Pope Marinus II

Pope Marinus II (/məˈraɪnəs/; or Martin III; d. May 946) was Pope from 30 October 942 to his death in 946.

Pope

Marinus II
Pope Marinus II
Papacy began30 October 942
Papacy endedMay 946
PredecessorStephen VIII
SuccessorAgapetus II
Personal details
Birth nameMarinus
BornRome, Papal States
DiedMay 946 (aged 46)
Rome, Papal States
Previous postCardinal-Priest of San Ciriaco alle Terne
Other popes named Marinus

Pontificate

Marinus was born in Rome, and prior to becoming pope he was attached to the Church of Saint Cyriacus in the Baths of Diocletian. He was said to have encountered St. Ulrich on his visit to Rome in 909, and reportedly predicted Ulrich's eventual appointment as Bishop of Augsburg.[1]

Marinus was elevated to the papacy on 30 October 942 through intervention of Alberic II of Spoleto, Prince of the Romans. He concentrated on administrative aspects of the papacy, and sought to reform both the secular and regular clergy. He extended the appointment of Frederick, Archbishop of Mainz as Papal Vicar and Missus dominicus throughout Germany and Francia.[2] Marinus later intervened when the Bishop of Capua seized without authorization a church which had been given to the local Benedictine monks.[3] In fact, throughout his pontificate, Marinus favoured various monasteries, issuing a number of Papal bulls in their favour.[4]

Marinus occupied the palace built by Pope John VII atop the Palatine Hill in the ruins of the Domus Gaiana.[5] He died in May 946 and was succeeded by Agapetus II.[6]

Marinus/Martinus error

Because of the similarity of the names Marinus and Martinus, Popes Marinus I and Marinus II were, in some sources, mistakenly given the name Martinus (and were then listed respectively as Martinus II and Martinus III). Thus, when the new Pope in 1281 took the name Martin, he became Pope Martin IV, when in fact he should've taken the name Martin II.

Notes

  1. ^ Mann, pgs. 218-219
  2. ^ Mann, pg. 219
  3. ^ DeCormenin, Louis Marie; Gihon, James L., A Complete History of the Popes of Rome, from Saint Peter, the First Bishop to Pius the Ninth (1857), pgs. 290-291
  4. ^ Mann, pg. 221
  5. ^ Mann, pg. 222
  6. ^ Mann, pg. 223

References

  • Mann, Horace K., The Lives of the Popes in the Early Middle Ages, Vol. IV: The Popes in the Days of Feudal Anarchy, 891-999 (1910)

External links

  • Opera Omnia by Migne Patrologia Latina with analytical indexes
  • Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope Marinus II" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  • Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Marinus" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 17 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 722.
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Stephen VIII
Pope
942–946
Succeeded by
Agapetus II
880s

The 880s decade ran from January 1, 880, to December 31, 889.

== Events ==

=== 880 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Battle of Cephalonia: A Byzantine fleet, under Admiral Nasar, is sent by Emperor Basil I to the Ionian Islands. Nasar defeats the Aghlabids in a night battle near Cephalonia (modern Greece).

May 1 – The Nea Ekklesia is inaugurated in Constantinople, by Patriarch Photius I, setting the model for all later cross-in-square Orthodox churches.

====== Europe ======

February 2 – Battle of Lüneburg Heath: King Louis III is defeated by the Norse Great Heathen Army at Lüneburg Heath. The Saxons are routed in a snowstorm; many drown in the river or are captured during the retreat.

Battle of Thimeon: King Louis III ("the Younger") defeats Vikings (probably Norsemen) from England, near Charleroi, north of the River Sambre. During the battle 5,000 Vikings are killed.

Battle of Fjaler: King Harald Fairhair moves east along the Norwegian coast with his fleet. He defeats his rival Atle Mjove at Fjaler in Sunnfjord, and lands with his longships at Tønsberg.

December – Treaty of Ribemont: Louis the Younger and the kings of the West Frankish Kingdom sign a treaty. The young Frankish monarch, Louis III, is reduced to merely Neustria.

Lambert I, duke of Spoleto, dies while besieging the city of Capua. He is succeeded by his son Guy II.

The oldest known mention is made of the city of Dortmund (approximate date).

====== Asia ======

Fujiwara no Mototsune, Japanese statesman, creates the position of regent (kampaku) for himself. The Fujiwara clan will be able to dominate the government for more than 3 centuries.

December 22 – Luoyang, eastern Chinese capital of the Dynasty, is captured by rebel leader Huang Chao, during the reign of emperor Xi Zong.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Pope John VIII issues the bull Industriae Tuae, creating an independent ecclesiastical province in Great Moravia, with archbishop Methodius as its head. The Old Church Slavonic is recognized as the fourth liturgical language, besides Latin, Greek and Hebrew.

The first known Christian bishopric in Slovakia is established in the city of Nitra, with Wiching as bishop.

=== 881 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

February 12 – King Charles the Fat, the third son of the late Louis the German, is crowned as Holy Roman Emperor by Pope John VIII at Rome.

August 3 – Battle of Saucourt-en-Vimeu: The West Frankish kings Louis III, and his brother Carloman II, rout Viking raiders (near Abbeville).

====== Britain ======

Battle of the Conwy: King Anarawd of Gwynedd (Wales) initiates a revenge attack on the Mercian armies, and defeats them on the River Conwy.

Anarawd, and his brothers Cadell and Merfyn, begin extensive military campaigns to quell resistance in Powys and Seisyllwg (approximate date).

====== Arabian Empire ======

Zanj Rebellion: Abbasid general Al-Muwaffaq lays siege to the Zanj capital of Mukhtara, using his base on the opposite side of the River Tigris.

====== Asia ======

Bakong, the first temple mountain of sandstone, is constructed by rulers of the Khmer Empire (modern Cambodia) at Angkor.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

St. Cecilia's Church (Cäcilienkirche) is founded as a college for women. It is now kept at the Schnütgen Museum in Cologne.

=== 882 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

January 20 – King Louis the Younger dies in Frankfurt. He leaves his territory to his younger brother, Emperor Charles the Fat, who becomes sole ruler of the East Frankish Kingdom.

April 11 – Battle of Remich: A Frankish army under Bishop Wala of Metz is defeated by Vikings, who are on a raid, near Remich (modern Luxembourg). During the fighting Wala is killed.

Siege of Asselt: Charles the Fat besieges a Viking camp, who have plundered along the Meuse, the Rhine and the Moselle. He defeats their leader Godfrid, and grants him West Frisia.

August 5 – King Carloman II becomes sole ruler of the West Frankish Kingdom, after the accidental death of his brother, Louis III. His power is limited by rebellious nobles in Burgundy.

Oleg of Novgorod takes Kiev, and makes it his capital, starting in Ukraine and Eastern Europe, forming the Kievan Rus', replacing the 19-year-long Christianization of the Rus' Khaganate.

====== Britain ======

King Alfred the Great increases the size of his new navy, and sails out to attack four Viking ships. Two of the ships are captured (before they surrender), and the other crews are killed.

====== Arabian Empire ======

December – Ishaq ibn Kundaj, a Turkic military leader, arrests the Abbasid caliph Al-Mu'tamid, when the latter (and his followers) try to flee into Tulunid territory.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

December 16 – Pope John VIII is assassinated at Rome after a 10-year reign, probably the victim of a political conspiracy. He is succeeded by Marinus I, as the 108th pope of the Catholic Church.

=== 883 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Spring – Viking raiders ravaged Flanders, and sacked the abbey at Saint-Quentin. King Carloman II blocked their passage at Laviers, which had been on the banks of the Somme. Meanwhile, Vikings entered the Rhine, but were turned back by Henry of Franconia (possibly amargrave of Saxony). They over-winter at Duisburg.

King Charles the Fat traveled to Nonantola (Northern Italy), where he met Pope Marinus I. He received complaints of Guy II of Spoleto, who was the official "protector" of Rome and invaded the Papal States. King Charles ordered Guy to appear before a tribunal.

Guy II of Spoleto began a revolt, and assembled an army supported with Arab auxiliaries. King Charles the Fat sent Berengar of Friuli with an expeditionary force to deprive him of Spoleto. An epidemic ravaged Berengar's army and forced them to retire.

Svatopluk I, ruler (knyaz) of Great Moravia, conquers Lower Pannonia (modern Hungary), during the succession strife in the East Frankish Kingdom (approximate date).

The first historic document (written by Regino of Prüm) mentions Duisburg.

====== Arabian Empire ======

The Zanj Rebellion: Abbasid general Al-Muwaffaq brings in Egyptian forces, to help him in his two-year siege of the Zanj capital Mukhtara. He captures the city, and crushes the revolt that has devastated Chaldea (modern Iraq) since 869.

September 11 – Yazaman al-Khadim, Abbasid governor of Tarsus, routs a Byzantine army under general Kesta Styppiotes, in a night attack. According to Arab chroniclers, 70,000 out of 100,000 Byzantine troops are killed.

=== 884 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

March 1 – Diego Rodríguez Porcelos, count of Castile, founds and repopulates (repoblación) Burgos and Ubierna (Northern Spain), under the mandate of King Alfonso III of Asturias.

Summer – King Carloman II reverts to the former fall-back of 'pay and pray', buying (with Danegeld) a truce at Amiens, while he raises 12,000 lbs of silver for the Vikings to depart.

December 12 – Carloman II dies after a hunting accident. He is succeeded by his cousin, Emperor Charles the Fat, who for the last time reunites the Frankish Empire.

====== Britain ======

King Æthelred II of Mercia marries Princess Æthelflæd, daughter of King Alfred the Great. He accepts Wessex overlordship, and demotes himself to become "Lord of the Mercians".

====== Arabian Empire ======

January 6 – Hasan ibn Zayd, founder of the Zaydid Dynasty, dies after a 20-year reign at Amul. He is succeeded by his brother Muhammad, as emir of Tabaristan.

May 10 – Ahmad ibn Tulun, founder of the Tulunid Dynasty, dies after a 15-year reign. He is succeeded by his son Khumarawayh, as ruler of Egypt and Syria.

Fall – The Arabs sack in two raids (September and November) the abbey of Monte Cassino. The bulk of the monastic community flee to Teano (Campania).

====== Asia ======

March 4 – Emperor Yōzei is forced to abdicate the throne by Fujiwara no Mototsune, chancellor (kampaku) of the Japanese royal court. He is succeeded by his great-uncle Kōkō.

The Huang Chao rebellion is suppressed by forces of Emperor Xi Zong, with the help of the Shatuo Turks. Chinese warlords rule the country, instead of the imperial government.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

May 15 – Pope Marinus II dies at Rome, after a reign of less than 1½ years. He is succeeded by Adrian III (also referred to as Hadrian III), as the 109th pope of the Catholic Church.

=== 885 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Summer – Emperor Charles the Fat summons a meeting of officials at Lobith (modern Netherlands), and accuses Hugh, an illegitimate son of former king Lothair II, and his vassal Godfrid (the Sea King), of plotting against him. Hugh is blinded, and exiled to the Abbey of Saint Gall (modern Switzerland). Godfrid is killed by a group of Frisian and Saxon nobles, at the connivance of Henry of Franconia. The local count, Gerolf, takes over the West Frisian coastline from the Danish, after the murder.

Summer – Charles the Fat designates his illegitimate son Bernard as his heir, ignoring the claims of his nephew, Arnulf of Carinthia (illegitimate son of Carloman of Bavaria), and Charles the Simple (5-year-old son of King Louis the Stammerer). The Frankish bishops protest, so Charles summons Pope Adrian III to an assembly in Worms, to resolve the issue. Adrian leaves Rome in the hands of Bishop John of Pavia. He heads to Germany, but dies on the way — just after crossing the River Po.

November 25 – Siege of Paris: Viking forces, under the Norse chieftains Sigfred and Sinric, sail up the River Seine for eastern France, with a fleet of 300 longships (10,000 men). They appear before Paris, and offer to spare the city if they are allowed free passage, by paying them tribute (Danegeld). Their request is denied, and the Vikings begin the siege by attacking the northeast tower with ballistae, mangonels and catapults. All Viking attacks are repulsed by Odo, Count of Paris, who defends the city with a small garrison (about 200 men). Sigfred decides to withdraw, and builds a camp on the right side of the river bank. Meanwhile he mines the city, and scours the countryside for provisions.

====== Britain ======

King Alfred the Great summons Asser, a relative of Bishop Nobis of St. David's, to the English court. He agrees to spend six months of the year in the king's service. Asser helps to negotiate the recognition of Alfred, as overlord of the Welsh kings.

Danish Vikings embark in Kent, and besiege Rochester. By improving the defences of the major towns, the city holds out long enough for Alfred the Great to organize an army. He forces the Vikings to flee back across the Channel, to the Continent.

Kings Hyfaidd of Dyfed, Elisedd of Brycheiniog and Hywel of Glywysing, being harassed by the armies of King Anarawd, seek the protection of Alfred the Great, and submit to his overlordship. Anarawd seeks an alliance with King Guthred of York.

====== Arabian Empire ======

Battle of Tawahin: Muslim forces (4,000 men) of the Abbasid Caliphate, under Al-Mu'tadid, are defeated near Ramlah (modern Israel) by Khumarawayh, ruler of the Tulunid Dynasty. This ends the Abbasid attempt to recover Syria from the Tulunids. A large part of the Abbasid army is captured, and transported to Egypt. Khumarawayh aims for reconciliation with the caliphal government, and allows the soldiers who want to return to modern-day Iraq to depart without ransom, while offering the rest the opportunity to settle in Egypt.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

July – Pope Adrian III dies after a 1½ reign near Modena (Lombardy), while en route to an Imperial Diet, summoned by Charles the Fat at Worms. He is succeeded by Stephen V, as the 110th pope of the Catholic Church.

=== 886 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

August 29 – Emperor Basil I (the Macedonian) dies from a fever, contracted after a hunting accident. He is succeeded by the 19-year-old Leo VI, a son of former emperor Michael III, as sole ruler (basileus) of the Byzantine Empire. After his coronation Leo reburies, with great ceremony, the remains of his father in the imperial mausoleum, within the Church of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople.

====== Europe ======

October – Siege of Paris: Count Odo slips through Viking-controlled territory, to ask King Charles the Fat for support. He returns with a relief force, and reaches safety within the walls. Charles arrives later with a large army, and establishes a camp at Montmartre. After negotiations he promises the Vikings tribute (Danegeld), and allows them to sail up the River Seine, to over-winter in Burgundy.

====== Britain ======

King Alfred the Great of Wessex recaptures London from the Danish Vikings, and renames it Lundenburh. Slightly upstream from London Bridge, he builds a small harbor called Queenhithe. Alfred hands the town over to his son-in-law Æthelred, lord of Mercia. A street system is planned out in the town, with boundaries of 1,100 yards from east to west, and around 330 yards from north to south.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

December – Emperor Leo VI dismisses Patriarch Photius I, who has been his tutor, and replaces him with his own brother Stephen I.

The Glagolitic alphabet, devised by Cyril and Methodius, missionaries from Constantinople, is adopted in the Bulgarian Empire.

Boris I, ruler (khan) of the Bulgarian Empire, establishes the Preslav and Ohrid Literary Schools.

=== 887 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

November 17 – East Frankish magnates revolt against the inept emperor Charles III (the Fat) in an assembly at Frankfurt, and depose him. His nephew Arnulf of Carinthia, the illegitimate son of former king Carloman of Bavaria, is elected ruler of the East Frankish Kingdom. Charles yields his throne without a struggle, and retires to Neidingen.

December 26 – In an assembly at Pavia (Northern Italy), the lords of Lombardia elect Berengar I, a grandson of former emperor Louis the Pious (through his daughter Gisela), as king of Italy. He is crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy. After the deposition of Charles the Fat, the nobility chooses Ranulf II as duke (or 'king') of Aquitaine.

====== Japan ======

August 26 – Emperor Kōkō abdicates the throne and soon dies, after a 3-year reign. He is succeeded by his 20-year-old son Uda, as the 59th emperor of Japan.

====== Arabian Empire ======

The city of Toledo rises against the Umayyad Dynasty, in Al-Andalus (modern Spain).

=== 888 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

January 13 – Emperor Charles III (the Fat) dies at Neidingen, after having suffered repeat bouts of an illness that may have been epilepsy. The Frankish Empire is split again, and falls apart into separate kingdoms. Count Odo, the hero of the Siege of Paris, is elected king of the West Frankish Kingdom, and crowned at Compiègne by Walter, archbishop of Sens. Other Frankish noblemen support the 8-year-old Charles the Simple (the posthumous son of the late king Louis the Stammerer).

October – Alan I (the Great), count of Vannes, and his rival Judicael, unite their forces to defeat the Vikings at Questembert (or 889). Judicael is killed, in a notable victory for the Bretons, with 15,000 Vikings crushed, some few 400 escaping to their ships. In command of a 'united' Breton force, Alan is able to drive the Vikings back to the Loire River. Alan becomes sole ruler of Brittany, and over the Frankish counties of Rennes, Nantes, Coutances and Avranches.

October – Battle of Milazzo: the Aghlabids score a crushing victory over a Byzantine fleet off Sicily.

Winter – King Arnulf of Carinthia leads an East Frankish expedition into Italy, after he is recognized as overlord of France and Burgundy. Arnulf descends with an army over the Brenner Pass, and meets King Berengar I at a peace conference at Trento. Berengar grants him two counties in the Val d'Adige (Northern Italy), and does homage to Arnulf as overlord. In turn, Arnulf confirms Berengar as king of Lombardia, and returns to Germany.

====== = Britain = ======

Lord Æthelred II of the Mercians is struck down with a debilitating illness. His wife, Princess Æthelflæd (a daughter of Alfred the Great) of Wessex, joins him as joint ruler of Mercia (approximate date).

====== = Al-Andalus = ======

Al-Mundhir, Moorish emir of Córdoba, dies after a two-year reign (possibly murdered by his brother Abdullah ibn Muhammad al-Umawi, who succeeds him as ruler of the Emirate of Córdoba).

====== China ======

April 20 – Emperor Xi Zong (Li Xuan) dies of illness at Chang'an, after a 14-year reign. He is succeeded by his 21-year-old brother Zhao Zong, as ruler of the Tang Dynasty.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Shaftesbury Abbey is founded by King Alfred the Great in Dorset. He installs his daughter Æthelgifu as first abbess (approximate date).

=== 889 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Guy III, duke of Spoleto, defeats the Lombard king Berengar I at the Trebbia River, and is acclaimed as king of Italy at an assembly in Pavia. After confirming some privileges to the Catholic Church, he is crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy, by Pope Stephen V. Berengar is forced to retreat to Verona; Guy does not pursue him into Friuli, because of the (possible) wrath of King Arnulf of Carinthia.

Boris I, ruler (khan) of the Bulgarian Empire, abdicates the throne after a 37-year reign, and retires to a monastery. He is succeeded by his eldest son Vladimir, as monarch of Bulgaria. Vladimir falls under the influence of the old boyars; many remain anti-Christian and anti-Byzantine. He attempts to restore the former Frankish alliance, and to reestablish paganism.

Arnulf of Carinthia has his illegitimate son Zwentibold recognized, as heir of the East Frankish Kingdom. He supports the claim of Louis the Blind as king of Provence, after receiving a personal appeal from Louis's mother, Ermengard, who comes to see Arnulf at Forchheim (Northern Bavaria). Arnulf grants the town of Osnabrück trade and coinage privileges.

A ship carrying about twenty Arab freebooters, from Pechina in Al-Andalus (modern Spain), sets anchor in the Gulf of Saint-Tropez in Provence. They establish a fortified base at Fraxinet (modern-day La Garde-Freinet). After raiding the surrounding area, the Muslim colony is bolstered by contingents of Saracen adventurers.

The Magyars, an Ugric tribe from the steppe of Central Asia, move west under the leadership of Árpád. They are pushed by their rivals, the Pechenegs, into the Balkan Peninsula, and become entangled in a war between Bulgaria and the Byzantine Empire. The Magyars head north and settle in Great Moravia.

In Italy, Forlì becomes a republic for the first time. The city is allied with the Ghibelline faction, in the medieval struggles between the Guelphs and Ghibellines.

In Portugal, the count of Coimbra, Hermenegildo Gutiérrez, reconquers Coimbra, which was temporarily lost after the first conquest of 878.

====== Britain ======

Kings Eochaid and Giric of Alba and Strathclyde (modern Scotland) are deposed by Viking invaders. They are succeeded by Donald II, the son of the late Constantine I, who becomes king of Scotland.

Lord Æthelred II and Lady Æthelflæd (a daughter of king Alfred the Great) of the Mercians begin their policy of fortifying Mercian cities as defensive burghs, starting with Worcester (approximate date).

====== Asia ======

The Unified Silla kingdom (modern Korea) under King Jinseong seeks to collect taxes by force from peasants, setting off massive peasant rebellions (approximate date).

Indravarman I, ruler of the Khmer Empire (modern Cambodia), dies and is succeeded by his son Yasovarman I, called the Leper King (or 890).

April – The Japanese era Ninna ends and Kanpyō begins, lasting until 898.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Bongwon Temple, located in Seoul (modern South Korea), is founded by the Korean Buddhist master Doseon.

884

Year 884 (DCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

940s

The 940s decade ran from January 1, 940, to December 31, 949.

== Events ==

=== 940 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

The tribe of the Polans begin the construction of the fortified settlements: Giecz, Bnin, Ląd, Gniezno, Poznań, Grzybowo and Ostrów Lednicki in Greater Poland. The Piast Dynasty under Duke Siemomysł gains control over other groups of Polans along the Upper Vistula and establish their rule around Giecz (approximate date).

====== Japan ======

March 25 – Taira no Masakado, the self-proclaimed 'new emperor', is subdued by local rivals who revolt against his rule. His forces are defeated by his cousin, Taira no Sadamori, in Shimōsa Province. Masakado's head is brought back to Emperor Suzaku in Tokyo.

==== By topic ====

====== Literature ======

Saadia Gaon, a Jewish rabbi and philosopher, compiles his Siddur (Jewish prayer book) in Arabic and synagogal poetry in modern-day Iraq (approximate date).

====== Religion ======

Narita-san ("New victory temple"), a Shingon Buddhist temple, is founded in Chiba (Japan).

=== 941 ===

==== By place ====

====== Abbasid Caliphate ======

Night of 7/8 March: the famed Green Dome of the Palace of the Golden Gate in Baghdad collapses amidst heavy rainfall.

====== Byzantine Empire ======

May–September – Rus'–Byzantine War: The Rus' and their allies, the Pechenegs, under the Varangian prince Igor I of Kiev, cross the Black Sea with an invasion fleet of 1,000 ships (40,000 men) and disembark on the northern coast of Asia Minor. While the Byzantine fleet is engaged against the Arabs in the Mediterranean, the Rus' forces reach the gates of Constantinople. Emperor Romanos I organizes the defense of the capital and assembles 15 old ships (equipped with throwers of Greek fire) under the chamberlain (protovestiarios) Theophanes. The Byzantines repel the Rus' fleet (nearly annihilating the entire fleet) but can not prevent the invaders from pillaging the hinterland of Constantinople, venturing as far south as Nicomedia (modern-day İzmit). In September, John Kourkouas and Bardas Phokas ("the Elder"), two leading generals, destroy the Rus' forces in Thrace. Igor manages, with only a handful of boats, to escape to the Caspian Sea.

====== Europe ======

Spring – Henry I, duke of Bavaria, plots to assassinate his brother, King Otto I, at the royal palace in Quedlinburg (modern Saxony-Anhalt), but the conspiracy is discovered and Henry is put in captivity in Ingelheim. He is released after doing penance at Christmas.

Fall – Hugh of Provence, king of Italy, leads a fourth expedition to Rome to dislodge Alberic II. He proceeds to Lazio, preparing a campaign to capture the papal capital. Again the attacks fail and Hugh retreats to Milan.

Olaf Guthfrithson, a Norse-Irish chieftain, is killed while raiding an ancient Anglian church at Tyninghame (Northern Northumbria). He is succeeded by his cousin Olaf Sigtryggsson as ruler of Jórvik (modern Yorkshire).

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Oda ("the Good") is appointed archbishop of Canterbury in England after the death of Wulfhelm.

Kaminarimon, the eight-pillared gate to the Sensō-ji Buddhist temple in Tokyo, Japan, is erected.

=== 942 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Summer – The Hungarians invade Al-Andalus (modern Spain) and besiege the fortress city of Lerida. They devastate Cerdanya and Huesca, and capture Yahya ibn Muhammad ibn al Tawil, Umayyad governor (wali) of the town of Barbastro. Lacking food stores and sufficient forage, the Hungarians retreat to the Gothic March.

Battle of Fraxinet: King Hugh of Provence launches an attack on Fraxinet, the Moorish fortress on the Côté d'Azur that had taken control of the Piedmontese valleys. With the assistance of a Byzantine fleet sent by Emperor Romanos I, Hugh lays siege to the Moorish fortress with the help of Hungarian auxiliary troops (Kabars).

Fall – Hugh of Provence makes a truce with the Moors of Fraxinet, after hearing the news that a Swabian army is about to descend on Italy. He allows the Moors to attack the Alpine passes for his own political ends in his struggle with Berengar of Ivrea. The Byzantines cry foul and end their alliance with Hugh.

December 17 – William I ("Longsword"), duke of Normandy, is ambushed and assassinated by supporters of Arnulf I ("the Great"), count of Flanders, while the two are at a peace conference at Picquigny (on an island on the Somme) to settle their differences. William is succeeded by his 9-year-old son Richard.

Winter – The Hungarians raid Friuli and descend into central Italy. Hugh of Provence grants them a large sum of tribute if they return to the Gothic March or Spain. The Hungarians refuse the offer and raid the countryside of Lazio, destroying the region of Sabina.

====== England ======

King Edmund I moves with his army north to reconquer the Five Boroughs (the five main towns of Danish Mercia) in modern-day East Midlands from the Norse-Irish king Olaf Sigtryggsson.

Idwal Foel, king of Gwynedd, openly rebels against the overlordship of Edmund I. He and Llywelyn ap Merfyn, king of Pows, are killed fighting the English forces.

Hywel Dda, king of Deheubarth, annexes Gwynedd and Powys, to become the sole ruler of most of Wales.

====== Asia ======

Mularaja, founder of the Chaulukya Dynasty, supplants the last Chavda ruler, Samanta-Simha, in Gujarat (modern India). He founds an independent kingdom with his capital in Anahilapataka (approximate date).

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Fall – Pope Stephen VIII tries to negotiate a peace that will end the feud between Alberic II, de facto ruler of Rome, and Hugh of Provence (his stepfather) but he dies after a 3-year reign. Stephen is succeeded by Marinus II as the 128th pope of the Catholic Church.

=== 943 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Spring – Allied with the Russians, a Hungarian army raids Moesia and Thrace. Emperor Romanos I buys peace, and accepts to pay a yearly tribute (protection money) to the Hungarians. His frontiers now 'protected' on the Balkan Peninsula, Romanos sends a Byzantine expeditionary force (80,000 men) led by general John Kourkouas (his commander-in-chief) to invade northern Mesopotamia (modern Iraq).

====== Europe ======

Caspian expeditions of the Rus': The Russians under the Varangian prince Igor I of Kiev sail up the Kura River, deep into the Caucasus, and defeat the forces of the Sallarid ruler Marzuban ibn Muhammad. They capture the fortress city of Barda (modern Azerbaijan).

Battle of Wels: A joint Bavarian–Carantanian army led by Bertold (duke of Bavaria) defeats the Hungarians near Wels (Upper Austria), who are attacked at a crossing of the Enns River at Ennsburg.

====== England ======

King Edmund I ravages Strathclyde and defeats the Scottish king Constantine II, who has reigned as king of Alba since 900. Constantine, ruler of the 'Picts and Scots', abdicates to enter a monastery and yields control of his realm to his cousin Malcolm I.

The Trinity Bridge at Crowland, Lincolnshire is described, in the 'Charter of Eadred'.

=== 944 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Arab–Byzantine War: Byzantine forces are defeated by Sayf al-Dawla. He captures the city of Aleppo and extends his control over the Al-Jazira–Upper Mesopotamia region. Al-Dawla's rule is recognized by the Ikhshidids. With recovering of Edessa, the Greeks also obtain the fabled Image of Edessa.

August 15 – The "Holy Mandylion" (a cloth with the face of Jesus) is conveyed to Constantinople, where it arrives on the feast of the Dormition of the Theotokos. A triumphal entry is staged for the relic in the capital.

December 16 – Emperor Romanos I is arrested and deposed after a 14-year reign by his own sons, the co-emperors Stephen and Constantine. He is carried off to the Prince Islands and forced to become a monk.

====== Europe ======

King Hugh of Provence dispatches an embassy to King Otto I of the East Frankish Kingdom, offering a large sum of cash if he promises not to provide assistance to Berengar of Ivrea. Otto refuses this offer.

Raymond III (or Pons I), count of Toulouse, travels to Nevers (southeast of Paris) to declare his fidelity to king Louis IV ("d'Outremer"). He is granted the title 'prince of the Aquitanians' by the king.

====== England ======

King Edmund I regains (with the help of Danish settlers) the territory he ceded to Olaf Guthfrithson. He conquers Northumbria and cedes Cumberland to Malcolm I, king of the 'Picts and Scots'.

A great storm sweeps across Wessex and many houses are destroyed, 1,500 in London alone (a significant proportion of the town).

====== Africa ======

Abu Yazid, a Kharijite Berber leader, launches a rebellion in the Aurès Mountains (modern Algeria) against the Fatamids, seeking aid from the Caliphate of Córdoba in Al-Andalus.

The cities of Algiers and Miliana are re-founded by the Zirid ruler (emir) Buluggin ibn Ziri.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

The Al-Askari Mosque is built in Samarra (modern Iraq).

=== 945 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

January 27 – The co-emperors Stephen and Constantine are overthrown barely a month after deposing their father, Romanos I. With the help of his wife, Constantine VII becomes sole emperor of the Byzantine Empire. He appoints to the highest army commands four members of the Phokas family, which have been in disgrace under Romanos.

Constantine VII concludes a Rus'–Byzantine treaty in which Rus' merchants are to conduct their trade in Constantinople. While many Rus' make their fortunes in trade with the Arab Muslims, the Rurik Dynasty of Kiev grows rich from Byzantine commerce.

====== Europe ======

Spring – Berengar of Ivrea invades Italy with hired Lombard troops and takes up residence in Milan. Berengar proceeds to Verona, where he is joined by forces of Count Milo and other partisans.

King Hugh of Provence lays siege to Vignola to put an end to Berengar's advance. But to no avail, as Berengar of Ivrea is hailed throughout northern Italy as a liberator, and Hugh flees to Provence.

April 13 – Hugh of Provence abdicates the throne in favor of his son Lothair II (who has been co-ruler since 931) and is acclaimed as sole king of Lombardia. Hugh is allowed to retire in Pavia.

Igor I, ruler of the Kievan Rus', is killed while collecting tribute from the Drevlians and is succeeded by his three-year-old son Sviatoslav I. His mother Olga becomes regent and the official ruler.

Summer – King Louis IV ("d'Outremer") is captured by the Normans and handed over to Hugh the Great. In return for the release of Louis, Laon surrenders to him in compensation.

Caliph Abd-al-Rahman III occupies the palace of Medina Azahara (called "the shining city") as the new capital of the Caliphate of Córdoba (modern Spain).

====== England ======

King Edmund I conquers Strathclyde, forms an alliance with Malcolm I (king of the 'Picts and Scots') and cedes Cumberland and Westmorland to him.

King Hywel Dda ("the Good") convenes a conference at Whitland, which draws up a standardized code of laws in Wales (approximate date).

====== Arabian Empire ======

Summer – Sayf al-Dawla is defeated by Muslim forces under Muhammad ibn Tughj al-Ikhshid near Qinnasrin. He is forced to abandon his Syrian domains and flees to Raqqa. In October the two men come to an agreement, which recognizes Hamdanid rule over northern Syria, founding the Emirate of Aleppo.

Winter – Muslim forces under Nasir al-Dawla capture Baghdad and restore Caliph Al-Muttaqi to power again. Al-Dawla establishes himself as amir al-umara, or de facto regent of the Abbasid Caliphate.

====== China ======

Autumn – The Min Kingdom is destroyed by the Southern Tang. Emperor Yuan Zong expands its domains beyond those of the former Wu Kingdom. He annexes Min territory into its own boundaries.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Dunstan becomes abbot of Glastonbury Abbey in England. He re-creates monastic life by establishing Benedictine monasticism in the monastery.

=== 946 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Summer – King Otto I invades the West Frankish Kingdom with an expeditionary force, but his armies are not strong enough to take the key cities of Laon, Reims and Paris. After three months, Otto ends his campaign without defeating his rival Hugh the Great. He manages to depose Hugh of Vermandois from his position as archbishop of Reims, restoring Artald of Reims to his former office.

====== England ======

May 26 – King Edmund I is murdered at age 25 by an outlawed robber while attending St. Augustine's Day mass in Pucklechurch (Gloucestershire). He is succeeded by his brother Eadred (or Edred) as king of England.

====== Arabian Empire ======

January 28 – Caliph Al-Mustakfi is blinded and deposed by Emir Mu'izz al-Dawla, ruler of the Buyid Empire. He is succeeded by Al-Muti and becomes only a figurehead (with the Buyid Dynasty as dominate rule) of the once-powerful Abbasid Caliphate while he tries to restore peace.

Battle of Baghdad: Along the banks of the Tigris, Buyid forces under Mu'izz al-Dawla defeat the Hamdanids for control of the city. They are forced to pay tax revenues and agree to recognize Al-Muti as the legitimate caliph.

====== Japan ======

May 16 – Emperor Suzaku abdicates the throne after a 16-year reign. He is succeeded by his brother Murakami, who becomes the 62nd emperor of Japan.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Summer – Pope Marinus II dies at Rome after a four-year reign. He is succeeded by Agapetus II and elected with the support of the Roman despot Alberic II. Agapetus is installed as the 129th pope of the Catholic Church.

====== Volcanology ======

Super-colossal (VEI-7) 946 AD Eruption of Paektu Mountain on the modern North Korea-China border.

=== 947 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Summer – A Hungarian army led by Grand Prince Taksony campaigns in Italy, heading southwards on the eastern shore of the peninsula. It besieges Larino and reaches Otranto, plundering Apulia for three months. Berengar of Ivrea negotiates a truce and offers them a massive tribute (for which he imposes a special tax).

Winter – King Otto I cedes the Duchy of Bavaria to his brother Henry I. To secure his rule, Henry is married to Judith, a daughter of Arnulf I ("the Bad"), and appoints a series of counts palatine.

====== England ======

Horsham, a market town on the upper reaches of the Aran River in West Sussex, is first mentioned in 'King Eadred's land charter' (see History of Horsham).

====== Arabian Empire ======

August 19 – Abu Yazid, a Kharijite Berber leader who has led a rebellion against the Fatimid Caliphate in Ifriqiya, is defeated in the Hodna Mountains (modern-day Algeria). Caliph Al-Mansur Billah sets about restoring the Fatimid dominion over North Africa and Sicily.

====== China ======

January 11 – Emperor Tai Zong of the Khitan-led Liao Dynasty invades the Later Jin (Five Dynasties), resulting in the destruction of the Later Jin. Khitan forces head southwards to the Yellow River, but must return to their base in present-day Beijing in May after Tai Zong dies of an illness.

March 10 – The Later Han is founded by Liu Zhiyuan, the military governor (jiedushi) of Bingzhou. He declares himself emperor (formally called Gaozu) and establishes the capital in Bian, present-day Kaifeng.

==== By topic ====

====== Literature ======

Al-Masudi, an Arab historian and geographer, completes his large-scale work The Meadows of Gold and Mines of Gems, a historical book about the beginning of the world, starting with Adam and Eve.

=== 948 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Arab–Byzantine War: Hamdanid forces under Sayf al-Dawla raid into Asia Minor. The Byzantines respond with reprisals led by Leo Phokas the Younger, taking captives and razing the walls of Hadath (modern Turkey).

====== Europe ======

Two Hungarian armies invade Bavaria and Carinthia. One of them is defeated at Flozzun in the Nordgau by Henry I, duke of Bavaria.

King Otto I appoints his son Liudolf as duke of Swabia, consolidating Ottonian dominance in Southern Germany.

Sunifred II of Urgell dies without descendants and is succeeded by his nephew Borrell II, count of Barcelona.

====== England ======

King Eadred ravages Northumbria and burns down St. Wilfrid's church at Ripon. On his way home, he sustains heavy losses at Castleford. Eadred manages to check his rivals, and the Northumbrians are forced to pay him compensation.

St. Albans School founded.

====== Africa ======

Spring – Fatimid forces under Al-Hasan ibn Ali al-Kalbi suppress the rebellion in Palermo and swiftly seize the island. Caliph Al-Mansur Billah appoints Ali al-Kalbi as emir of Sicily, beginning the rule of the Kalbid Dynasty.

The Kingdom of Nri (modern Nigeria) is founded by the priest-king Eri (until 1041).

====== China ======

February 12 – King Qian Hongzong is deposed by general Hu Jinsi during a coup. He establishes his younger brother Qian Chu as ruler of Wuyue.

==== By topic ====

====== Literature ======

Minamoto no Kintada, a Japanese official and waka poet, dies. He is a respected nobleman at the imperial court and a member of the Thirty-Six Immortals of Poetry.

====== Religion ======

Otto I establishes the missionary dioceses of Brandenburg and Havelberg in the territory of the Marca Geronis (Saxon Eastern March).

The Nallur Kandaswamy temple, one of the most significant Hindu temples in the Jaffna District (modern Sri Lanka), is built.

St Albans School in Hertfordshire is founded by Wulsin, an abbot of St Alban's Abbey, England.

=== 949 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Arab-Byzantine War: Hamdanid forces under Sayf al-Dawla raid into the theme of Lykandos, but are defeated. The Byzantines counter-attack and seize Germanikeia, defeating an army from Tarsus, and raiding as far south as Antioch. General (strategos) Theophilos Kourkouas captures Theodosiopolis (modern-day Erzurum) after a 7-month siege.

====== Europe ======

A Byzantine expeditionary force under Constantine Gongyles attempts to re-conquer the Emirate of Crete from the Saracens. The expedition ends in a disastrous failure, the Byzantine camp is destroyed in a surprise attack. Gongyles himself barely escapes on his flagship.

Abd al-Rahman III the Caliph of Córdoba declares Jihad, preparing a large army & conquers the city of Lugo in the extreme North of Iberia. This raid shows to be one of the furthest raids Muslims in Spain ever conducted, done as a show of strength of the Muslim State in Al-Andalus.

King Miroslav (or Miroslaus) is killed by Ban Pribina during a civil war started by his younger brother Michael Krešimir II, who succeeds him as ruler of Croatia.

Summer – The Hungarians defeat a Bavarian army at Laa (modern Austria).

====== Japan ======

September 14 – Fujiwara no Tadahira, a politician and chancellor (kampaku), dies at his native Kyoto. Having governed Japan as regent under Emperor Suzaku since 930. The Fujiwara clan will continue to hold the regency until 1180, controlling the imperial government.

==== By topic ====

942

Year 942 (CMXLII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

946

Year 946 (CMXLVI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

List of cardinals created between 904–985

List of the cardinals attested in the contemporary sources during the period of pornocracy (904 – 964) and later until the election of Pope John XV in August 985. It certainly contains only small part of all cardinals living at that time because only small number of documents and other accounts useful for the reconstruction of that list have been preserved to our times.

The dates in the parentheses mark the first and last time when the cardinal appears in the sources.

List of popes by country

This page is a list of popes by country of origin. They are listed in chronological order within each section.

As the office of pope has existed for almost two millennia, many of the countries of origin of popes no longer exist, and so they are grouped under their modern equivalents. Popes from Italy are in a separate section, given the very large number of popes from that peninsula.

Marinus (given name)

Marinus is a male given name, derived from Latin marinus meaning "marine; of or pertaining to the sea". It is used in the Netherlands as a given name, though most people use a short form in daily life, like Marijn, Mario, René, Rien, Rini, or Rinus. It may refer to:

AncientMarinus of Tyre (70–130), Hellenized geographer, cartographer and mathematician

Julius Marinus (fl. 3rd century), father of Phillip the Arab

Marinus of Caesarea (died 262), Roman soldier and Christian martyr and saint

Saint Marinus (died 366), founder of San Marino

Marinus of Thrace (died c.420), Arian Archbishop of Constantinople

Marinus of Neapolis (born c.440), Neoplatonist philosopher

Marinus (praetorian prefect) (fl. 498-519), Byzantine official and admiral

Pope Marinus I (died 884)

Pope Marinus II (died 946)

Marinus I of Gaeta (died 866), Italian duke

Marinus I of Naples (died 928), Italian duke

Marinus II of Gaeta (died 984), Italian duke

Marinus II of Naples (died 992), Italian duke

Marinus Sebastus of Amalfi, 11th-century Italian dukeLatinized names of Renaissance peopleMarinus Sanutus the Elder (Marino Sanuto; c. 1260 – 1338), Venetian statesman and geographer

Marinus Barletius (Marin Barleti; c.1455–1512), Albanian historian

Marinus Sanutus the Younger (Marino Sanuto; 1466–1536), Venetian historian

Marinus Ghetaldus (1568–1626), Ragusan mathematician and physicist

Marinus Bizzius (1570–1624), Venetian patrician in Dalmatia and archbishopAcademicsMarinus Anton Donk (1908–1972), Dutch mycologist

Marinus H. "Rien" van IJzendoorn (born 1952), Dutch professor of child and family studies

Marinus A. "Rien" Kaashoek (born 1937), Dutch mathematician

Marinus Vertregt (1897–1973), Dutch astronomerArtsMarinus Andersen 1895–1985), Danish architect

Marinus F.J. "Marijn" Backer (born 1956), Dutch columnist, teacher, poet and writer

Marinus Boezem (born 1934), Dutch sculptor and conceptual artist

Marinus "Rinus" Gerritsen (born 1946), Dutch rock bass guitarist

Marinus Robyn van der Goes (1599–1639), Flemish engraver

Marinus Jan Granpré Molière (1883–1972), Dutch architect

Marinus Heijnes (1888–1963), Dutch impressionist painterp

Marinus de Jong (1891–1984), Dutch-born Belgian composer and pianist

Marinus Adrianus Koekkoek (1807–1868), Dutch landscape painter

Marinus Adrianus Koekkoek (II) (1873–1944), Dutch landscape and animal painter

Marinus Harm "Rien" Poortvliet (1932–1995), Dutch draughtsman and painter

Marinus van Reymerswaele (c.1490–c.1546), Dutch painter

Marinus Snoeren (1919–1982), Dutch cellistGovernment, military, religionMarinus Canning (1829–1911), Australian banker and politician

Marinus van der Goes van Naters (1900–2005), Dutch nobleman and Labour politician

Marinus Theodoor "Rene" Hidding (born 1953), Dutch-born Australian politician

Marinus Kok (1916–1982), Dutch Old Catholic archbishop

Marinus Larsen (1849–?), Danish-born American Mormon leader

Marinus W.J.M. "Rinus" Peijnenburg (1928–1979), Dutch politician, minister without portfolio

Marinus Bernardus Rost van Tonningen (1852–1927), Dutch Army general in the Dutch East Indies

Marinus Willett (1740–1830), American soldier and political leaderSportsMarinus Antonius "Mario Been (born 1963), Dutch football player and manager

Marinus "Rinus" Bennaars (born 1931), Dutch footballer

Marinus "Rinus" van den Berge (1900–1972), Dutch sprinter

Marinus Bester (born 1969), German footballer

Marinus Dijkhuizen (born 1972), Dutch football player and manager

Marinus "Rinus" Israël ((born 1942), Dutch footballer

Marinus Kraus (born 1991), German ski jumper

Marinus J.H. "Rinus" Michels (1928–2005), Dutch football player and coach, FIFA "Coach of the Century"

Marinus C. "Rinus" Paul (born 1941), Dutch cyclist

Marinus A.J. "René" Pijnen (born 1946), Dutch cyclist

Marinus van Rekum (1884–1955), Dutch tug of war competitor

Marinus Sørensen (1898–1962), Danish sprinter

Marinus Govert "Marijn" Sterk (born 1987), Dutch footballer

Marinus Valentijn (1900–1991), Dutch road bicycle racer

Marinus "Rini" Wagtmans (born 1946), Dutch road bicycle racer

Marinus Wanewar (born 1997), Indonesian footballer

Marinus "Mario" Westbroek (born 1961), Dutch sprinterOtherMarinus van Dam (1929–1997), Dutch confectionery maker

Marinus Damen (1905-1985), Dutch co-founder of the Damen Shipyards Group

Marinus van der Lubbe (1909–1934), Dutch council communist, accused of setting the Reichstag fire

Marinus "Rien" den Oudsten (1890–1964), Dutch founder coach building company

Marinus Post (1902–1944), Dutch World War II Resistance fighter

Martin (name)

Martin may either be a surname or given name. Martin is a common given and family name in many languages and cultures. It comes from the Latin name Martinus, which is a late derived form of the name of the Roman god Mars, the protective godhead of the Latins, and therefore the god of war. The meaning is usually rendered in reference to the god as "of Mars", or "of war/warlike" ("martial").

It has remained a popular given name in Christian times, in honor of Saint Martin of Tours; it is also the most common French surname. Along with its historic Catholic popularity, it has also been popular among Protestants due to Martin Luther. In addition, African American children are often given the name in honor of Martin Luther King Jr., and many also have the name Martin as a family name. As well as this, Martin is also a popular first name chosen by Jews.

The name is a shorter version of the Latin name Martinus.

Papal appointment

Papal appointment was a medieval method of selecting a pope. Popes have always been selected by a council of Church fathers, however, Papal selection before 1059 was often characterized by confirmation or "nomination" by secular European rulers or by their predecessors. The later procedures of the papal conclave are in large part designed to constrain the interference of secular rulers which characterized the first millennium of the Roman Catholic Church, and persisted in practices such as the creation of crown-cardinals and the jus exclusivae. Appointment might have taken several forms, with a variety of roles for the laity and civic leaders, Byzantine and Germanic emperors, and noble Roman families. The role of the election vis-a-vis the general population and the clergy was prone to vary considerably, with a nomination carrying weight that ranged from near total to a mere suggestion or ratification of a prior election.

The institution has its origins in late antiquity, where on more than one occasion the emperor stepped in to resolve disputes over the legitimacy of papal contenders. An important precedent from this period is an edict of Emperor Honorius, issued after a synod he convoked to depose Antipope Eulalius. The power passed to (and grew with) the King of the Ostrogoths, then the Byzantine Emperor (or his delegate, the Exarch of Ravenna). After an interregnum, the Kings of the Franks and the Holy Roman Emperor (whose selection the pope also sometimes had a hand in), generally assumed the role of confirming the results of papal elections. For a period (today known as the "saeculum obscurum"), the power passed from the Emperor to powerful Roman nobles—the Crescentii and then the Counts of Tusculum.

In many cases, the papal coronation was delayed until the election had been confirmed. Some antipopes were similarly appointed. The practice ended with the conclusion of the Investiture Controversy (c.f. confirmation of bishops) due largely to the efforts of Cardinal Hildebrand (future Pope Gregory VII), who was a guiding force in the selection of his four predecessors, and the 1059 papal bull In Nomine Domini of Pope Nicholas II; some writers consider this practice to be an extreme form of "investiture" in and of itself.Although the practice was forbidden by the Council of Antioch (341) and the Council of Rome (465), the bishops of Rome, as with other bishops, often exercised a great deal of control over their successor, even after the sixth century. In addition, most popes from the fourth to twelfth century were appointed or confirmed by a secular power.

Pope Agapetus II

Pope Agapetus II (died 8 November 955) was Pope from 10 May 946 to his death in 955. A nominee of the Princeps of Rome, Alberic II, his pontificate occurred during the period known as the Saeculum obscurum.

Pope Marinus

Pope Marinus could refer to:

Pope Marinus I (882-884)

Pope Marinus II (942-946)

Pope Martin

Several popes have been named Martin:

Pope Martin I

Pope Martin II (Pope Marinus I)

Pope Martin III (Pope Marinus II)

Pope Martin IV

Pope Martin V

Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Benevento

The Italian Catholic Archdiocese of Benevento (Latin: Archidioecesis Beneventana) has a long history; it now has five suffragan dioceses: the diocese of Ariano Irpino-Lacedonia, the diocese of Avellino, the diocese of Cerreto Sannita-Telese-Sant'Agata de' Goti, the Territorial Abbey of Montevergine, and the archdiocese of Sant'Angelo dei Lombardi-Conza-Nusco-Bisaccia.

Saeculum obscurum

Saeculum obscurum (Latin: the Dark Age) is a name given to a period in the history of the Papacy during the first two-thirds of the 10th century, beginning with the installation of Pope Sergius III in 904 and lasting for sixty years until the death of Pope John XII in 964. During this period, the popes were influenced strongly by a powerful and corrupt aristocratic family, the Theophylacti, and their relatives.

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