Pope Marinus I

Pope Marinus I (/məˈraɪnəs/; also Martin II; died 15 May 884) was Pope from 16 December 882 until his death in 884. He succeeded John VIII from around the end of December 882.[2]

Pope

Marinus I
108-Marinus I
Papacy began16 December 882
Papacy ended15 May 884
PredecessorJohn VIII
SuccessorAdrian III
Orders
Created cardinal880
by Adrian I
Personal details
Born830
Gallese, Rome, Papal States
Died15 May 884
Rome, Papal States[1]
Other popes named Marinus

Prior history

Born at Gallese, Marinus was the son of a priest. He was ordained as a deacon by Pope Nicholas I.[3] Before his election as Pope, he served as Bishop of Caere, which made his election controversial, because, at this stage of history, a bishop was expected never to leave office to move to another see. On three separate occasions he had been employed by the three popes who preceded him as legate to Constantinople, his mission in each case having reference to the controversy started by Photius,[2] Patriarch of Constantinople.[3] In 882, he was sent on behalf of Pope John VIII to Athanasius of Naples to warn him not to trade with the Muslims of southern Italy.[4]

Acts as pope

Among his first acts as pope were the restitution of Formosus as Cardinal Bishop of Portus and the anathematizing of Photius.[5] Due to his respect for Alfred the Great (r. 871–899), he freed the Anglo-Saxons of the Schola Anglorum in Rome from tribute and taxation.[5] He also is recorded to have sent a piece of the True Cross to Alfred as a gift.[6] He died in May or June 884, his successor being Adrian III.

Marinus/Martinus error

Because of the similarity of the names Marinus and Martinus, Popes Marinus I and Marinus II were, in some sources, mistakenly given the name Martinus (and were then listed respectively as Martinus II and Martinus III[7]). Thus, when the new Pope in 1281 took the name Martin, he became Pope Martin IV.

See also

References

  1. ^ The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. "Marinus I". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 30 August 2016.
  2. ^ a b  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Marinus (popes)" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 17 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 721–722.
  3. ^ a b McBrien, Richard P. (2000). Lives of the Popes: The Pontiffs from St. Peter to Benedict XVI. HarperCollins. p. 142. ISBN 9780060878078.
  4. ^ Philippe Levillain (1 Jan 2002). The Papacy: Gaius-Proxies (illustrated ed.). Psychology Press. p. 969. ISBN 9780415922302.
  5. ^ a b "Pope Marinus I; Martin II". New Catholic Dictionary. 2008. Archived from the original on 1 February 2012. Retrieved 7 February 2011.
  6. ^ Studies in the Early History of Shaftesbury Abbey, Dorset County Council, 1999
  7. ^  Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope Marinus I" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.

Further reading

External links

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
John VIII
Pope
882–884
Succeeded by
Adrian III
880s

The 880s decade ran from January 1, 880, to December 31, 889.

== Events ==

=== 880 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Battle of Cephalonia: A Byzantine fleet, under Admiral Nasar, is sent by Emperor Basil I to the Ionian Islands. Nasar defeats the Aghlabids in a night battle near Cephalonia (modern Greece).

May 1 – The Nea Ekklesia is inaugurated in Constantinople, by Patriarch Photius I, setting the model for all later cross-in-square Orthodox churches.

====== Europe ======

February 2 – Battle of Lüneburg Heath: King Louis III is defeated by the Norse Great Heathen Army at Lüneburg Heath. The Saxons are routed in a snowstorm; many drown in the river or are captured during the retreat.

Battle of Thimeon: King Louis III ("the Younger") defeats Vikings (probably Norsemen) from England, near Charleroi, north of the River Sambre. During the battle 5,000 Vikings are killed.

Battle of Fjaler: King Harald Fairhair moves east along the Norwegian coast with his fleet. He defeats his rival Atle Mjove at Fjaler in Sunnfjord, and lands with his longships at Tønsberg.

December – Treaty of Ribemont: Louis the Younger and the kings of the West Frankish Kingdom sign a treaty. The young Frankish monarch, Louis III, is reduced to merely Neustria.

Lambert I, duke of Spoleto, dies while besieging the city of Capua. He is succeeded by his son Guy II.

The oldest known mention is made of the city of Dortmund (approximate date).

====== Asia ======

Fujiwara no Mototsune, Japanese statesman, creates the position of regent (kampaku) for himself. The Fujiwara clan will be able to dominate the government for more than 3 centuries.

December 22 – Luoyang, eastern Chinese capital of the Dynasty, is captured by rebel leader Huang Chao, during the reign of emperor Xi Zong.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Pope John VIII issues the bull Industriae Tuae, creating an independent ecclesiastical province in Great Moravia, with archbishop Methodius as its head. The Old Church Slavonic is recognized as the fourth liturgical language, besides Latin, Greek and Hebrew.

The first known Christian bishopric in Slovakia is established in the city of Nitra, with Wiching as bishop.

=== 881 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

February 12 – King Charles the Fat, the third son of the late Louis the German, is crowned as Holy Roman Emperor by Pope John VIII at Rome.

August 3 – Battle of Saucourt-en-Vimeu: The West Frankish kings Louis III, and his brother Carloman II, rout Viking raiders (near Abbeville).

====== Britain ======

Battle of the Conwy: King Anarawd of Gwynedd (Wales) initiates a revenge attack on the Mercian armies, and defeats them on the River Conwy.

Anarawd, and his brothers Cadell and Merfyn, begin extensive military campaigns to quell resistance in Powys and Seisyllwg (approximate date).

====== Arabian Empire ======

Zanj Rebellion: Abbasid general Al-Muwaffaq lays siege to the Zanj capital of Mukhtara, using his base on the opposite side of the River Tigris.

====== Asia ======

Bakong, the first temple mountain of sandstone, is constructed by rulers of the Khmer Empire (modern Cambodia) at Angkor.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

St. Cecilia's Church (Cäcilienkirche) is founded as a college for women. It is now kept at the Schnütgen Museum in Cologne.

=== 882 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

January 20 – King Louis the Younger dies in Frankfurt. He leaves his territory to his younger brother, Emperor Charles the Fat, who becomes sole ruler of the East Frankish Kingdom.

April 11 – Battle of Remich: A Frankish army under Bishop Wala of Metz is defeated by Vikings, who are on a raid, near Remich (modern Luxembourg). During the fighting Wala is killed.

Siege of Asselt: Charles the Fat besieges a Viking camp, who have plundered along the Meuse, the Rhine and the Moselle. He defeats their leader Godfrid, and grants him West Frisia.

August 5 – King Carloman II becomes sole ruler of the West Frankish Kingdom, after the accidental death of his brother, Louis III. His power is limited by rebellious nobles in Burgundy.

Oleg of Novgorod takes Kiev, and makes it his capital, starting in Ukraine and Eastern Europe, forming the Kievan Rus', replacing the 19-year-long Christianization of the Rus' Khaganate.

====== Britain ======

King Alfred the Great increases the size of his new navy, and sails out to attack four Viking ships. Two of the ships are captured (before they surrender), and the other crews are killed.

====== Arabian Empire ======

December – Ishaq ibn Kundaj, a Turkic military leader, arrests the Abbasid caliph Al-Mu'tamid, when the latter (and his followers) try to flee into Tulunid territory.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

December 16 – Pope John VIII is assassinated at Rome after a 10-year reign, probably the victim of a political conspiracy. He is succeeded by Marinus I, as the 108th pope of the Catholic Church.

=== 883 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Spring – Viking raiders ravaged Flanders, and sacked the abbey at Saint-Quentin. King Carloman II blocked their passage at Laviers, which had been on the banks of the Somme. Meanwhile, Vikings entered the Rhine, but were turned back by Henry of Franconia (possibly amargrave of Saxony). They over-winter at Duisburg.

King Charles the Fat traveled to Nonantola (Northern Italy), where he met Pope Marinus I. He received complaints of Guy II of Spoleto, who was the official "protector" of Rome and invaded the Papal States. King Charles ordered Guy to appear before a tribunal.

Guy II of Spoleto began a revolt, and assembled an army supported with Arab auxiliaries. King Charles the Fat sent Berengar of Friuli with an expeditionary force to deprive him of Spoleto. An epidemic ravaged Berengar's army and forced them to retire.

Svatopluk I, ruler (knyaz) of Great Moravia, conquers Lower Pannonia (modern Hungary), during the succession strife in the East Frankish Kingdom (approximate date).

The first historic document (written by Regino of Prüm) mentions Duisburg.

====== Arabian Empire ======

The Zanj Rebellion: Abbasid general Al-Muwaffaq brings in Egyptian forces, to help him in his two-year siege of the Zanj capital Mukhtara. He captures the city, and crushes the revolt that has devastated Chaldea (modern Iraq) since 869.

September 11 – Yazaman al-Khadim, Abbasid governor of Tarsus, routs a Byzantine army under general Kesta Styppiotes, in a night attack. According to Arab chroniclers, 70,000 out of 100,000 Byzantine troops are killed.

=== 884 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

March 1 – Diego Rodríguez Porcelos, count of Castile, founds and repopulates (repoblación) Burgos and Ubierna (Northern Spain), under the mandate of King Alfonso III of Asturias.

Summer – King Carloman II reverts to the former fall-back of 'pay and pray', buying (with Danegeld) a truce at Amiens, while he raises 12,000 lbs of silver for the Vikings to depart.

December 12 – Carloman II dies after a hunting accident. He is succeeded by his cousin, Emperor Charles the Fat, who for the last time reunites the Frankish Empire.

====== Britain ======

King Æthelred II of Mercia marries Princess Æthelflæd, daughter of King Alfred the Great. He accepts Wessex overlordship, and demotes himself to become "Lord of the Mercians".

====== Arabian Empire ======

January 6 – Hasan ibn Zayd, founder of the Zaydid Dynasty, dies after a 20-year reign at Amul. He is succeeded by his brother Muhammad, as emir of Tabaristan.

May 10 – Ahmad ibn Tulun, founder of the Tulunid Dynasty, dies after a 15-year reign. He is succeeded by his son Khumarawayh, as ruler of Egypt and Syria.

Fall – The Arabs sack in two raids (September and November) the abbey of Monte Cassino. The bulk of the monastic community flee to Teano (Campania).

====== Asia ======

March 4 – Emperor Yōzei is forced to abdicate the throne by Fujiwara no Mototsune, chancellor (kampaku) of the Japanese royal court. He is succeeded by his great-uncle Kōkō.

The Huang Chao rebellion is suppressed by forces of Emperor Xi Zong, with the help of the Shatuo Turks. Chinese warlords rule the country, instead of the imperial government.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

May 15 – Pope Marinus II dies at Rome, after a reign of less than 1½ years. He is succeeded by Adrian III (also referred to as Hadrian III), as the 109th pope of the Catholic Church.

=== 885 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Summer – Emperor Charles the Fat summons a meeting of officials at Lobith (modern Netherlands), and accuses Hugh, an illegitimate son of former king Lothair II, and his vassal Godfrid (the Sea King), of plotting against him. Hugh is blinded, and exiled to the Abbey of Saint Gall (modern Switzerland). Godfrid is killed by a group of Frisian and Saxon nobles, at the connivance of Henry of Franconia. The local count, Gerolf, takes over the West Frisian coastline from the Danish, after the murder.

Summer – Charles the Fat designates his illegitimate son Bernard as his heir, ignoring the claims of his nephew, Arnulf of Carinthia (illegitimate son of Carloman of Bavaria), and Charles the Simple (5-year-old son of King Louis the Stammerer). The Frankish bishops protest, so Charles summons Pope Adrian III to an assembly in Worms, to resolve the issue. Adrian leaves Rome in the hands of Bishop John of Pavia. He heads to Germany, but dies on the way — just after crossing the River Po.

November 25 – Siege of Paris: Viking forces, under the Norse chieftains Sigfred and Sinric, sail up the River Seine for eastern France, with a fleet of 300 longships (10,000 men). They appear before Paris, and offer to spare the city if they are allowed free passage, by paying them tribute (Danegeld). Their request is denied, and the Vikings begin the siege by attacking the northeast tower with ballistae, mangonels and catapults. All Viking attacks are repulsed by Odo, Count of Paris, who defends the city with a small garrison (about 200 men). Sigfred decides to withdraw, and builds a camp on the right side of the river bank. Meanwhile he mines the city, and scours the countryside for provisions.

====== Britain ======

King Alfred the Great summons Asser, a relative of Bishop Nobis of St. David's, to the English court. He agrees to spend six months of the year in the king's service. Asser helps to negotiate the recognition of Alfred, as overlord of the Welsh kings.

Danish Vikings embark in Kent, and besiege Rochester. By improving the defences of the major towns, the city holds out long enough for Alfred the Great to organize an army. He forces the Vikings to flee back across the Channel, to the Continent.

Kings Hyfaidd of Dyfed, Elisedd of Brycheiniog and Hywel of Glywysing, being harassed by the armies of King Anarawd, seek the protection of Alfred the Great, and submit to his overlordship. Anarawd seeks an alliance with King Guthred of York.

====== Arabian Empire ======

Battle of Tawahin: Muslim forces (4,000 men) of the Abbasid Caliphate, under Al-Mu'tadid, are defeated near Ramlah (modern Israel) by Khumarawayh, ruler of the Tulunid Dynasty. This ends the Abbasid attempt to recover Syria from the Tulunids. A large part of the Abbasid army is captured, and transported to Egypt. Khumarawayh aims for reconciliation with the caliphal government, and allows the soldiers who want to return to modern-day Iraq to depart without ransom, while offering the rest the opportunity to settle in Egypt.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

July – Pope Adrian III dies after a 1½ reign near Modena (Lombardy), while en route to an Imperial Diet, summoned by Charles the Fat at Worms. He is succeeded by Stephen V, as the 110th pope of the Catholic Church.

=== 886 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

August 29 – Emperor Basil I (the Macedonian) dies from a fever, contracted after a hunting accident. He is succeeded by the 19-year-old Leo VI, a son of former emperor Michael III, as sole ruler (basileus) of the Byzantine Empire. After his coronation Leo reburies, with great ceremony, the remains of his father in the imperial mausoleum, within the Church of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople.

====== Europe ======

October – Siege of Paris: Count Odo slips through Viking-controlled territory, to ask King Charles the Fat for support. He returns with a relief force, and reaches safety within the walls. Charles arrives later with a large army, and establishes a camp at Montmartre. After negotiations he promises the Vikings tribute (Danegeld), and allows them to sail up the River Seine, to over-winter in Burgundy.

====== Britain ======

King Alfred the Great of Wessex recaptures London from the Danish Vikings, and renames it Lundenburh. Slightly upstream from London Bridge, he builds a small harbor called Queenhithe. Alfred hands the town over to his son-in-law Æthelred, lord of Mercia. A street system is planned out in the town, with boundaries of 1,100 yards from east to west, and around 330 yards from north to south.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

December – Emperor Leo VI dismisses Patriarch Photius I, who has been his tutor, and replaces him with his own brother Stephen I.

The Glagolitic alphabet, devised by Cyril and Methodius, missionaries from Constantinople, is adopted in the Bulgarian Empire.

Boris I, ruler (khan) of the Bulgarian Empire, establishes the Preslav and Ohrid Literary Schools.

=== 887 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

November 17 – East Frankish magnates revolt against the inept emperor Charles III (the Fat) in an assembly at Frankfurt, and depose him. His nephew Arnulf of Carinthia, the illegitimate son of former king Carloman of Bavaria, is elected ruler of the East Frankish Kingdom. Charles yields his throne without a struggle, and retires to Neidingen.

December 26 – In an assembly at Pavia (Northern Italy), the lords of Lombardia elect Berengar I, a grandson of former emperor Louis the Pious (through his daughter Gisela), as king of Italy. He is crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy. After the deposition of Charles the Fat, the nobility chooses Ranulf II as duke (or 'king') of Aquitaine.

====== Japan ======

August 26 – Emperor Kōkō abdicates the throne and soon dies, after a 3-year reign. He is succeeded by his 20-year-old son Uda, as the 59th emperor of Japan.

====== Arabian Empire ======

The city of Toledo rises against the Umayyad Dynasty, in Al-Andalus (modern Spain).

=== 888 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

January 13 – Emperor Charles III (the Fat) dies at Neidingen, after having suffered repeat bouts of an illness that may have been epilepsy. The Frankish Empire is split again, and falls apart into separate kingdoms. Count Odo, the hero of the Siege of Paris, is elected king of the West Frankish Kingdom, and crowned at Compiègne by Walter, archbishop of Sens. Other Frankish noblemen support the 8-year-old Charles the Simple (the posthumous son of the late king Louis the Stammerer).

October – Alan I (the Great), count of Vannes, and his rival Judicael, unite their forces to defeat the Vikings at Questembert (or 889). Judicael is killed, in a notable victory for the Bretons, with 15,000 Vikings crushed, some few 400 escaping to their ships. In command of a 'united' Breton force, Alan is able to drive the Vikings back to the Loire River. Alan becomes sole ruler of Brittany, and over the Frankish counties of Rennes, Nantes, Coutances and Avranches.

October – Battle of Milazzo: the Aghlabids score a crushing victory over a Byzantine fleet off Sicily.

Winter – King Arnulf of Carinthia leads an East Frankish expedition into Italy, after he is recognized as overlord of France and Burgundy. Arnulf descends with an army over the Brenner Pass, and meets King Berengar I at a peace conference at Trento. Berengar grants him two counties in the Val d'Adige (Northern Italy), and does homage to Arnulf as overlord. In turn, Arnulf confirms Berengar as king of Lombardia, and returns to Germany.

====== = Britain = ======

Lord Æthelred II of the Mercians is struck down with a debilitating illness. His wife, Princess Æthelflæd (a daughter of Alfred the Great) of Wessex, joins him as joint ruler of Mercia (approximate date).

====== = Al-Andalus = ======

Al-Mundhir, Moorish emir of Córdoba, dies after a two-year reign (possibly murdered by his brother Abdullah ibn Muhammad al-Umawi, who succeeds him as ruler of the Emirate of Córdoba).

====== China ======

April 20 – Emperor Xi Zong (Li Xuan) dies of illness at Chang'an, after a 14-year reign. He is succeeded by his 21-year-old brother Zhao Zong, as ruler of the Tang Dynasty.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Shaftesbury Abbey is founded by King Alfred the Great in Dorset. He installs his daughter Æthelgifu as first abbess (approximate date).

=== 889 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Guy III, duke of Spoleto, defeats the Lombard king Berengar I at the Trebbia River, and is acclaimed as king of Italy at an assembly in Pavia. After confirming some privileges to the Catholic Church, he is crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy, by Pope Stephen V. Berengar is forced to retreat to Verona; Guy does not pursue him into Friuli, because of the (possible) wrath of King Arnulf of Carinthia.

Boris I, ruler (khan) of the Bulgarian Empire, abdicates the throne after a 37-year reign, and retires to a monastery. He is succeeded by his eldest son Vladimir, as monarch of Bulgaria. Vladimir falls under the influence of the old boyars; many remain anti-Christian and anti-Byzantine. He attempts to restore the former Frankish alliance, and to reestablish paganism.

Arnulf of Carinthia has his illegitimate son Zwentibold recognized, as heir of the East Frankish Kingdom. He supports the claim of Louis the Blind as king of Provence, after receiving a personal appeal from Louis's mother, Ermengard, who comes to see Arnulf at Forchheim (Northern Bavaria). Arnulf grants the town of Osnabrück trade and coinage privileges.

A ship carrying about twenty Arab freebooters, from Pechina in Al-Andalus (modern Spain), sets anchor in the Gulf of Saint-Tropez in Provence. They establish a fortified base at Fraxinet (modern-day La Garde-Freinet). After raiding the surrounding area, the Muslim colony is bolstered by contingents of Saracen adventurers.

The Magyars, an Ugric tribe from the steppe of Central Asia, move west under the leadership of Árpád. They are pushed by their rivals, the Pechenegs, into the Balkan Peninsula, and become entangled in a war between Bulgaria and the Byzantine Empire. The Magyars head north and settle in Great Moravia.

In Italy, Forlì becomes a republic for the first time. The city is allied with the Ghibelline faction, in the medieval struggles between the Guelphs and Ghibellines.

In Portugal, the count of Coimbra, Hermenegildo Gutiérrez, reconquers Coimbra, which was temporarily lost after the first conquest of 878.

====== Britain ======

Kings Eochaid and Giric of Alba and Strathclyde (modern Scotland) are deposed by Viking invaders. They are succeeded by Donald II, the son of the late Constantine I, who becomes king of Scotland.

Lord Æthelred II and Lady Æthelflæd (a daughter of king Alfred the Great) of the Mercians begin their policy of fortifying Mercian cities as defensive burghs, starting with Worcester (approximate date).

====== Asia ======

The Unified Silla kingdom (modern Korea) under King Jinseong seeks to collect taxes by force from peasants, setting off massive peasant rebellions (approximate date).

Indravarman I, ruler of the Khmer Empire (modern Cambodia), dies and is succeeded by his son Yasovarman I, called the Leper King (or 890).

April – The Japanese era Ninna ends and Kanpyō begins, lasting until 898.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Bongwon Temple, located in Seoul (modern South Korea), is founded by the Korean Buddhist master Doseon.

882

Year 882 (DCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

883

Year 883 (DCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Boris I of Bulgaria

Boris I, also known as Boris-Mikhail (Michael) and Bogoris (Bulgarian: Борис I / Борис-Михаил; died 2 May 907), was the ruler of the First Bulgarian Empire in 852–889. At the time of his baptism in 864, Boris was named Michael after his godfather, Emperor Michael III. The historian Steven Runciman called him one of the greatest persons in history.Despite a number of military setbacks, the reign of Boris I was marked with significant events that shaped Bulgarian and European history. With the Christianization of Bulgaria paganism was abolished. A skilful diplomat, Boris I successfully exploited the conflict between the Patriarchate of Constantinople and the Papacy to secure an autocephalous Bulgarian Church, thus dealing with the nobility's concerns about Byzantine interference in Bulgaria's internal affairs.

When in 885 the disciples of Saints Cyril and Methodius were banished from Great Moravia, Boris I gave them refuge and provided assistance to develop the Bulgarian alphabet and literature. After he abdicated in 889, his eldest son and successor tried to restore the old pagan religion but was deposed by Boris I. During the Council of Preslav which followed that event, the Byzantine clergy was replaced with Bulgarians, and the Greek language was replaced with what is now known as Old Church Slavonic, which in Bulgaria is called and known as Old Bulgarian, as an official language of the Church and the state.

He is regarded as a saint in the Orthodox Church, as the Prince and baptizer of Bulgaria, and as Equal-to-the-Apostles, with his feast day observed on May 2.

Christianization of Bulgaria

The Christianization of Bulgaria was the process by which 9th-century medieval Bulgaria converted to Christianity. It reflected the need of unity within the religiously divided Bulgarian state as well as the need for equal acceptance on the international stage in Christian Europe. This process was characterized by the shifting political alliances of Boris I of Bulgaria (ruled 852-889) with the kingdom of the East Franks and with the Byzantine Empire, as well as his diplomatic correspondence with the Pope.

Because of Bulgaria's strategic position, the churches of both Rome and Constantinople each wanted Bulgaria in their sphere of influence. They regarded Christianization as a means of integrating Slavs into their region. After some overtures to each side, the Khan adopted Christianity from Constantinople in 870. As a result, he achieved his goal of gaining an independent Bulgarian national church and having an archbishop appointed to head it.

Constitutio Romana

The Constitutio Romana (or “Roman Constitution”) was drawn up between King Lothair I of Italy (818–855), co-emperor with his father, Louis the Pious, since 817, and Pope Eugene II (824–827) and confirmed on 11 November 824. At the time the election of Eugene was being challenged by Zinzinnus, the candidate of the Roman populace. Eugene agreed to several concessions to imperial power in central Italy in return for receiving the military and juridical support of Lothair. The Constitutio was divided into nine articles. It introduced the earliest known Papal Oath, which the Pope-elect was to give to an imperial legate before receiving consecration. It also restored the custom established by Pope Stephen III in 769 whereby both the laity and clergy of Rome would participate in Papal elections.

There has been some debate between modern scholars whether the Constitutio was a "dead letter" with little practical impact, or marked a stage of the road to imperial domination of the Papacy.

Frankish Papacy

From 756 to 857, the papacy shifted from the orbit of the Byzantine Empire to that of the kings of the Franks. Pepin the Short (ruled 751–768), Charlemagne (r. 768–814) (co-ruler with his brother Carloman I until 771), and Louis the Pious (r. 814-840) had considerable influence in the selection and administration of popes. The "Donation of Pepin" (756) ratified a new period of papal rule in central Italy, which became known as the Papal States.

This shift was initiated by the Lombards conquering the Exarchate of Ravenna from the Byzantines, strengthened by the Frankish triumph over the Lombards, and ended by the fragmentation of the Frankish Kingdom into West Francia, Middle Francia, and East Francia. Lothair I continued to rule Middle Francia which included much of the Italian peninsula, from 843 to 855.

This period was "a critical time in Rome's transformation from ancient capital to powerful bishopric to new state capital." The period was characterized by "battles between Franks, Lombards and Romans for control of the Italian peninsula and of supreme authority within Christendom."

Gallese

Gallese is an Italian comune (municipality) in the Province of Viterbo, 35 kilometres (22 mi) from Viterbo.

It was taken by Duke Thrasimund II of Spoleto in 737 or 738, at which time it was essential to communications between Rome and Ravenna and had a large fortress.

Pope Marinus I (882-884) was a native of Gallese, as was Pope Romanus, who was head of the Catholic Church in 897.

Liber Pontificalis

The Liber Pontificalis (Latin for 'pontifical book' or Book of the Popes) is a book of biographies of popes from Saint Peter until the 15th century. The original publication of the Liber Pontificalis stopped with Pope Adrian II (867–872) or Pope Stephen V (885–891), but it was later supplemented in a different style until Pope Eugene IV (1431–1447) and then Pope Pius II (1458–1464). Although quoted virtually uncritically from the 8th to 18th centuries, the Liber Pontificalis has undergone intense modern scholarly scrutiny. The work of the French priest Louis Duchesne (who compiled the major scholarly edition), and of others has highlighted some of the underlying redactional motivations of different sections, though such interests are so disparate and varied as to render improbable one popularizer's claim that it is an "unofficial instrument of pontifical propaganda."The title Liber Pontificalis goes back to the 12th century, although it only became current in the 15th century, and the canonical title of the work since the edition of Duchesne in the 19th century. In the earliest extant manuscripts it is referred to as Liber episcopalis in quo continentur acta beatorum pontificum Urbis Romae ('episcopal book in which are contained the acts of the blessed pontiffs of the city of Rome') and later the Gesta or Chronica pontificum.

List of papal relatives created cardinal

This is a list of papal relatives created cardinal by a pope other than their relative. These creates are similar to cardinal-nephews but this list does not include cardinals included in the list of cardinal-nephews

Marinus (given name)

Marinus is a male given name, derived from Latin marinus meaning "marine; of or pertaining to the sea". It is used in the Netherlands as a given name, though most people use a short form in daily life, like Marijn, Mario, René, Rien, Rini, or Rinus. It may refer to:

AncientMarinus of Tyre (70–130), Hellenized geographer, cartographer and mathematician

Julius Marinus (fl. 3rd century), father of Phillip the Arab

Marinus of Caesarea (died 262), Roman soldier and Christian martyr and saint

Saint Marinus (died 366), founder of San Marino

Marinus of Thrace (died c.420), Arian Archbishop of Constantinople

Marinus of Neapolis (born c.440), Neoplatonist philosopher

Marinus (praetorian prefect) (fl. 498-519), Byzantine official and admiral

Pope Marinus I (died 884)

Pope Marinus II (died 946)

Marinus I of Gaeta (died 866), Italian duke

Marinus I of Naples (died 928), Italian duke

Marinus II of Gaeta (died 984), Italian duke

Marinus II of Naples (died 992), Italian duke

Marinus Sebastus of Amalfi, 11th-century Italian dukeLatinized names of Renaissance peopleMarinus Sanutus the Elder (Marino Sanuto; c. 1260 – 1338), Venetian statesman and geographer

Marinus Barletius (Marin Barleti; c.1455–1512), Albanian historian

Marinus Sanutus the Younger (Marino Sanuto; 1466–1536), Venetian historian

Marinus Ghetaldus (1568–1626), Ragusan mathematician and physicist

Marinus Bizzius (1570–1624), Venetian patrician in Dalmatia and archbishopAcademicsMarinus Anton Donk (1908–1972), Dutch mycologist

Marinus H. "Rien" van IJzendoorn (born 1952), Dutch professor of child and family studies

Marinus A. "Rien" Kaashoek (born 1937), Dutch mathematician

Marinus Vertregt (1897–1973), Dutch astronomerArtsMarinus Andersen 1895–1985), Danish architect

Marinus F.J. "Marijn" Backer (born 1956), Dutch columnist, teacher, poet and writer

Marinus Boezem (born 1934), Dutch sculptor and conceptual artist

Marinus "Rinus" Gerritsen (born 1946), Dutch rock bass guitarist

Marinus Robyn van der Goes (1599–1639), Flemish engraver

Marinus Jan Granpré Molière (1883–1972), Dutch architect

Marinus Heijnes (1888–1963), Dutch impressionist painterp

Marinus de Jong (1891–1984), Dutch-born Belgian composer and pianist

Marinus Adrianus Koekkoek (1807–1868), Dutch landscape painter

Marinus Adrianus Koekkoek (II) (1873–1944), Dutch landscape and animal painter

Marinus Harm "Rien" Poortvliet (1932–1995), Dutch draughtsman and painter

Marinus van Reymerswaele (c.1490–c.1546), Dutch painter

Marinus Snoeren (1919–1982), Dutch cellistGovernment, military, religionMarinus Canning (1829–1911), Australian banker and politician

Marinus van der Goes van Naters (1900–2005), Dutch nobleman and Labour politician

Marinus Theodoor "Rene" Hidding (born 1953), Dutch-born Australian politician

Marinus Kok (1916–1982), Dutch Old Catholic archbishop

Marinus Larsen (1849–?), Danish-born American Mormon leader

Marinus W.J.M. "Rinus" Peijnenburg (1928–1979), Dutch politician, minister without portfolio

Marinus Bernardus Rost van Tonningen (1852–1927), Dutch Army general in the Dutch East Indies

Marinus Willett (1740–1830), American soldier and political leaderSportsMarinus Antonius "Mario Been (born 1963), Dutch football player and manager

Marinus "Rinus" Bennaars (born 1931), Dutch footballer

Marinus "Rinus" van den Berge (1900–1972), Dutch sprinter

Marinus Bester (born 1969), German footballer

Marinus Dijkhuizen (born 1972), Dutch football player and manager

Marinus "Rinus" Israël ((born 1942), Dutch footballer

Marinus Kraus (born 1991), German ski jumper

Marinus J.H. "Rinus" Michels (1928–2005), Dutch football player and coach, FIFA "Coach of the Century"

Marinus C. "Rinus" Paul (born 1941), Dutch cyclist

Marinus A.J. "René" Pijnen (born 1946), Dutch cyclist

Marinus van Rekum (1884–1955), Dutch tug of war competitor

Marinus Sørensen (1898–1962), Danish sprinter

Marinus Govert "Marijn" Sterk (born 1987), Dutch footballer

Marinus Valentijn (1900–1991), Dutch road bicycle racer

Marinus "Rini" Wagtmans (born 1946), Dutch road bicycle racer

Marinus Wanewar (born 1997), Indonesian footballer

Marinus "Mario" Westbroek (born 1961), Dutch sprinterOtherMarinus van Dam (1929–1997), Dutch confectionery maker

Marinus Damen (1905-1985), Dutch co-founder of the Damen Shipyards Group

Marinus van der Lubbe (1909–1934), Dutch council communist, accused of setting the Reichstag fire

Marinus "Rien" den Oudsten (1890–1964), Dutch founder coach building company

Marinus Post (1902–1944), Dutch World War II Resistance fighter

Nonantola

Nonantola (Modenese: Nunântla) is a town and comune in the province of Modena in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy. It is in the Po Valley about 10 kilometres (6 mi) from Modena on the road to Ferrara.

Pope Formosus

Pope Formosus (c. 816 – 896) was Cardinal-bishop and Pope, his papacy lasting from 6 October 891 to his death in 896. His brief reign as Pope was troubled, marked by interventions in power struggles over the Patriarchate of Constantinople, the kingdom of West Francia, and the Holy Roman Empire. Formosus's remains were exhumed and put on trial in the Cadaver Synod.

Pope Marinus

Pope Marinus could refer to:

Pope Marinus I (882-884)

Pope Marinus II (942-946)

Pope Martin

Several popes have been named Martin:

Pope Martin I

Pope Martin II (Pope Marinus I)

Pope Martin III (Pope Marinus II)

Pope Martin IV

Pope Martin V

Pope Nicholas I

Pope Nicholas I (Latin: Nicolaus I; c. 800 – 13 November 867), also called Saint Nicholas the Great, was Pope from 24 April 858 to his death in 867. He is remembered as a consolidator of papal authority and power, exerting decisive influence upon the historical development of the papacy and its position among the Christian nations of Western Europe. Nicholas I asserted that the pope should have suzerain authority over all Christians, even royalty, in matters of faith and morals.He is venerated as a saint in the Catholic Church, with a feast day on 13 November.He refused to grant an annulment to King Lothair II of Lotharingia from Teutberga so that Lothair could marry his mistress Waldrada. When a Council pronounced in favor of annulment, Nicholas I declared the Council to be deposed, its messengers excommunicated, and its decisions void. Despite pressure from the Carolingians, who laid siege to Rome, his decision held. During his reign, relations with the Byzantine Empire soured over his support for Ignatius, Patriarch of Constantinople, who had been removed from his post in favor of Photius.

Pope Romanus

Pope Romanus (died November 897) was Pope from August to November 897.

Pope Sergius III

Pope Sergius III (c. 860 − 14 April 911) was Pope from 29 January 904 to his death in 911. He was pope during a period of feudal violence and disorder in central Italy, when warring aristocratic factions sought to use the material and military resources of the Papacy. Because Sergius III had reputedly ordered the murder of his two immediate predecessors, Leo V and Christopher, and allegedly fathered an illegitimate son who later became pope (John XI), his pontificate has been variously described as "dismal and disgraceful", and "efficient and ruthless".

Territorial Abbey of Nonantola

Nonantola Abbey, dedicated to Saint Sylvester, is a former a Benedictine monastery and prelature nullius in the commune of Nonantola, c. 10 km north-east of Modena, in the Emilia Romagna region of Italy. The abbey church remains as a basilica and is the co-cathedral of the diocese of Modena-Nonantola.

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