Pope Martin V

Pope Martin V (Latin: Martinus V; January/February 1369 – 20 February 1431), born Otto (or Oddone) Colonna, was Pope from 11 November 1417 to his death in 1431.[1] His election effectively ended the Western Schism (1378–1417).


Martin V
Bishop of Rome
Pisanello, copia da Ritratto di Martino V (Galleria Colonna)
Elected11 November 1417
Papacy began14 November 1417
Papacy ended20 February 1431
PredecessorGregory XII
SuccessorEugene IV
Ordination13 November 1417
Consecration14 November 1417
by Jean Franczon Allarmet de Brogny
Created cardinal12 June 1405
by Innocent VII
Personal details
Birth nameOddone Colonna
Genazzano, near Rome, Papal States
Died20 February 1431
(aged 62)
Rome, Papal States
Other popes named Martin
Papal styles of
Pope Martin V
C o a Martino V
Reference styleHis Holiness
Spoken styleYour Holiness
Religious styleHoly Father
Posthumous styleNone


He was born at Genazzano, the son of Agapito Colonna and Caterina Conti, between January 26 and February 20, 1369.[2] He belonged to one of the oldest and most distinguished families of Rome. His brother Giordano became Prince of Salerno and Duke of Venosa, while his sister Paola was Lady of Piombino between 1441 and 1445.

Oddone studied law at the University of Pavia.[3] He became apostolic protonotary under Pope Urban VI (1378–89), and was created Cardinal-Deacon of San Giorgio in Velabro by Pope Innocent VII in 1405.

In 1409 he took part in the Council of Pisa, and was one of the supporters of Antipope Alexander V. Later he confirmed his allegiance to Alexander's successor, John XXIII, by whom his family obtained several privileges, while Oddone obtained for himself the vicariate of Todi, Orvieto, Perugia and Umbria. He was excommunicated for this in 1411 by Pope Gregory XII. Oddone was with John XXIII's entourage at the Council of Constance and followed him in his escape at Schaffhausen on 21 March 1415. Later he returned to Constance and took part in the process leading to the deposition of John XXIII.[4]



After deposing Antipope John XXIII in 1415, the Council of Constance was long divided by the conflicting claims of Pope Gregory XII (1406–15) and Antipope Benedict XIII (1394–1423). Martin was elected pope, at the age of 48, at the Council of Constance on St. Martin's Day, 11 November 1417.[5] Participants in the conclave included 23 cardinals and 30 delegates of the council. He was ordained a priest on November 13, 1417, and consecrated bishop the next day.[3]

Martin left Constance at the close of the council (May 1418), but travelled slowly through Italy and lingered at Florence. His authority in Rome was represented by his brother Giordano, who had fought under Muzio Attendolo against the condottiero Braccio da Montone. The Pope at the time ruled only Rome (when not rebellious) and its environs: Braccio held Umbria, Bologna as an independent commune, while much of Romagna and the Marche was held by local "vicars", who were in fact petty hereditary lords.[4] In particular, Martin confirmed Giorgio Ordelaffi in Forlì, Ludovico Alidosi in Imola, Malatesta IV Malatesta in Rimini, and Guidantonio da Montefeltro in Spoleto, who would later marry the pope's niece Caterina Colonna.

Habemus Papam 1415
Pope Martin's election.

In exchange for the recognition of Joan II of Naples, Martin obtained the restitution of Benevento, several fiefs in the Kingdom of Naples for his relatives and, most important of all, an agreement that Muzio Attendolo, then hired by the Neapolitans, should leave Rome.[5]

After a long stay in Florence while these matters were arranged, Martin was able to enter Rome in September 1420. He at once set to work establishing order and restoring the dilapidated churches, palaces, bridges, and other public structures. For this reconstruction he engaged some famous masters of the Tuscan school and helped instigate the Roman Renaissance.[5]

Faced with competing plans for general reform offered by various nations, Martin V submitted a counter-scheme and entered into negotiations for separate concordats, for the most part vague and illusory, with the Holy Roman Empire, England, France and Spain.

Hussite Wars

By 1415 Bohemia was in turmoil and the subject of much discussion at the Council of Constance. Adherents of Jan Hus adopted the practice of Communion under both kinds. The Council sent earnest letters to the civil and ecclesiastical authorities in Bohemia, insisting they deal with the heresy. Bohemian and Moravian nobles responded that the sentence on Hus was unjust and insulting to their country, and promised to protect priests against episcopal prosecutions for heresy. Prague was placed under interdict for sheltering the excommunicate Johann of Jesenic. Beghards arrived attracted by Bohemia's reputation for religious liberty.[6]

In 1419 King Wenceslaus, who had resisted what he considered interference in his kingdom, commanded that all ejected Catholic beneficiaries should be reinstated in their offices and revenues. Prague prepared for armed resistance. Johann of Jesenic led a procession to the town hall, where under the leadership of Ziska of Troznow, a noble of southern Bohemia, the building was stormed and people found inside were thrown out of the windows on to the spears and swords of the processionists, and hacked to pieces. In Kuttenberg, hundreds of captured Hussites were thrown by the miners into the shafts of disused silver mines. King Wenceslaus swore death to all the rebels, but died of a stroke in August, 1419. The next months were marked by deeds of violence; many citizens, especially Germans, had to flee.[6]

Wenceslaus was succeeded by his brother Sigismund, German Emperor and King of Hungary, who prepared to restore order. On 1 March 1420, Pope Martin V issued a Bull inviting all Christians to unite in a crusade against the Wycliffites, Hussites, and other heretics.[6]


According to Burton, Pope Martin authorized a crusade against Africa in 1418 in relation to the slave trade.[7]

Martin declared two Crusades in 1420. The first was against heretics in Bohemia, as described above. The second was in response to the rising pressure from the Ottoman Empire. In 1419–1420 Martin had diplomatic contacts with the Byzantine emperor Manuel II, who was invoking a council in Constantinople as a move to reduce the pressure from the Ottoman Turks. On 12 July 1420 the Pope conceded to attach an indulgence to anyone who would contribute to a crusade against the latter, which would be led by Sigismund, King of the Romans.[4]

War against Braccio da Montone

The main concern of Martin's pontificate from 1423 was the resumed war against Braccio da Montone. The following year, the combined Papal-Neapolitan army, led by Giacomo Caldora and Francesco Sforza, defeated him at the Battle of L'Aquila (2 June 1424); Braccio died a few days later.[4]

In the same year Martin obtained a reduction of the autonomy of the commune of Bologna, whose finances would be thenceforth under the authority of a papal treasurer.[4] He also ended the war with Braccio da Montone in exchange for his recognition as vicar[4] and reconciled with the deposed John XXIII, to whom he gave the title of Cardinal of Tusculum.

Annuity contracts

Canon law prohibited interest upon a loan. To avoid this, annuities were paid, interest in effect but not in name. The dispute as to the legality of annuity contracts was brought before Martin V in 1423. He held that purchased annuities, which were redeemable at the option of the seller, were lawful.[8][9] When the lawfulness of annuities was established, they were widely used in commerce; it seems that city states used them to raise compulsory loans from their citizens.

Periodic ecumenical councils

A decree of the Council of Constance ordered that councils should be held every five years. Martin V summoned a council in 1423 that met first at Pavia and later at Siena (the "Council of Siena"). It was rather poorly attended, which gave the Pope a pretext for dissolving it, as soon as it had come to the resolution that "internal church union by reform ought to take precedence over external union". It was prorogued for seven years. The seventeenth council then met as the "Council of Basel" in February 1431 shortly before Martin's death.


Martin V died in Rome of a stroke on 20 February 1431 at the age of 62. He is buried at St. John Lateran Basilica.[4]

Personal views

Position on Jews

The excitement of the Church during the Hussite movement rendered the Jews apprehensive, and through Emperor Sigismund, they obtained from Pope Martin V various bulls (1418 and 1422) in which their former privileges were confirmed and in which he exhorted the friars to use moderate language. In the last years of his pontificate, however, he repealed several of his ordinances. A gathering, convoked by the Jews in Forlì, sent a deputation asking Pope Martin V to abolish the oppressive laws promulgated by Antipope Benedict XIII. The deputation succeeded in its mission.[10]

Position on slavery

During the Middle Ages, slavery had fallen out of usage in Europe. The Church denounced the enslavement of Christians. However, voyages and discoveries brought other continents, where slavery still existed, into European consciousness, raising the question of whether slavery of unbelievers and outside of Europe was permitted. According to Burton, Martin authorized a crusade against Africa in 1418 and this coupled with a later bull of Eugene IV (1441) sanctioned the Portuguese trade in African slaves.[7] In March 1425 a bull was issued that threatened excommunication for any Christian slave dealers and ordered Jews to wear a "badge of infamy" to deter, in part, the buying of Christians.[11] In June 1425 Martin anathematized those who sold Christian slaves to Muslims.[12] Traffic in Christian slaves was not banned, purely the sale to non-Christian owners.[13] The papal bull of excommunication issued to the Genoese merchants of Caffa related to the buying and selling of Christians, but has been considered ineffectual as prior injunctions against the Viennese, including the Laws of Gazaria, made allowances for the sale of both Christian and Muslim slaves.[14] Ten black African slaves were presented to Martin by Prince Henry of Portugal.[15] According to Koschorke, Martin supported colonial expansion.[16] Davidson (1961) argues that Martin's injunction against slavery was not a condemnation of slavery itself, but rather driven through fear of "infidel power".[17]

Norman Housley finds it "... hard to avoid the conclusion that the pope was agreeing to whatever was asked of him by the king. ...political weakness compelled the Renaissance Papacy to adopt an acquiescent and unchallenging position when approached for requests for privileges in favour of these ventures."[18]


During his permanence in Rome, Martin moved his residence from St. Peter to Santa Maria Maggiore and, from 1424, the Basilica of Santi Apostoli near the Palazzo Colonna. He also frequently sojourned in towns held by his family in the Latium (Tivoli, Vicovaro, Marino, Gallicano and others).


When the second Pope to take the name Martin was elected in 1281, there was confusion over how many Popes had taken the name before. It was believed then that there were three, so the new Pope of 1281 became Martin IV. But, in reality, those believed to be Martin II and Martin III were actually named Marinus I and Marinus II, although they are sometimes still referred to as "Martin II" and "Martin III". This has advanced the numbering of all subsequent Popes Martin by two. Popes Martin IV–V were actually the second and third popes by that name.

See also


  1. ^ Kelly, J.N.D.. (1996). The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford.
  2. ^ His date of birth can be established basing on the following contemporary reports:
  3. ^ a b Miranda, Salvador. "Colonna, Oddone", Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church
  4. ^ a b c d e f g "MARTINO V, papa in "Dizionario Biografico"". www.treccani.it.
  5. ^ a b c Ott, Michael. "Pope Martin V." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 9. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. 25 July 2014
  6. ^ a b c "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hussites". www.newadvent.org.
  7. ^ a b Burton 2007, p. 197.
  8. ^ Lumley's Treatise upon the Law of Annuities and Rent Charges, 1st ed, 1833
  9. ^ Affirmed by Pope Calixtus III, preserved 25 ATR 388 in the Corp Jur Canon Extra III tit 5.
  10. ^ "Popes, The", Jewish Encyclopedia, 1906
  11. ^ Davis 1988, p. 100.
  12. ^ Setton 1978, p. 46.
  13. ^ Maxwell, John Francis (1975). Slavery and the Catholic Church. Chichester: Barry Rose. p. 49. ISBN 978-0859920155.
  14. ^ Davidson 1961, p. 41.
  15. ^ Semmes 1996 citing Thompson, Vincent Bakpetu (1987). The Making of the African Diaspora in the Americas, 1441-1900. New York: Longman.
  16. ^ Koschorke, Klaus; et al., eds. (2007). A history of Christianity in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, 1450–1990. Grand Rapids, MI: W.B. Eerdmans. p. 144. ISBN 978-0802828897.
  17. ^ Davidson 1961, p. 100 fn 8.
  18. ^ Housley, Norman. Religious Warfare in Europe 1400–1536, p.182, Oxford University Press, 2002 ISBN 9780198208112


  • Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Martin V" . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  • Setton, Kenneth M. (1978). The Papacy and the Levant. DIANE Publishing. ISBN 978-0-87169-127-9. Review
  • Burton, Keith Augustus (2007). The blessing of Africa. InterVarsity Press. ISBN 978-0-8308-2762-6.
  • Davis, David Brion (1988). The problem of slavery in Western culture. Oxford University Press US. ISBN 978-0-19-505639-6.
  • Davidson, Basil (1961). The African Slave Trade. James Currey Publishers. ISBN 978-0-85255-798-3.
  • Semmes, Clovis E. (1996). Racism, health, and post-industrialism. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-275-95428-4.
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Gregory XII (Roman)
Benedict XIII (Avignon)
John XXIII (Pisan)
14 November 1417 – 20 February 1431
Succeeded by
Eugene IV
1431 papal conclave

The papal conclave of 1431 (March 2–3) convened after the death of Pope Martin V, elected as his successor cardinal Gabriele Condulmer, who took the name Eugene IV. It was the first papal conclave held after the end of the Great Western Schism.


An antipope (Latin: antipapa) is a person who, in opposition to the one who is generally seen as the legitimately elected Pope, makes a significantly accepted competing claim to be the Pope, the Bishop of Rome and leader of the Roman Catholic Church. At times between the 3rd and mid-15th centuries, antipopes were supported by a fairly significant faction of religious cardinals and secular or anti-religious monarchs and kingdoms. Persons who claim to be pope, but have few followers, such as the modern sedevacantist antipopes, are not classified with the historical antipopes.

Biagio Molino

Biagio Molino or Biaggio Molina or Biageo de Molina (1380–1447) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Titular Patriarch of Jerusalem (1434–1447), Patriarch of Grado (1427–1434), Archbishop of Zadar (1420–1427), and Bishop of Pula (1410–1420).

Colonna family

The Colonna family, also known as Sciarrillo or Sciarra, is an papal noble family. It was powerful in medieval and Renaissance Rome, supplying one Pope (Martin V) and many other Church and political leaders. The family is notable for its bitter feud with the Orsini family over influence in Rome, until it was stopped by Papal Bull in 1511. In 1571, the heads of both families married nieces of Pope Sixtus V. Thereafter, historians recorded that "no peace had been concluded between the princes of Christendom, in which they had not been included by name".


A concordat is a convention between the Holy See and a sovereign state that defines the relationship between the Catholic Church and the state in matters that concern both, i.e. the recognition and privileges of the Catholic Church in a particular country and with secular matters that impact on church interests.

According to P.W. Brown the use of the term "concordat" does not appear "until the pontificate of Pope Martin V (1413–1431) in a work by Nicholas de Cusa, entitled De Concordantia Catholica". The first concordat dates from 1098, and from then to the beginning of the First World War the Holy See signed 74 concordats. Due to the substantial remapping of Europe that took place after the war, new concordats with legal successor states were necessary. The post-World War I era saw the greatest proliferation of concordats in history.Although for a time after the Second Vatican Council, which ended in 1965, the term 'concordat' was dropped, it reappeared with the Polish Concordat of 1993 and the Portuguese Concordat of 2004. A different model of relations between the Vatican and various states is still evolving in the wake of the Second Vatican Council's Declaration on Religious Liberty, Dignitatis humanae.

Council of Constance

The Council of Constance is the 15th-century ecumenical council recognized by the Catholic Church, held from 1414 to 1418 in the Bishopric of Constance. The council ended the Western Schism by deposing or accepting the resignation of the remaining papal claimants and by electing Pope Martin V.

The council also condemned Jan Hus as a heretic and facilitated his execution by the civil authority. It also ruled on issues of national sovereignty, the rights of pagans and just war, in response to a conflict between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Kingdom of Poland and the Order of the Teutonic Knights. The council is important for its relationship to ecclesial conciliarism and Papal supremacy.

Council of Florence

The Seventeenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church was convoked as the Council of Basel by Pope Martin V shortly before his death in February 1431 and took place in the context of the Hussite wars in Bohemia and the rise of the Ottoman Empire. At stake was the greater conflict between the Conciliar movement and the principle of papal supremacy.

The Council entered a second phase after Emperor Sigismund's death in 1437. Pope Eugene IV convoked a rival Council of Ferrara on 8 January 1438 and succeeded in drawing the Byzantine ambassadors to Italy. The Council of Basel first suspended him, declared him a heretic, and then in November 1439 elected an antipope, Felix V. The rival Council of Florence (moved to avoid the plague in Ferrara) concluded in 1445 after negotiating unions with the various eastern churches. This bridging of the Great Schism proved fleeting, but was a political coup for the papacy. In 1447, Sigismund's successor Frederick III commanded the city of Basel to expel the Council of Basel; the rump council reconvened in Lausanne before dissolving itself in 1449.

Giacomo I Crispo

Giacomo I Crispo (or Jacopo) (1383–1418) was the eleventh Duke of the Archipelago, etc., from 1397 to 1418, son of the tenth Duke Francesco I Crispo and wife Fiorenza I Sanudo, Lady of Milos, and brother of John II and William II.

He married his cousin Fiorenza Sommaripa, daughter of Gaspare Sommaripa, and wife Maria Sanudo.According to William Miller, Giacomo died of the flux at Ferrara while travelling to meet Pope Martin V at Mantua. He had involved in arranging the retrocession of Corinth to the Byzantine Empire by the Knights of St. John prior to his death. In his will, Giacomo introduced the Salic Law to the Duchy by excluding his daughter from succession and made his brother John II Crispo his heir and successor.

Gruffydd Young

Gruffydd Young (or Griffin Yonge) (c. 1370 – c. 1435) was a cleric and a close supporter of Owain Glyndŵr during his Welsh rebellion against the English King Henry IV between 1400 and 1412.

Hospital of Santa Maria Nuova

The Hospital of Santa Maria Nuova (i.e. Ospedale di Santa Maria Nuova in Italian) is the oldest hospital still active in Florence, Italy.

Ingram Lindsay

Ingram Lindsay [Ingeram de Lindesay], Doctor in Canon Law, was a 15th-century Scottish cleric. Despite being of illegitimate birth - one of several sons of an unmarried nobleman and an unmarried girl - he nevertheless managed in the end to pursue a successful ecclesiastical career.

Pope Martin V provided him as Archdeacon of Dunkeld on 21 January 1421, but this was unsuccessful; likewise he was Dean of the Collegiate Church of Dunbar in 1422, but only for a year or under. Ingram was in possession of the church of "Kynnore" (Kinnoir), a Moray prebend, by 1430, and possessed a canonry and prebend in the diocese of Brechin and a vicarage in the diocese of Glasgow when he was made Precentor of Elgin Cathedral in 1431, a position he held until 1441. He had also briefly been Chancellor of Moray between 1430 and 1431.It was in 1441 that Ingram attained the peak of his career, being elected Bishop of Aberdeen by the chapter; he was confirmed in this position by Pope Eugenius IV on 28 April. Not too much can be said about Ingram's episcopate. Among other things, Bishop Ingram is known to have put a stone roof on Aberdeen Cathedral, paved its floor with free stone and added the churches of Monymusk and Ruthven to the cathedral prebends. He is said to have fallen out with the king, James II of Scotland, by refusing to accommodate James' wish that some benefices be bestowed on certain royal followers. Ingram died at Aberdeen on 24 August 1458. Bishop Ingram was an active scholastic theologian, and is known to have written various theological and biblical commentaries.

John Cameron (bishop)

John Cameron (died 1446) was a 15th-century Scottish cleric, bishop of Glasgow, and Keeper of the Privy Seal.

A licentiate in decrees (law), and provost of Lincluden, he became an official of the bishopric of St Andrews, and a canon of Glasgow, as well as secretary to Archibald Douglas, Earl of Wigtown, who secured for him the living of Rector of Cambuslang.

He transferred into the service of King James I as a secretary in July 1424, and became Keeper of the Privy Seal. When William de Lawedre, bishop of Glasgow, another close advisor of King James, died in 1425, the King chose John Cameron as his successor. John was thus elected to the see, but it was discovered soon after that the pope had already reserved the see for his own nomination. Nevertheless, Pope Martin V provided him to the see on 22 April 1426. He was consecrated sometime in 1427.

John was one of the most intimate advisors and associates of King James. On a number of occasions he faced accusations of improper conduct from the papacy, and was accused of being a bad influence on the king, although in reality John was James' man, not the other way around. John also served as an ambassador on embassies to England in 1429, 1430, and 1431. In November 1432, John passed through England again, this time on his way to Rome. He was in Bologna in July 1436, but back in Scotland by September 1437.

He died on 24 December 1446 at Lochwood, seven miles from the burgh of Glasgow.

Pope Gregory XII

Pope Gregory XII (Latin: Gregorius XII; c. 1326 or 1327 – 18 October 1417), born Angelo Corraro, Corario, or Correr, was Pope from 30 November 1406 to 4 July 1415 when he was forced to resign to end the Western Schism. He succeeded Pope Innocent VII and in turn was succeeded by Pope Martin V.

Portrait of Cardinal Niccolò Albergati

The Portrait of Cardinal Niccolò Albergati is a painting by early Netherlandish painter Jan van Eyck, dating to around 1431 and now in the Kunsthistorisches Museum of Vienna, Austria.

Niccolò Albergati was a diplomat working under Pope Martin V. During a peace congress in Antwerp, he met van Eyck, who portrayed him in a drawing in which the artist added notes on the colors in order to execute a later painting portrait. The drawing is now in the Staatliche Kunstsammlungen of Dresden, Germany.

The cardinal is portrayed from three-quarters, as was usual in Flemish painting since as early as the 1430s, on a dark background which enhances the figure, which is instead subject to a bright light source. As common in van Eyck's work, attention to detail is maximum, thanks to his technique using successive layers of colors diluted with oil, which allowed him deep effects of transparency and lucidity. Comparison with the preparatory drawing shows that van Eyck changed several realistic details, such as the depth of the shoulders, the lower curve of the nose, the depth of the mouth and mainly the size of the ear, perhaps to strengthen the impression of seniority and, consequently, of authority of the cardinal.

Renaissance Papacy

The Renaissance Papacy was a period of papal history between the Western Schism and the Protestant Reformation. From the election of Pope Martin V of the Council of Constance in 1417 to the Reformation in the 16th century, Western Christianity was largely free from schism as well as significant disputed papal claimants. There were many important divisions over the direction of the religion, but these were resolved through the then-settled procedures of the papal conclave.

The popes of this period were a reflection of the College of Cardinals that elected them. The College was dominated by cardinal-nephews (relatives of the popes that elevated them), crown-cardinals (representatives of the Catholic monarchies of Europe), and members of the powerful Italian families. There were two popes each from the House of Borgia, House of della Rovere, and House of Medici during this period. The wealthy popes and cardinals increasingly patronized Renaissance art and architecture, (re)building the landmarks of Rome from the ground up.

The Papal States began to resemble a modern nation-state during this period, and the papacy took an increasingly active role in European wars and diplomacy. Popes were more frequently called upon to arbitrate disputes between competing colonial powers than to resolve complicated theological disputes. To the extent that this period is relevant to modern Catholic dogma, it is in the area of papal supremacy. None of these popes have been canonized as a saint, or even regarded as Blessed or Venerable.

Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Florence

The Archdiocese of Florence (Latin: Archidioecesis Florentina) is a metropolitan see of the Catholic Church in Italy. Traditionally founded in the 1st century, it was elevated to the dignity of an archdiocese on May 10, 1419, by Pope Martin V. Its mother church is the Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore, which has as its pastor the Archbishop of Florence. Since September 2008 Giuseppe Betori is the Archbishop; the former Archbishop, Cardinal Ennio Antonelli, was named President of the Pontifical Council for the Family.

Study for Cardinal Niccolò Albergati

Study for Cardinal Niccolò Albergati is a silverpoint drawing attributed to the Early Netherlandish painter Jan van Eyck, made in preparation for his Portrait of Cardinal Niccolò Albergati of 1431. Niccolò Albergati was a diplomat working under Pope Martin V. He met van Eyck during a peace congress in Antwerp, when the artist portrayed him. It is held in the collection of the Staatliche Kunstsammlungen in Dresden. The drawing, along with the Saint Barbara in the Royal Museum of Fine Arts Antwerp are the two surviving drawing by van Eyck. This work is especially valuable to art historians as it includes notes made to indicate the colors intended for the final oil portrait.

The preparatory study shows an elderly cleric who is visibly aging and imprinted with deep lines below his eyes. The work is a commission; Albergati is shown near full frontal and dressed in the red robe of a cardinal, and his gown is lined with luxurious fur.

Thomas Tulloch (bishop of Ross)

Thomas Tulloch [de Tulloch] (d. 1460 × 1461) was a prelate active in the Kingdom of Scotland in the 15th century. A letter of Pope Martin V in 1429 claimed that he was "of a great noble race by both parents". Robert Keith believed that he had the surname "Urquhart", but that is not supported by the contemporary evidence and is probably spurious.

William Stephani

William Stephen, sometimes William Stephani (probably Stephenson), was a medieval prelate based in Scotland, who became Bishop of Orkney and then Bishop of Dunblane. A reader in divinity at the University of St Andrews at its first establishment, he was provided by Avignon Pope Benedict XIII as Bishop of Orkney 15 November 1415. He was a canon of Moray at this date. The consecration took place at the Papal court.

Despite having his provision confirmed by Pope Martin V on 15 July 1419, he does not seem to have gotten possession of fruits by the time he was translated to the bishopric of Dunblane on 30 October 1419. He was elected as conservator of the provincial synod of the Scottish church held at Perth on 16 July 1420. On 28 October 1420 he witnessed as charter of Murdoch Stewart, Duke of Albany. He was an auditor and receiver of the ransom of King James I of Scotland in 1424. He was sent as an ambassador to Rome by the king in 1425.

He is last attested in 1428, and he died sometime before 25 February 1429. The next bishop of Dunblane was Michael de Ochiltree.

1st–4th centuries
During the Roman Empire (until 493)
including under Constantine (312–337)
5th–8th centuries
Ostrogothic Papacy (493–537)
Byzantine Papacy (537–752)
Frankish Papacy (756–857)
9th–12th centuries
Papal selection before 1059
Saeculum obscurum (904–964)
Crescentii era (974–1012)
Tusculan Papacy (1012–1044/1048)
Imperial Papacy (1048–1257)
13th–16th centuries
Viterbo (1257–1281)
Orvieto (1262–1297)
Perugia (1228–1304)
Avignon Papacy (1309–1378)
Western Schism (1378–1417)
Renaissance Papacy (1417–1534)
Reformation Papacy (1534–1585)
Baroque Papacy (1585–1689)
17th–20th centuries
Age of Enlightenment (c. 1640-1740)
Revolutionary Papacy (1775–1848)
Roman Question (1870–1929)
Vatican City (1929–present)
21st century
History of the papacy
Bible and
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Early Church
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21st century

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