Pope Nicholas I

Pope Nicholas I (Latin: Nicolaus I; c. 800 – 13 November 867), also called Saint Nicholas the Great, was Pope from 24 April 858 to his death in 867. He is remembered as a consolidator of papal authority and power, exerting decisive influence upon the historical development of the papacy and its position among the Christian nations of Western Europe. Nicholas I asserted that the pope should have suzerain authority over all Christians, even royalty, in matters of faith and morals.[2]

He is venerated as a saint in the Catholic Church, with a feast day on 13 November.[3]

He refused to grant an annulment to King Lothair II of Lotharingia from Teutberga so that Lothair could marry his mistress Waldrada. When a Council pronounced in favor of annulment, Nicholas I declared the Council to be deposed, its messengers excommunicated, and its decisions void. Despite pressure from the Carolingians, who laid siege to Rome, his decision held. During his reign, relations with the Byzantine Empire soured over his support for Ignatius, Patriarch of Constantinople, who had been removed from his post in favor of Photius.

Pope Saint

Nicholas I
Nicholas I
Papacy began24 April 858
Papacy ended13 November 867
PredecessorBenedict III
SuccessorAdrian II
Created cardinal853
by Pope Leo IV
Personal details
Bornc. 800
Rome, Papal States
Died13 November 867
Rome, Papal States
Other popes named Nicholas
Pope Saint Nicholas I
105-St.Nicholas I
Died13 November 867
Venerated inCatholic Church
Canonized8 May 868 by Pope Adrian II
Feast13 November

Early life

Born to a distinguished family in Rome, son of the Defensor Theodore, Nicholas received excellent training. Distinguished for his piety, benevolence, competence, knowledge, and eloquence, he entered the service of the Church at an early age. He was made a subdeacon by Pope Sergius II (844–847) and a deacon by Leo IV (847–855). After the death of Benedict III (7 April 858), Holy Roman Emperor Louis II came to Rome to exert his influence upon the election. On 24 April Nicholas was elected pope, consecrated, and enthroned in St. Peter's Basilica in the presence of the emperor.[4]

Three days after, Nicholas held a farewell banquet for the emperor and afterward, accompanied by the Roman nobility, visited him in his camp before the city, on which occasion the emperor came to meet the pope and led his horse for some distance.[5]


Papal styles of
Pope Nicholas I
Emblem of the Papacy SE
Reference styleHis Holiness
Spoken styleYour Holiness
Religious styleHoly Father
Posthumous styleSaint

To a spiritually exhausted and politically uncertain Western Europe beset by Muslim and Norse incursions, Pope Nicholas appeared as a conscientious representative of Roman primacy in the Church. He was filled with a high conception of his mission for the vindication of Christian morality and the defence of God's law.[5]

His co-operation with Emperor Louis II and Byzantine forces temporarily stemmed the Muslim advance in southern Italy.[6] He also strengthened the Ostian fortifications against any future Muslim raids.[7]


Archbishop John of Ravenna oppressed the inhabitants of the papal territory, treated his suffragan bishops with violence, made unjust demands upon them for money, and illegally imprisoned priests. He also forged documents to support his claims against the Roman See and maltreated the papal legates. As the warnings of the pope were without result, and the archbishop ignored a thrice-repeated summons to appear before the papal tribunal, he was excommunicated. Having first visited the Emperor Louis at Pavia, the archbishop repaired with two imperial delegates to Rome, where Nicholas cited him before the Roman synod assembled in the autumn of 860. Upon this John fled from Rome.[5]

Going in person to Ravenna, the pope then investigated and equitably regulated everything. Again appealing to the emperor, the archbishop was recommended by him to submit to the pope, which he did at the Roman Synod of November 861. Later on, however, he entered into a pact with the excommunicated Archbishops of Trier and Cologne, was himself again excommunicated, and once more forced to make his submission to the pope. Another conflict arose between Nicholas and Archbishop Hincmar of Reims: this concerned the prerogatives of the papacy. Bishop Rothad of Soissons had appealed to the pope against the decision of the Synod of Soissons of 861, which had deposed him. Hincmar opposed the appeal to the pope, but eventually had to acknowledge the right of the papacy to take cognizance of important legal causes (causae majores) and pass independent judgment upon them. A further dispute broke out between Hincmar and the pope as to the elevation of the cleric Wulfad to the archiepiscopal See of Bourges, but here again, Hincmar finally submitted to the decrees of the Apostolic See, and the Frankish synods passed corresponding ordinances.

Marriage laws

Nicholas showed the same zeal in other efforts to maintain ecclesiastical discipline, especially as to the marriage laws. Ingiltrud, wife of Count Boso, had left her husband for a paramour; Nicholas commanded the bishops in the dominions of Charles the Bald to excommunicate her unless she returned to her husband. As she paid no attention to the summons to appear before the Synod of Milan in 860, she was put under the ban.

The pope was also involved in a desperate struggle with the bishops of Lotharingia over the inviolability of marriage. King Lothair II, not having any children by his lawful wife Teutberga, had abandoned her to marry his mistress Waldrada. At the Synod of Aachen on 28 April 862, the bishops of Lotharingia approved this union, contrary to ecclesiastical law. At the Synod of Metz, June 863, the papal legates, bribed by the king, assented to the Aachen decision, and condemned the absent Teutberga, who took refuge in the court of Lothair's uncle, Charles the Bald, and appealed to the Pope. Upon this the pope brought the matter before his own tribunal. The two archbishops, Günther of Cologne and Thietgaud of Trier, both relatives of Waldrada, had come to Rome as delegates, and were summoned before the Lateran Synod of October 863, when the pope condemned and deposed them as well as John of Ravenna and Hagano of Bergamo. The Emperor Louis II took up the cause of the deposed bishops, while King Lothair advanced upon Rome with an army and laid siege to the city, so that the pope was confined for two days in St. Peter's without food. Yet Nicholas did not waver in his determination; after Engelberga arranged a reconciliation with the pope,[8] the emperor withdrew from Rome and commanded the former Archbishops of Trier and Cologne to return to their homes. Nicholas never ceased his efforts to bring about a reconciliation between Lothair and his lawful wife.

Another matrimonial case in which Nicholas interposed was that of Judith of Flanders, daughter of Charles the Bald, who had married Baldwin I, Count of Flanders, without her father's consent. Frankish bishops had excommunicated Judith, and Hincmar of Reims had taken sides against her, but Nicholas urged leniency in order to protect freedom of marriage.

Relations to the Eastern Church

In the East, Nicholas was seen as trying to extend his papal power beyond what was canonical authority by asserting a "rulership" over the Church instead of the position of "highest honor among equals" accorded to the pope of Rome by the East. He contended that the Patriarch of Constantinople Ignatius was deposed in 858 and Photius raised to the patriarchal see in violation of ecclesiastical law.[4] Nicholas sent two bishops as papal legates to the Council of Constantinople in 861, but they failed to follow papal instructions. In a letter of 8 May 862 addressed to the patriarchs of the East, Nicholas called upon them and all their bishops to refuse recognition to Photius, and at a Roman synod held in April 863, he excommunicated Photius.

According to the Church of Constantinople, Photius was elected lawfully and canonically by the will of the Byzantine Emperor Michael III in 858. This decision was affirmed later in 879 in a synod of Greek bishops regarded as ecumenical by some in the Orthodox Church. At this synod, Ignatius’ elevation to the Patriarchate was declared to be uncanonical and Photius was acclaimed as properly elected as the new Patriarch, a decision which ran counter to a previous Council held at Constantinople – regarded as ecumenical by the Catholic Church – in which Photius had been deposed and Ignatius reinstated. The Eastern Church resented Nicholas' pressing of the doctrine of papal primacy. This led to conflict between Constantinople and Rome over doctrinal issues such as the addition of the Filioque clause to the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed and territorial claims due to the Church of Constantinople's seizure of territory from the Roman Patriarchate in southern Italy, Sicily and Illyricum during the Iconoclast controversy. A synod at Constantinople in 867 excommunicated Nicholas and rejected his claims of primacy, his efforts to convert Bulgaria to the obedience of the Roman Church, and the addition of the Filioque clause in parts of the Latin Church.

For a variety of reasons, Prince Boris I of Bulgaria became interested in converting to Christianity and undertook to do that at the hands of western clergymen to be supplied by King Louis the German of East Francia in 863. Late in the same year, the Byzantine Empire invaded Bulgaria as it suffered famine and natural disasters. Boris was forced to sue for peace. Because the majority of his people were still opposed to Christianity, he was secretly baptized according to the Byzantine rite. The Byzantine Emperor who became his godfather conceded territory in Thrace to him.

Unhappy with Byzantine influence and desiring an autocephalous status which Photius was unwilling to grant, Boris sent an embassy to Nicholas with 106 questions on the teaching and discipline of the Church in August 866. Nicholas answered these inquiries in his "Responsa Nicolai ad consulta Bulgarorum" (Giovanni Domenico Mansi, "Coll. Conc.", XV, 401 sqq.) and sent missionaries under the papal legate bishop Formosus (later Pope Formosus). Also in 866, Nicholas sent a letter to the Bulgarians ordering the burning of any books captured from the Muslims because they were deemed harmful and blasphemous.[9] When Pope Adrian II rejected Boris's request that either Formosus or Deacon Marinus (later Pope Marinus I) be made Archbishop of Bulgaria, Boris began to look again towards Constantinople. In 870 a council of Constantinople granted the Church of Bulgaria autocephalous status and Greek priests were sent as missionaries; they were soon replaced by Bulgarians.


Nicholas encouraged the missionary activity of the Church. He sanctioned the union of the Sees of Bremen and Hamburg, and confirmed to St. Anschar, Archbishop of Bremen, and his successors the office of papal legate to the Danes, Swedes, and Slavs. In many other ecclesiastical matters, he issued letters and decisions, and he took active measures against bishops who neglected their duties.

In Rome, Nicholas rebuilt and endowed several churches, and constantly sought to encourage religious life. He led a pious personal life guided by a spirit of Christian asceticism. Regino of Prüm reports that Nicholas was highly esteemed by the citizens of Rome and by his contemporaries generally (Chronicon, "ad annum 868," in "Mon. Germ. Hist." Script.", I.579).

After his death he was regarded as a saint and was canonized by his successor, Pope Adrian II. His cult was re-affirmed in 1630 by Pope Urban VIII. His feast day is observed on 13 November.

A question that is important in judging the integrity of this pope is whether he made use of the forged pseudo-Isidorian papal decretals. After exhaustive investigation, Schrörs has decided that the pope was neither acquainted with the pseudo-Isidorian collection in its entire extent, nor did he make use of its individual parts. He perhaps had a general knowledge of the false decretals, but did not base his view of the law upon them and owed his knowledge of them solely to documents that came to him from the Frankish Empire [Schrörs, "Papst Nikolaus I. und Pseudo-Isidor" in Historisches Jahrbuch, XXV (1904), 1 sqq.; Idem, "Die pseudoisidorische 'Exceptio spolii' bei Papst Nikolaus I" in Historisches Jahrbuch, XXVI (1905), 275 sqq.].


Nicholas decreed that the figure of the rooster should be placed on every church and has served as a religious icon and reminder of Peter's denial of Christ since that time, with some churches still having the rooster on the steeple today.[1]

See also


  1. ^ a b Adler, Jerry; Lawler, Andrew. "How the Chicken Conquered the World". Smithsonian. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2012-06-01.
  2. ^ Durant, Will. The Age of Faith. New York: Simon and Schuster. 1972. Chapter XXI: Christianity in Conflict 529–1085. p. 517–551
  3. ^ Martyrologium Romanum (Vatican Press 2001 ISBN 978-88-209-7210-3), p. 587
  4. ^ a b O'Malley, John W., A History of the Popes, New York, Sheed & Ward, 2010
  5. ^ a b c Kirsch, Johann Peter. "Pope St. Nicholas I." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 11. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911. 6 Sept. 2014
  6. ^ Williston Walker (30 Jun 2014). History of the Christian Church. Simon and Schuster. p. 249. ISBN 9781476794679.
  7. ^ Trudy Ring; Noelle Watson; Paul Schellinger (5 Nov 2013). Southern Europe: International Dictionary of Historic Places. Routledge. p. 503. ISBN 9781134259588.
  8. ^ Bougard, François (1993). "ENGELBERGA (Enghelberga, Angelberga), imperatrice" ‘’Treccani’’.
  9. ^ Benjamin Z. Kedar (14 Jul 2014). Crusade and Mission: European Approaches Toward the Muslims. Princeton University Press. p. 32. ISBN 9781400855612.

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHerbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope St. Nicholas I" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.

Further reading

External links

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Benedict III
Succeeded by
Adrian II

The 860s decade ran from January 1, 860, to December 31, 869.

== Events ==

=== 860 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

June 18 – Byzantine–Rus' War: A fleet of about 200 Rus' vessels sails into the Bosphorus, and starts pillaging the suburbs of Constantinople. The raiders set homes on fire, and drown and kill the citizens. Unable to do anything to repel the invaders, Patriarch Photios I urges his flock to implore the Theotokos to save the Byzantine capital. Having devastated the suburbs, the Rus' Vikings pass into the Sea of Marmara and attack the Isles of the Princes, plundering the local monasteries.

====== Europe ======

King Charles the Bald gives the order to build fortified bridges across the Seine and Loire Rivers, to protect Paris and the Frankish heartland against Viking raids. He hires the services of Weland, a Viking chieftain based on the Somme, to attack the Seine Vikings at their base on the Isle of Oissel. Weland besieges the Vikings—they offer him a huge bribe (6,000 pounds of silver) to let them escape.

Summer – The Viking chieftains Hastein and Björn Ironside ravage upstream and move to Italy, sacking Luna (believing it to be Rome). They sail up the River Arno to sack the cities of Pisa and Fiesole (Tuscany).

Summer – Viking raiders led by Weland sail to England and attack Winchester (the capital of Wessex), which is set ablaze. He spreads inland, but is defeated by West Saxon forces, who deprive him of all he has gained.

December 20 – King Æthelbald of Wessex dies after a 2½-year reign. He is succeeded by his brother, sub-king Æthelberht of Kent, who becomes sole ruler of Wessex.

====== Iberian Peninsula ======

Muhammad I, Umayyad emir of Córdoba, invades Pamplona (Pyrenees), and captures Crown Prince Fortún Garcés in Milagro, along with his daughter Onneca Fortúnez, and takes them as hostages to Córdoba.

==== By topic ====

====== Art ======

Lusterware tiles, that decorated the mihrab of the Mosque of Uqba at Kairouan (modern Tunisia), are made (approximate date).

====== Communication ======

The Japanese alphabet Hiragana becomes more popular in Japan. The phonetic alphabet will be further simplified, and reduced to 51 basic characters (approximate date).

====== Religion ======

Byzantine missionaries Cyril and Methodius arrive in Khazaria.

Michael I succeeds Sophronius I, as patriarch of Alexandria.

=== 861 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

March – Robert the Strong is appointed margrave of Neustria by King Charles the Bald. He re-establishes the Breton March, and extends his remit by campaigning against Salomon, duke 'king' of Brittany. Robert hires a combined Seine-Loire fleet for 6,000 pounds of silver, 'before Salomon can ally with them against him'. In return, Salomon enlists 12 Viking ships under the command of Hastein, to raid the county of Maine, which, with Anjou, becomes squeezed between Brittany and Neustria.

Spring – Council of Constantinople, attended by 318 fathers and presided over by papal legates confirms Photius the Great as patriarch and passes 17 canons.

Carloman, eldest son of King Louis the German, revolts against his father. He is captured, but manages to escape to the Ostmark (or 862).

Summer – Viking raiders sack the cities of Paris, Cologne, Aachen, Worms and Toulouse.

====== Abbasid Caliphate ======

December 11 – Caliph al-Mutawakkil is murdered by his Turkish guard, starting the period of troubles known as the "Anarchy at Samarra" (861–870). He is succeeded by his son Al-Muntasir, as ruler of the Abbasid Caliphate.

Ya'qub ibn al-Layth, a Muslim military leader, founds the Saffarid Dynasty. He rules over parts of Khurasan and eastern Iran, and establishes his capital at Zaranj (modern Afghanistan).

==== By topic ====

====== Hydrology ======

Al-Mutawakkil orders the construction of a Nilometer on Rhoda Island in central Cairo, supervised by the Persian astronomer Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Kathir al-Farghani.

=== 862 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

The Varangians (called Rus'), under the leadership of Rurik, a Viking chieftain, arrive (with his brothers, Sineus and Truvor) at Staraya Ladoga. He builds a trade settlement near Novgorod (modern Russia), and founds the Rurik Dynasty.

King Lothair II of Lotharingia tries to divorce his wife Teutberga, on trumped-up charges of incest. With the support of his brother, Louis II, the bishops give him permission to remarry during a synod at Aachen.

March – Viking raiders led by Weland are trapped at Trilbardou Bridge (Northern France), and submit to King Charles the Bald. He and his family accept Christianity (they are baptised) before leaving Neustria.

Robert the Strong, margrave of Neustria, captures 12 Viking ships and kills their crews. He pays tribute (Danegeld) for keeping the Vikings out of Neustria.

Carloman, eldest son of King Louis the German, revolts against his father. He is captured, but manages to escape to the Ostmark (or 861).

First raid of the Hungarians in the Carpathian Basin at the request of Rastislav of Moravia against the East Frankish Kingdom.

The first written record (according to the Primary Chronicle) is made of the towns of Belozersk and Murom (Northern Russia).

Viking forces sacked Cologne.

====== Britain ======

April 13 – King Donald I of Scotland dies after a 4-year reign. He is succeeded by his nephew Constantine I, as ruler of Scotland.

Áed Findliath is crowned High King of Ireland, after the death of Máel Sechnaill mac Maíl Ruanaid (until 879).

====== Abbasid Caliphate ======

June – Caliph al-Muntasir dies after just a half-year reign. He is succeeded by al-Musta'in, as ruler of the Abbasid Caliphate.

Ashot I ("the Great") is recognized as the 'Prince of Princes' of Armenia, by the Abbasids.

====== China ======

Fan Chuo finishes his Manchu ("Book of the Southern Tribes"), during the Tang Dynasty.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Constantine the Philosopher (alias Saint Cyril) invents the 42-letter Slavonic alphabet (Cyrillic script) as a tool for converting the Moravians to Christianity (approximate date).

=== 863 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

September 3 – Battle of Lalakaon: A Byzantine army confronts an invasion by Muslim forces, led by Umar al-Aqta, Emir of Malatya. The Muslims raid deep into Byzantine territory, reaching the Black Sea coast at the port city of Amisos. Petronas annihilates the Arabs near the River Lalakaon, in Paphlagonia (modern Turkey).

====== Europe ======

January 25 – Emperor Louis II claims Provence, after the death of his brother Charles. King Lothair II receives Lower Burgundy and a part of the Jura Mountains.

King Louis the German suppresses the revolt of his son Carloman (for the second time), who wants a partition (mainly of Bavaria) of the East Frankish Kingdom.

Viking raiders again plunder Dorestad (modern Netherlands), a Frankish port on the mouth of the river Rhine. It thereafter disappears from the chronicles.

Danish Vikings loot along the Rhine. They settle on an island close by Cologne, but are driven off by the combined forces of Lothair II and the Saxons.

The Christianization of Kievan Rus begins, ceasing the 63-year-long dominance of the Rus' Khaganate (approximate date).

The first written record is made of Smolensk (according to the Primary Chronicle).

====== Britain ======

King Osberht of Northumbria engages in a dispute for royal power, with a rival claimant named Ælla. After Osberht is replaced, Ælla wields power in Northumbria, but the civil war continues.

====== Asia ======

Duan Chengshi, Chinese author and scholar, writes about the Chinese maritime trade and the Arab-run slave trade in East Africa.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Pope Nicholas I sends archbishops Gunther and Theotgaud to a synod of Metz, which confirms the permission given to King Lothair II of Lotharingia to remarry.

The Byzantine missionaries Cyril and Methodius arrive with a few disciples in Moravia, by request of Prince Rastislav.

Nicholas I excommunicates Patriarch Photios I of Constantinople.

=== 864 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Spring – Emperor Louis II (the Younger) marches with a Frankish army against Rome. While en route to the papal city, he becomes ill, and decides to make peace with pope Nicholas I.

July 25 – Edict of Pistres: King Charles the Bald orders defensive measures against the Vikings. He creates a large force of cavalry, which inspires the beginning of French chivalry.

Viking raiders, led by Olaf the White, arrive in Scotland from the Viking settlement of Dublin (Ireland). He rampages the country, until his defeat in battle by king Constantine I.

Robert the Strong, margrave of Neustria, attacks the Loire Vikings in a successful campaign. Other Viking raiders plunder the cities of Limoges and Clermont, in Aquitaine.

King Louis the German invades Moravia, crossing the Danube River to besiege the civitas Dowina (identified, although not unanimously, with Devín Castle in Slovakia).

Pepin II joins the Vikings in an attack on Toulouse. He is captured while besieging the Frankish city. Pepin is deposed as king of Aquitaine, and imprisoned in Senlis.

September 13 – Pietro Tradonico dies after a 28-year reign. He is succeeded by Orso I Participazio, who becomes doge of Venice.

King Alfonso III conquers Porto from the Emirate of Cordoba. This is the end of the direct Muslim domination of the Douro region.

====== Asia ======

Mount Fuji, located on Honshu Island, erupts for 10 days, in an event known as the Jōgan eruption (Japan).

Hasan ibn Zayd establishes the Zaydid Dynasty, and is recognized as ruler of Tabaristan (Northern Iran).

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

The Christianization of Bulgaria begins: Boris I, ruler (khan) of the Bulgarian Empire, is converted to Orthodox Christianity. His family and high-ranking dignitaries accept the Orthodox faith at the capital, Pliska.

=== 865 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

King Louis the German divides the East Frankish Kingdom among his three sons. Carloman receives Bavaria (with more lands along the Inn River). He gives Saxony to Louis the Younger (with Franconia, and Thuringia) and Swabia (with Raetia) to Charles the Fat. Louis arranges marriages into the local aristocracy, for his sons to hold important territories along the frontiers.

King Lothair II, threatened with excommunication, takes back his first wife, Teutberga. She expresses her desire for an annulment, but this is refused by Pope Nicholas I.

Boris I, ruler (knyaz) of the Bulgarian Empire, suppresses a revolt, and orders the execution of 52 leading boyars, along with their whole families.

====== Britain ======

The Great Heathen Army (probably no more than 1,000 men) of Vikings, led by Ivar the Boneless and Halfdan Ragnarsson, invades East Anglia. King Edmund of East Anglia buys peace with a supply of horses.

Viking king Ragnar Lodbrok is captured by the Northumbrians in battle, and killed by being thrown into a pit filled with poisonous snakes, on the orders of King Ælla of Northumbria.

Autumn – King Æthelberht of Wessex dies after a 5-year reign, and is buried at Sherborne Abbey (Dorset). He is succeeded by his brother Æthelred I, as ruler of Wessex.

====== Abbasid Caliphate ======

Caliphal Civil War: An armed conflict starts between the rival Muslim caliphs al-Musta'in and al-Mu'tazz. They fight to determine who takes control over the Abbasid Caliphate (until 866).

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Kassia, a Byzantine abbess and hymnographer, dies. She is one of the first Early Medieval composers of many hymns.

=== 866 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

April 21 – ; Bardas, the regent of the Byzantine Empire, is murdered by Basil the Macedonian at Miletus, while conducting a large-scale expedition against the Saracen stronghold of Crete.May 26 – Basil the Macedonian is crowned co-emperor of the Byzantine Empire, and is adopted by the much younger Michael III.

====== Europe ======

May 27 – King Ordoño I, ruler of the Kingdom of Asturias dies after a 16-year reign. He is succeeded by his son, Alfonso III, who later is referred to as "Alfonso the Great".

July 2 – Battle of Brissarthe: Frankish forces, led by Robert the Strong, are defeated by a joint Breton-Viking army.

Harald Fairhair wins a decisive battle, in his quest to become king of all of Norway.

Louis II, Holy Roman Emperor, defeats the Saracen invaders who are ravaging southern Italy.

====== Britain ======

The Great Heathen Army of the Vikings rides north to Northumbria. The Northumbrians are preoccupied with a civil war, and the Danes enter York unopposed.

====== Abbasid Caliphate ======

October 17 – Caliph al-Musta'in is put to death, after a 4-year reign. He is succeeded by al-Mu'tazz, who becomes the youngest Abbasid caliph to assume power.

The Kharijite revolt against the Abbasid Caliphate begins in Al-Jazira (Upper Mesopotamia), which will last for 30 years.

====== Japan ======

Fujiwara no Yoshifusa becomes regent (sesshō) to assist the child emperor Seiwa, starting the Fujiwara regency.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Boris I, ruler (knyaz) of the Bulgarian Empire, sends a diplomatic mission, led by the Bulgarian nobleman Peter, to Rome, in an effort to renew ties with the West.

Pope Nicholas I forbids the use of torture, in prosecutions for witchcraft (approximate date).

=== 867 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

September 23 – Emperor Michael III is murdered, by order of his co-emperor Basil I. Basil becomes sole ruler (basileus) of the Byzantine Empire, and founds the Macedonian Dynasty (until 1056). Basil rebuilds the Byzantine army and navy, in an effort to restore the empire.

====== Europe ======

August – Treaty of Compiègne: King Charles the Bald cedes the Cotentin Peninsula to Salomon, duke ('king') of Brittany, after he had sent his son-in-law Pascweten to negotiate a peace. Charles orders the fortification of the cities of Tours, Le Mans and Compiègne.

Bořivoj I declares himself duke (knyaz) of Bohemia, and founds the Pŕemyslid Dynasty (approximate date).

====== Britain ======

Vikings or "Danes" – the two terms were often used interchangeably at the time – comprising the Great Heathen Army, advance northward from bases in the Kingdom of East Anglia, into the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Northumbria.

Deira, the southernmost part of Northumbria, is conquered by the Vikings. Ivar the Boneless, one of their leaders, installs a puppet king of Northumbria, Ecgberht I.

The rival monarchs of Northumbria, Ælla and Osberht, join forces in an attempt to expel the Great Heathen Army, but are defeated in battle by Ivar the Boneless and Halfdan Ragnarsson. Osberht is killed in battle, while Ælla is reportedly captured, before being subject to the blood eagle: a combined method of torture and execution.

Surviving members of the Northumbrian court flee into the northernmost part of the kingdom, Bernicia.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Council of Constantinople held, presided over by Patriarch Photius, which anathematizes the use of Filioque clause in the Creed, and also Pope Nicholas I for his attacks on work of Greek missionaries in Bulgaria.

September – Photius I ("the Great"), patriarch of Constantinople, is removed from office and banished. Ignatius is reinstated as patriarch by Basil I.

November 13 – Pope Nicholas I dies after a 9-year reign. He is succeeded by Adrian II (also referred to as Hadrian II), as the 106th pope of Rome.

=== 868 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

King Charles the Bald meets his brother Louis the German at Metz. They agree to a partition of Lotharingia, which belonged to former emperor Lothair I (now in possession of his sons Lothair II and Louis II).

Salomon, duke ('king') of Brittany, leads a joint campaign against the Loire Vikings. He is forced to defend south-eastern Brittany unaided, and mobilizes levies raised at Poitiers to defeat the Vikings.

Al-Andalus: The city of Mérida rises against the Umayyad rule. Emir Muhammad I regains control, and has the walls of the city destroyed. He supports the rival creation of Badajoz in retaliation.

The County of Portugal is established by Vímara Peres, an Asturian nobleman, after the reconquest from the Moors of the region north of the Douro River.

====== Britain ======

Alfred the Great marries Ealhswith (a daughter of Æthelred, known as Mucel, an ealdorman of the Gaini). He supports his brother Æthelred I, in his choice to form an alliance with Mercia.

King Burgred of Mercia appeals to Æthelred I for help in resisting the Great Heathen Army. The Danes occupy Nottingham, and stay through the winter without any serious opposition.

King Áed Findliath drives the invading Danes and Norwegians out of Ireland, after defeating them at the Battle of Killineery.

====== Africa ======

September 15 – Ahmad ibn Tulun, a Turkish general, is sent to Egypt as governor, by the Abbasid caliph Al-Mu'tazz. He becomes the founder of the Tulunid Dynasty (until 905).

Muslim Arab forces under Muhammad II, emir of the Aghlabid Dynasty (modern Tunisia), conquer the island of Malta and raid into the mainland of Italy.

====== Asia ======

The earliest extant printed book, an illustrated scroll of the Diamond Sūtra ("Perfection of Wisdom"), unearthed at Dunhuang (Western China), is produced.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Ratramnus, Frankish monk and abbot of Corbie Abbey, writes Contra Graecorum Opposita.

=== 869 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Summer – Emperor Basil I allies with the Frankish emperor Louis II against the Saracens. He sends a Byzantine fleet of 400 ships (according to the Annales Bertiniani), under the command of Admiral Nicetas, to support Louis (who is besieging the city port of Bari), and to clear the Adriatic Sea of Muslim raiders.

The Hagia Sophia in Constantinople suffers great damage during an earthquake, which makes the eastern half-dome collapse. Basil I orders the basilica (church) to be repaired.

====== Europe ======

August 8 — Lothair II, King of Middle Francia (Lotharingia), dies at Piacenza on his way home from meeting Pope Adrian II at Rome to get assent for a divorce. Lotharingia is subsequently divided between Lothair's uncles, Charles the Bald of France and Louis the German.

====== Britain ======

The Danes, led by Viking chieftain Ivar the Boneless, 'make peace' with the Mercians (by accepting Danegeld). Ivar leaves Nottingham on horseback, and returns to York.

Autumn –The Great Heathen Army, led by Ivar the Boneless and Ubba, invades East Anglia, and plunders Peterborough. The Vikings take up winter quarters at Thetford.

November 20 – King Edmund the Martyr and his East Anglian army are destroyed by the Vikings. He is captured, tortured, beaten and used as archery practice.

====== Arabian Empire ======

The Zanj Rebellion: The Zanj (black slaves from East Africa), provoked by mercilessly harsh labor conditions in salt flats, and on the sugar and cotton plantations of southwestern Persia, revolt.

Summer – Caliph Al-Mu'tazz is murdered by mutinous Muslim troops, after a 3-year reign. He is succeeded by Al-Muhtadi (a grandson of former Al-Mu'tasim), as ruler of the Abbasid Caliphate.

====== Japan ======

May 26 – An earthquake and tsunami devastate a large part of the Sanriku coast, on the northeastern side of the island of Honshu.

====== Mesoamerica ======

Stela 11, the last monument ever erected at Tikal, is dedicated by ruler (ajaw) Jasaw Chan K'awiil II.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

The Fourth Council of Constantinople is called by Basil I and Pope Adrian II. The council condemns Photius I, and deposes him as patriarch. His predecessor Ignatios is reinstated.


Year 867 (DCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Bertulf (archbishop of Trier)

Bertulf (or Bartholf or Barthold) (died 883) was the Archbishop of Trier from 869 until his death.

After the Archbishop of Trier Theotgaud was excommunicated by Pope Nicholas I in October 863 in Rome and deposed, and died in Rome in 868, Charles the Bald managed in 869 to have his candidate, Bertulf, appointed as Theotgaud's successor and confirmed by the Pope. Bertulf had previously been abbot of Mettlach. His election ended the long period of sede vacante. Charles also awarded the new Archbishop the crown estate of Merzig.

The election of Bertulf was a provocation to Louis the German, who then set up his own candidate. This was Bertulf's brother Waldo, abbot of St. Maximin's Abbey in Trier. Eight years previously, he had been convicted of disloyalty at the Imperial Diet in Regensburg along with his brothers Udo and Berengar and their uncle Ernest, and like them, had been stripped of his offices and titles. His candidacy, however, foundered at the opposition of the other Archbishops.

On 26 September 870, Bertulf attended a synod at Cologne along with the other Rhenish metropolitans, Liutbert and Willibert, and reconsecrated Cologne Cathedral.

Byzantine Empire under the Amorian dynasty

The Byzantine Empire was ruled by the Amorian or Phrygian dynasty from 820 to 867. The Amorian dynasty continued the policy of restored iconoclasm (the "Second Iconoclasm") started by the previous non-dynastic emperor Leo V in 813, until its abolishment by Empress Theodora with the help of Patriarch Methodios in 842. The continued iconoclasm further worsened relations between the East and the West, which were already bad following the papal coronations of a rival line of "Roman Emperors" beginning with Charlemagne in 800. Relations worsened even further during the so-called Photian Schism, when Pope Nicholas I challenged Photios' elevation to the patriarchate.

During the Second Iconoclasm, the Empire began to see systems resembling feudalism being put in place, with large and local landholders becoming increasingly prominent, receiving lands in return for military service to the central government. Similar systems had been in place in the Roman Empire ever since the reign of Severus Alexander during the third century, when Roman soldiers and their heirs were granted lands on the condition of service to the Emperor.

Christianity in the 9th century

In 9th-century Christianity, Charlemagne was crowned as Holy Roman Emperor, which continued the Photian schism.

Council of Constantinople (861)

The Council of Constantinople of 861, also known as Protodeutera, was a major Church Council, convened upon the initiative of Emperor Michael III of Byzantium and Patriarch Photios I of Constantinople, and attended by legates of Pope Nicholas I. The Council confirmed the deposition of former Patriarch Ignatius of Constantinople, and his replacement by Photios. Several dogmatic, ecclesiological and liturgical questions were also discussed, and seventeen canons were produced. Decisions of the Council were initially approved by papal legates, but their approval was later annulled by the Pope. In spite of that, the Council is considered as valid by the Eastern Orthodox Church.

Council of Constantinople (867)

The Council of Constantinople of 867 was a major Church Council, convened by Emperor Michael III of Byzantium and Patriarch Photios I of Constantinople in order to address several ecclesiastical issues, including the question of Papal supremacy in the Church, and the use of Filioque clause in the Creed.

Engagement ring

An engagement ring is a ring indicating that the person wearing it is engaged to be married, especially in Western cultures. A ring is presented as an engagement gift by a partner to their prospective spouse when they propose marriage or directly after a marriage proposal is accepted. It represents a formal agreement to future marriage. In Western countries, engagement rings are worn mostly by women, and rings can feature diamonds or other gemstones. The neologism "mangagement ring" is sometimes used for an engagement ring worn by men. In some cultures, men and women wear matching rings, and engagement rings may also be used as wedding rings. In Anglo-Saxon countries, the ring is customarily worn on the left hand ring finger, but customs vary considerably elsewhere across the world.

Neither the engagement nor any other ring is worn during the wedding ceremony, when the wedding ring is put by the groom on the finger of the bride as part of the ceremony, and sometimes by the bride onto the groom's finger. After the wedding, the engagement ring is usually put back on, and is usually worn on the outside of the wedding ring. Some brides have their engagement and wedding rings permanently soldered together after the wedding.


Engelberga (or Angilberga, died between 896 and 901) was the wife of Emperor Louis II and thus Carolingian empress to his death on 12 August 875. As empress, she exerted a powerful influence over her husband.

She was probably the daughter of Adelchis I of Parma and a member of one of the most powerful families in the Kingdom of Italy at that time, the Supponids.

Born around 830, she probably spent her youth in Pavia. She married Louis II on October 5, 851, but did not play a role in political life until after the death of his father, Lothair I, in 855. Upon his death, Lothair's kingdom was divided between his three sons and, as the eldest, Louis received Italy and the title of emperor.

In 856, the imperial couple were hosted in Venice by Doge Pietro Tradonico and his son Giovanni Tradonico. A few years later, Engelberga began to exert her influence in a conflict between Pope Nicholas I and Archbishop John of Ravenna. Seen as insubordinate by the Pope, John was thrice summoned to appear before a papal tribunal. Instead, he took refuge in the imperial court at Pavia, where Engelberga attempted to intervene with Rome on his behalf. Though ultimately unsuccessful, the incident was the beginning of Engelberga's efforts to assert her influence as empress.In 862, Louis's brother Lothair II sought to annul his marriage to Teutberga, as she had failed to bear him any children. The local bishops had blessed the annulment and Lothair's subsequent remarriage, but in November 863, Pope Nicolas summoned the bishops to Rome and excommunicated them for their violation of ecclesiastical law. The bishops fled to Louis's court and pleaded their case, resulting in the Emperor laying siege to the Holy See in January 864. Engelberga sent a communication to Nicholas, guaranteeing his safety if he were to come to court to negotiate with her husband. Their meeting resulted in an agreement whereby the bishops were allowed to return and the siege was ended.In subsequent years she was granted additional titles by her husband, due in large part to her diplomatic role. In 868, she became abbess of San Salvatore, Brescia, a convent with a history of royal abbesses.In January 872, the aristocracy tried to have her removed, as she had not borne the emperor any sons. Instead, Louis opened negotiations with Louis the German, King of East Francia, to make him his heir. In order to sideline Engelberga, the nobility elected Charles the Bald, King of West Francia, on Louis's death in 875. Boso V of Arles, a faithful of Charles, kidnapped Engelberga and her only surviving daughter, Ermengard. He forced the latter to marry him in June 876, at the same time he was made Charles' governor in Italy with the title of dux.

With Engelberga's backing, Boso declared himself King of Provence on 15 October 879. Subsequently, Engelberga was banished to Swabia. After Charles the Fat's forces took Vienne in 882, Engelberga was allowed to return to Italy. In 896, she became abbess of her own foundation of San Sisto, Piacenza, but died shortly afterward.

Hunfrid of Prüm

Saint Hunfrid of Prüm (died 871), commonly Saint Humphrey in English, was a Benedictine monk at the Abbey of Prüm who was reluctantly promoted to become Bishop of Thérouanne by Pope Nicholas I.

His feast day is 8 March.

Libellus de imperatoria potestate in urbe Roma

Libellus de imperatoria potestate in urbe Roma is an anonymous Latin treatise on the authority of the Holy Roman Emperor in the city of Rome. It has been dated as early as the late 9th century and as late as the middle of the 10th. It was probably written at Spoleto. It survives in one manuscript, which was appended to the a contemporary work, Chronicon by Benedict of Sant'Andrea.The Libellus argues for the authority of the Holy Roman Emperor in the so-called "patrimony of Saint Peter". The author clearly sides with the Emperor Louis II against Pope Nicholas I.Ferdinand Gregorovius calls its author an "Imperialist" and a "partisan", and doubts the accuracy of his claim that "[the emperor's] legate resides in Rome at all times". According to Eleanor Duckett, the author of the Libellus "poured out his feelings into that interesting document".

Nicholas I

Nicholas I may refer to:

Pope Nicholas I (c. 800 – 867; in office: 858-867), or Nicholas the Great

Nicholas Mystikos, Patriarch Nicholas I of Constantinople (852–925)

Nicholas I of Transylvania, voivode of Transylvania (1201)

Nicholas I (bishop of Schleswig) between 1209 and 1233

Patriarch Nicholas I of Alexandria, Greek Patriarch of Alexandria between 1210 and 1243

Nicholas I, Duke of Troppau, natural son of king Ottokar II of Bohemia, became Duke of Troppau in Silesia (c. 1255–1318)

Nicholas I Garai (died 1386), chief governor of Bratislava, palatine to the King of Hungary

Nicholas I of Opole (c. 1424 – 1476)

Nicolaus I Bernoulli (1687–1759) in Basel; Swiss mathematician

Nicholas I of Russia (r. 1825–1855), Emperor of Russia and King of Poland

Nikola I Petrović-Njegoš (1841–1921), King of Montenegro

Photian schism

The Photian Schism was a four-year (863–867) schism between the episcopal sees of Rome and Constantinople. The issue centered around the right of the Byzantine Emperor to depose and appoint a patriarch without approval from the papacy.

In 857, Ignatius was deposed or compelled to resign as Patriarch of Constantinople under the Byzantine Emperor Michael III for political reasons. He was replaced the following year by Photius. The pope, Nicholas I, despite previous disagreements with Ignatius, objected to what he considered the improper deposition of Ignatius and the elevation of Photius, a layman, in his place. After his legates exceeded their instructions in 861 by certifying Photius's elevation, Nicholas reversed their decision in 863 by condemning Photius.

The situation remained the same until 867. The West had been sending missionaries to the Byzantine territory of Bulgaria. In 867, Photius called a council and excommunicated Nicholas and the entire western Church. That same year, high ranking courtier Basil I usurped the imperial throne from Michael III and reinstated Ignatius as patriarch. After Ignatius died in 877, Photius was brought back, but an agreement between him and Pope John VIII prevented a second schism. Photius was deposed again in 886, and spent his years in retirement condemning the West for its alleged heresy.

The main problem was the papal claim to jurisdiction in the East, not accusations of heresy. The schism arose largely as a struggle for ecclesiastical control of the southern Balkans and because of a personality clash between the heads of the two sees, both of whom were elected in the year 858 and both of whose reigns ended in 867, by death in the case of the Pope, by the first of two depositions for the Patriarch. The Photian Schism thus differed from what occurred in the 11th century, when the pope's authority as a first among equals was challenged on the grounds of having lost that authority through heresy. The Photian Schism polarized the East and West for centuries, partially over a false but widespread belief in a second excommunication of Photius. This idea was finally debunked in the 20th century, which has helped rehabilitate Photius to some degree in the West.

Pope Nicholas

Pope Nicholas could refer to:

Pope Nicholas I

Pope Nicholas II

Pope Nicholas III

Pope Nicholas IV

Pope Nicholas V

Antipope Nicholas V

Pope Stephen V

Pope Stephen V (Latin: Stephanus V; died 14 September 891) was Pope from September 885 to his death in 891. He succeeded Pope Adrian III, and was in turn succeeded by Pope Formosus. In his dealings with Constantinople in the matter of Photius, as also in his relations with the young Slavic Orthodox church, he pursued the policy of Pope Nicholas I.

Robert (bishop of Le Mans)

Robert (died 883/85) was the bishop of Le Mans from 857.

Robert had a long-running dispute with the monastery of Saint-Calais. He even produced several forged documents—the famous "Le Mans forgeries"—to support his claim to oversight of the abbey. The monks had had their privilege of episcopal immunity and right of free election of their abbot confirmed at the council of Bonneuil in 855 and again in 862 at Pîtres. Robert succeeded in having Pope Nicholas I order the case re-opened. King Charles the Bald ruled in the Saint-Calais's favour at a synod in the palace of Verberie on 25 October 863. Charles had granted the abbey to Robert in 862, but he was able to claim that it was only a benefice and thus revocable, and that the bishop did not possess it by right, as he claimed. At Verberie, Charles placed the abbey under royal control and denied its claimed immunity.In 864 Charles sent Robert to Rome with Rothad, the deposed bishop of Soissons, to argue his case before Pope Nicholas. In 873 Robert requested Charles to approve the surrender of some precaria to the monastery of Saint-Vincent du Mans, which was under episcopal control at the time.

Rothad of Soissons

Rothad of Soissons (died 869) was Bishop of Soissons. In a conflict of authority with Hincmar of Reims, he was deposed as bishop in 862/3, by the Synod of Soissons. The issue was whether Rothad, suffragan bishop to Hincmar, had the legal right to deprive a priest.Rothad was restored in 865 by Pope Nicholas I, through the papal legate Arsenius, Bishop of Orta. The hearing in Rome of his case has been cited as the first judicial use of the False Decretals


Theotgaud (German: Dietgold; died 868) was the archbishop of Trier from 850 until his deposition in 867. He was the abbot of Mettlach prior to his election in 847 to succeed his uncle, Hetto, as archbishop. He took up his post three years later, but was inadequately trained in theology and politically and administratively inept.

In 857, the Annales Bertiniani reported that a dog sat on the archiepiscopal throne of Trier, which was interpreted as an omen portending the fall of Theotgaud. In the middle of June 863, Theotgaud and Gunther, Archbishop of Cologne, the two archbishops of Gallia Belgica, presided over a church synod of all the bishops of Lotharingia held at the bequest of Lothair II concerning his abandonment of his first wife Teutberga and his union with his mistress Waldrada. Pope Nicholas I sent apostolic legates to investigate the matter, but Lothair's bishops affirmed that they had advised him to spurn his lawful wife and take another. Theotgaud and Gunther gave grounds for their actions in a letter which they personally brought to Nicholas. He anathematised the council anyway and excommunicated all the bishops. Theotgaud and Gunther continued to defend their actions in a seven-page tome accusing the pope of unjustly banning them. The tome was sent to the rebellious Photius, Patriarch of Constantinople, and to the bishops of Lotharingia. Even the Emperor Louis II, who had secured the pope's election in 858, supported the archbishops. Theotgaud, who is sometimes regarded as a mere tool of Gunther, returned to his diocese to perform his episcopal and pastoral functions for Easter despite the ban.

After the king and his bishops had submitted to the pope, the two prelates gave in and went to Rome in penintence (November 864); Nicholas, however, did not accept it. Theotgaud retired to the Sabinerland. On 31 October 867, Nicholas sent letters to Louis the German and all the bishops of East Francia announcing that Gunther and Theotgaud were guilty of seven offences and therefore deposed from their sees and never eligible to hold ecclesiastical office again. After the accession of Pope Adrian II, Theotgaud and Gunther returned to Rome (late 867). Theotgaud was now freed from the ban, but Gunther remained excommunicated until the summer of 869, when, after a public retraction, he was admitted by the pope to lay communion at Monte Cassino. Theotgaud did not long enjoy his reconciliation with Rome. He died in 868 in Rome.


Wulfad (died 876) was the archbishop of Bourges from 866 until his death. Prior to that, he was the abbot of Montier-en-Der (from 856) and Soissons (from 858). He also served as a tutor to Carloman, a younger son of King Charles the Bald. Carloman succeeded Wulfad as abbot of Soissons in 860.Wulfad was ordained a priest by Archbishop Ebbo of Reims, who had been deposed in 835 and re-instated in 840. Wulfad was ordained during Ebbo's second incumbency, which ended in 841. He may have served the anti-king Pippin II of Aquitaine, an opponent of Charles the Bald, as a notary during 847–48, a period in which support for Pippin reached a high. In 857, Charles tried to promote him to the vacant see of Langres, but was successfully blocked by Ebbo's successor, Hincmar. In 859, Wulfad was removed from his priestly office, along with all the other priests, deacons and subdeacons ordained by Ebbo, at the synod of Savonnières, held under Hincmar's presidency.Neither Wulfad's support for Pippin nor his defrocking by Hincmar deterred Charles the Bald from appointing him archbishop of Bourges in 866. He had probably supported the king during the Neustrian rebellions of 858–60, for in a charter of 859 Charles calls him "our dearest abbot and minister". Although Hincmar disputed Wulfad's eligibility for the episcopate, the synod held at Soissons in August 866 refused to adjudicate the case. In 868 Charles convinced Pope Nicholas I that Wulfad's "prudence and vigour" were needed to counter the Vikings that threatened the region around Bourges. The pope confirmed him in the see.In Wulfad's day, all books were copied by hand, thus friends lent books to friends to allow them to copy them out for their own libraries. A list of books in Wulfad's library, probably intended to circulate among his friends, has survived on the back of a manuscript copy of the philosopher John Scotus Eriugena's Ambigua. Wulfad was a close associate of Eriugena, who dedicated to him his Periphyseon and called him a "collaborator in philosophical disputes". Wulfad's list of books includes titles by Eriugena, including the latter's translations of Pseudo-Dionysius and Maximus the Confessor's Ad Thalassium. There is a poem preserved in the manuscript F. 67 in the Leiden Universiteitsbibliothek that preserves a poem addressed to Wulfad by a monk suffering from the cold while his fellow monk, Wulfad's former student, Carloman, was by a warm fire.

1st–4th centuries
During the Roman Empire (until 493)
including under Constantine (312–337)
5th–8th centuries
Ostrogothic Papacy (493–537)
Byzantine Papacy (537–752)
Frankish Papacy (756–857)
9th–12th centuries
Papal selection before 1059
Saeculum obscurum (904–964)
Crescentii era (974–1012)
Tusculan Papacy (1012–1044/1048)
Imperial Papacy (1048–1257)
13th–16th centuries
Viterbo (1257–1281)
Orvieto (1262–1297)
Perugia (1228–1304)
Avignon Papacy (1309–1378)
Western Schism (1378–1417)
Renaissance Papacy (1417–1534)
Reformation Papacy (1534–1585)
Baroque Papacy (1585–1689)
17th–20th centuries
Age of Enlightenment (c. 1640-1740)
Revolutionary Papacy (1775–1848)
Roman Question (1870–1929)
Vatican City (1929–present)
21st century
History of the papacy
Virgin Mary
See also

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