276–1282) and Syrmia (1282–1316); by Pope Nicholas IV in 1288Non-SlavicCanute Lavard, Danish prince (1120–1131); by Abbott Wilhelm after 1129

Ladislaus IV of Hungary

Ladislaus the Cuman (Hungarian: IV. (Kun) László, Croatian: Ladislav IV. Kumanac, Slovak: Ladislav IV. Kumánsky; 5 August 1262 – 10 July 1290), also known as Ladislas the Cuman, was king of Hungary and Croatia from 1272 to 1290. His mother, Elizabeth, was the daughter of a chieftain from the pagan Cumans who had settled in Hungary. At the age of seven, he married Elisabeth (or Isabella), a daughter of King Charles I of Sicily. Ladislaus was only 10 when a rebellious lord, Joachim Gutkeled, kidnapped and imprisoned him.

Ladislaus was still a prisoner when his father Stephen V died on 6 August 1272. During his minority, many groupings of barons — primarily the Abas, Csáks, Kőszegis, and Gutkeleds — fought against each other for supreme power. Ladislaus was declared to be of age at an assembly of the prelates, barons, noblemen, and Cumans in 1277. He allied himself with Rudolf I of Germany against Ottokar II of Bohemia. His forces had a preeminent role in Rudolf's victory over Ottokar in the Battle on the Marchfeld on 26 August 1278.

However, Ladislaus could not restore royal power in Hungary. A papal legate, Philip, bishop of Fermo, came to Hungary to help Ladislaus consolidate his authority, but the prelate was shocked at the presence of thousands of pagan Cumans in Hungary. Ladislaus promised that he would force them to adopt a Christian lifestyle, but they refused to obey the legate's demands. Ladislaus decided to support the Cumans, for which Philip of Fermo excommunicated him. The Cumans imprisoned the legate, and the legate's partisans captured Ladislaus. In early 1280, Ladislaus agreed to persuade the Cumans to submit to the legate, but many Cumans preferred to leave Hungary.

Ladislaus vanquished a Cuman army that invaded Hungary in 1282. Hungary also survived a Mongol invasion in 1285. Ladislaus had, by that time, become so unpopular that many of his subjects accused him of inciting the Mongols to invade Hungary. After he imprisoned his wife in 1286, he lived with his Cuman mistresses. During the last years of his life, he wandered throughout the country with his Cuman allies, but he was unable to control the most powerful lords and bishops any more. Pope Nicholas IV planned to declare a crusade against him, but three Cuman assassins murdered Ladislaus.

Leonardo Sormani

Leonardo Sormani (working ca 1550- ca 1590) was an Italian sculptor of secondary reputation, originally from Savona, who is recorded as living in Rome from the 1550s until about 1590. He is best known for his bust of Rodolfo Pio da Carpi (died 1564) in the Church of Santa Trinità dei Monti, Rome, for the sculpture of the pope and allegorical figures on the tomb of Pope Nicholas IV in the Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore, where his patron was Cardinal Peretti, soon to be Sixtus V, and for the funeral portrait of Pope Pius V (died 1572) in Sixtus' chapel in the same basilica

Matthew de Crambeth

Matthew de Crambeth (died 1309) was a late 13th and early 14th century bishop of Dunkeld. He had been a dean of the bishopric of Aberdeen and was a canon of the diocese of Dunkeld when, following the death of Bishop William, he was elected to the bishopric. He was consecrated at the hands of Pope Nicholas IV himself in 1288. His appointment appears to have had the backing of King Edward I of England. He was present at the Convention of Birgham on 17 March 1290. He was sent to France in 1295 by King John Balliol to negotiate with the French king. He joined other prominent Scots in revolt against the English crown, and subsequently had his possessions confiscated. He was ambassador to France in 1303. He is recorded as swearing fealty to King Edward on 4 May 1304, upon which act he had his personal and episcopal possessions restored to him. His personal property is known to have included lands in Kinross and in Fife. He died sometime in the first half of the year 1309.

North Marden

North Marden is a tiny village on the spur of the South Downs in the Chichester district of West Sussex, England. It is within the civil parish of Marden, West Sussex, 7.5 miles (12 km) northwest of Chichester on the B2141 road.

North Marden is one of the smallest, out-of-the-way parishes in Sussex. At the end of the 19th century the population was between 20 and 30 inhabitants. The parish is mentioned in the Taxatio records of Pope Nicholas IV (1291) and in the Novae return (1341).

The plan of the Church of St Mary, approached through a farmyard, is simple but unusual in the chancel having an apsidal, or semi-circular termination. The elaborate Norman south doorway in Caen stone suggests a date of the middle of the 12th century. The three Norman windows in the apse have been restored, but the jambs and rere-arches are ancient along with the small Norman window at the west end. The Norman sandstone font was provided an octagonal stem base in the 14th century, and parts of the ancient flint walls were repaired in places with 18th-century brickwork. The single bell dates from 1829.

Pope Nicholas

Pope Nicholas could refer to:

Pope Nicholas I

Pope Nicholas II

Pope Nicholas III

Pope Nicholas IV

Pope Nicholas V

Antipope Nicholas V

Taxatio Ecclesiastica

The Taxatio Ecclesiastica, often referred to as the Taxatio Nicholai or just the Taxatio, compiled in 1291–92 under the order of Pope Nicholas IV, is a detailed database valuation for ecclesiastical taxation of English, Welsh, and Irish parish churches and prebends.

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