Pope Marcellinus

Pope Marcellinus (died 304) was the Bishop of Rome or Pope from 30 June 296 to his death in 304. According to the Liberian Catalogue, he was a Roman, the son of a certain Projectus.[1] His predecessor was Pope Caius.[2]

Pope Saint

Marcellinus
29-St.Marcellinus
Papacy began30 June 296
Papacy ended304
PredecessorCaius
SuccessorMarcellus I
Personal details
Birth nameMarcellinus
Bornunknown date
Rome, Western Roman Empire[1]
Died304
Rome, Western Roman Empire
Sainthood
Feast day26 April (Catholic)
7 June (Serbian Orthodox)

Biography

Marcellinus' pontificate began at a time when Diocletian was Roman Emperor, but had not yet started to persecute the Christians. He left Christianity rather free and so the church's membership grew. Caesar Galerius led the pagan movement against Christianity and aroused Diocletian against Christianity in the year 302: first Christian soldiers had to leave the army, later the Church's property was confiscated and Christian books were destroyed. After two fires in Diocletian's palace he took harder measures against Christians: they had either to apostatize or they were sentenced to death.

Marcellinus is not mentioned in the Martyrologium hieronymianum, or in the Depositio episcoporum, or in the Depositio martyrum. The Liber Pontificalis, based on the lost Acts of St Marcellinus, relates that during Diocletian’s persecution Marcellinus was called upon to sacrifice, and offered incense to idols, but that, repenting shortly afterwards, he confessed the faith of Christ and suffered martyrdom with several companions. Other documents speak of his defection, and it is probably this lapse that explains the silence of the ancient liturgical calendars. In the beginning of the 5th century, Petilianus, the Donatist bishop of Cirta, says that Marcellinus and his priests had given up the holy books to the pagans during the persecution and offered incense to false gods. St Augustine denied the affair.[1][3] The records of the pseudo-Council of Sinuessa, which were fabricated at the beginning of the 6th century, state that Marcellinus after his fall presented himself before a council, which refused to try him on the ground that prima sedes a nemine iudicatur ("The first See is judged by none"). According to the Liber Pontificalis, Marcellinus was buried on 26 April 304 in the cemetery of Priscilla, on the Via Salaria, 25 days after his martyrdom; the Liberian Catalogue gives as the date 25 October. The fact of the martyrdom, too, is not established with certainty.[3]

Marcellinus was mentioned in the General Roman Calendar, into which a feast day in his honour jointly with that of Saint Cletus on 26 April was inserted in the thirteenth century.[4] Because of the uncertainties regarding both, this joint feast was removed from that calendar in 1969.[4] Saint Cletus is still listed in the Roman Martyrology under 26 April date; but Saint Marcellinus is no longer mentioned in that professedly incomplete list of recognized saints.[5]

Pope Marcellinus, along with Pope Marcellus, is commemorated in the Serbian Prologue of Ochrid on 7 June according to the Julian Calendar.[6]

After a considerable interregnum, he was succeeded by Marcellus, with whom he has sometimes been confused.[3]

During the pontificate of Marcellinus, Armenia became the first Christian state in 301 under Tiridates III.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Kirsch, Johann Peter. "Pope Saint Marcellinus." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 9. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. 28 September 2017
  2. ^ Duchesne (ed). Liber Pontificalis. I, 6–7.
  3. ^ a b c  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Marcellinus, St" . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  4. ^ a b Calendarium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 1969), p.121
  5. ^ Martyrologium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2001 ISBN 88-209-7210-7)
  6. ^ http://www.stnicholasredbank.com/june1-8.htm

External links

Titles of the Great Christian Church
Preceded by
Caius
Bishop of Rome
Pope

296–304
Succeeded by
Marcellus I
290s

The 290s decade ran from January 1, 290, to December 31, 299.

== Events ==

=== 290 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperors Diocletian and Maximian meet in Milan on the five-year anniversary of their rule to discuss politics and war. Rome becomes a ceremonial capital.

Carausius, who has established himself as king of Britain, is also reluctantly acknowledged by Diocletian and Maximian as third emperor. During his reign, he defeats Frankish and Saxon raids on the English coast.

Carausius begins to build a series of fortifications on the Saxon Shore in south-east England.

====== Asia ======

May 17 – Emperor Jin Wudi, founder of the Western Jin Dynasty, dies after a 25-year reign. He reunifies north and south, but gives away many dukedoms to his kinsmen. Crown Prince Jin Huidi succeeds his father and has to deal with conflicts among the aristocratic families in China.

=== 291 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Diocletian signs peace treaties with the kingdoms of Aksum and Nubia.

====== China ======

War of the Eight Princes: After the death of Emperor Sima Yan (Jin Wudi), a civil war breaks out among the princes and dukes of the Jin Dynasty. The struggle devastates and depopulates the provinces of northern China.

=== 292 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Achilleus, Roman general, is proclaimed emperor in Alexandria. For two years he rules over Egypt, but in the end the rebellion is crushed by Emperor Diocletian.

====== America ======

The oldest known Mayan stele is erected at the capital Tikal (Guatemala).

====== Asia ======

Bongsang becomes ruler of the Korean kingdom of Goguryeo.

=== 293 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

March 1 – Emperor Diocletian and Maximian appoint Constantius Chlorus and Galerius as Caesars. This is considered the beginning of the Tetrarchy, known as the Quattuor Principes Mundi ("Four Rulers of the World").

The four Tetrarchs establish their capitals close to the Roman frontier:

Nicomedia (northwestern Asia Minor) becomes the capital of Diocletian

Mediolanum (Milan, near the Alps) becomes the capital of Maximian

Augusta Treverorum (Trier, in Germany) becomes the capital of Constantius Chlorus

Sirmium (Serbia, on the Danube border) becomes the capital of Galerius

Diocletian's Palace is built at a small bay on the Dalmatian coast, four miles from Salona, today's Split, Croatia.

Constantius Chlorus retakes some of the Gallic territories and conquers the crucial port of Bononia (modern Boulogne).

Carausius, Roman usurper, is murdered by his finance minister Allectus, who proclaims himself "emperor" of Britain.

Constantius Chlorus defeats the Franks on the Rhine frontier in Batavia (Netherlands).

====== Asia ======

King Tiridates III of Armenia, (with Rome as suzerainty), invades Assyria.

King Bahram II of the Persian Empire dies after a 17-year reign; his son Bahram III ascends to the throne. After four months he is murdered by viceroy Narseh with support of the nobility.

Narseh becomes king of Persia and engages Rome in eight years of constant warfare.

Tuoba Fu succeeds his uncle Tuoba Chuo as chieftain of the Chinese Tuoba clan.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Probus succeeds Rufinus as Patriarch of Constantinople.

=== 294 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Galerius, Roman Caesar in the Balkans, proves his worth in campaigning on the Danube frontier, fighting the Goths, Marcomanni, Sarmatians, and Carpi.

Galerius is given the job of land reclamation and repopulation, moving the entire tribe of the Carpi to settlements within the Roman Empire.

Emperor Diocletian goes with the young Constantine I the Great (later the first Christian Roman Emperor) on his staff to Egypt. He besieges Alexandria, and deposes "emperor" Achilleus.

====== Asia ======

Tuoba Luguan succeeds his nephew Tuoba Fu as chieftain of the Tuoba clan.

=== 295 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Galerius, Roman Caesar in the Balkans, is dispatched to Egypt to fight against the rebellious cities Busiris and Coptos.

====== Asia ======

King Narseh, Shah of the Sassanid Empire, declares war on Rome and invades Armenia with his army.

Tuoba Luguan divides the territory of the Tuoba clan into three areas. His nephews Tuoba Yilu and Tuoba Yituo become chieftains of the western and central areas of (Shanxi province). Tuoba Luguan dominates the eastern area (near Hohhot).

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Petra rejoins the province of Palestine, and is converted to Christianity by the Syrian monk Barsauma.

=== 296 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Constantius Chlorus assembles two invasion fleets with the intent of crossing the English Channel. The first is under the command of Asclepiodotus, Constantius' long serving Praetorian Prefect. He sails from the mouth of the Seine, and lands near the Isle of Wight, where his forces defeat the usurper Allectus in Hampshire. Constantius leaves with his fleet Boulogne and occupies London, saving the city from an attack by Frankish mercenaries who are roaming the province.

Maximian, emperor (Augustus) of the Roman Empire, mobilises an army, consisting of Praetorian cohorts, Aquileian, Egyptian, and Danubian legionaries, marching through Spain. He crosses the Strait of Gibraltar into Mauretania (modern Morocco) to protect the area against Frankish pirates.

Constantius Chlorus reconquers Britain; he rebuilds the cities Eboracum (York), Londinium (London), and Verulamium (St Albans).

====== Persia ======

Emperor Diocletian dispatches his son-in-law Galerius with a large army to Armenia. He invades Mesopotamia, but suffers a complete defeat outside Ctesiphon against the Persian king Narseh, and is forced to retreat. Galerius crosses the Euphrates into Syria to join Diocletian at Antioch.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

April 22 – Pope Caius dies at Rome after a 13-year reign and is succeeded by Pope Marcellinus as the 29th pope.

=== 297 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Maximian begins an offensive against the Berbers in Mauritania, driving them back into their homelands in the Atlas Mountains. He spends the rest of the winter in Carthage (Africa).

====== Persia ======

Galerius makes preparations in Syria for a campaign against the Persian king Narseh. He recruits veterans from Illyria and Moesia, and strengthens his bodyguard with Gothic auxiliaries.

=== 298 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Battle of Lingones: Constantius Chlorus defeats the Alamanni in the territory of the Lingones (Langres) in Gaul. He strengthens the border along the Rhine frontier.

Battle of Vindonissa: Constantius I defeats the Alamanni at Vindonissa (modern Switzerland).

March 10 – Emperor Maximian concludes his campaign in North Africa against the Berbers, and makes a triumphal entry into Carthage.

The Baths of Diocletian are commissioned by Maximian in honor of Emperor Diocletian.

Christians are expelled from the Roman army.

====== Persia ======

Galerius invades Armenia with an army of 25,000 men. He makes personal reconnaissances, and marched deep in occupied Mesopotamia.

Battle of Satala: Galerius decisively defeats king Narseh. He captures the Persian camp, including Narseh's family, harem and treasure.

King Tiridates III is restored as ruler of Armenia.

====== Asia ======

The manufacture of cultured silk becomes popular from Korea to Japan.

Bunseo becomes king of the Korean kingdom of Baekje.

Girim becomes the king of the Korean kingdom of Silla.

=== 299 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Peace of Nisibis: Galerius signs a treaty with the Persian king Narseh that will last for 40 years. The Persians accept Roman dominion over Armenia and northern Mesopotamia. The Tigris becomes the boundary between Rome and the Sassanid Empire.

Galerius commissions the Arch of Galerius in Thessaloniki (Greece). The structure is built to celebrate the war and victory over the Sassanid Persians.

====== Asia ======

Empress Jia Nanfeng frames Crown Prince Yu for treason and has him deposed.

296

Year 296 (CCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Valerius and Constantius (or, less frequently, year 1049 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 296 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

300s (decade)

The 300s decade ran from January 1, 300, to December 31, 309.

== Events ==

=== 300 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

The Franks penetrate into what is now northern Belgium (approximate date).

The city of Split is built.

The Camp of Diocletian is built in Palmyra.

A Romano-Celtic temple-mausoleum complex is constructed in what is now Lullingstone, and also in Anderitum (approximate date).

====== Asia ======

The lion becomes extinct from Armenia (approximate date).

The Yayoi period ends in Ancient Japan (approximate date).

Wootz steel is developed in India (approximate date).

The Kama Sutra, an Indian handbook on the art of sexual love, is probably produced around this time by the sage Vatsyayana.

Micheon becomes ruler of the Korean kingdom of Goguryeo.

====== Africa ======

The elephant becomes extinct in North Africa (approximate date).

The Atlas wild ass becomes extinct (approximate date).

====== America ======

The Formative/Preclassic period in Mesoamerica comes to an end (around this year).

The Mayan civilization reaches its most prolific period, the classic period, in what is now Guatemala, Belize and parts of southern Mexico adjacent to the former two. During most of this period, Tikal dominates the Mayan world.

==== By topic ====

====== Arts and sciences ======

The magnetic compass for navigation is invented in China (approximate date).

The Panchatantra, a Sanskrit collection of fables and fairy tales, is written in India.

The Tetrarchs are probably made in Egypt. After 330 they are moved to Constantinople and in 1204 they are installed at the corner of the facade of the St Mark's Basilica, Venice (approximate date).

Diocletian's Palace, Split, Croatia, is built. Its model is nowadays kept at the Museo della Civilta Romana, Rome.

====== Religion ======

Peter of Alexandria becomes Patriarch of Alexandria.

Possible date of the Codex Vaticanus Graecus 1209 and Codex Sinaiticus, manuscripts of the Bible written in Greek.

Tiridates III makes his kingdom of Armenia the first state to adopt Christianity as its official religion.

Approximate date of the Synod of Elvira in Elvira, Spain, which prohibits interaction with Jews, pagans, and heretics.

=== 301 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Diocletian issues his Edict on Maximum Prices, which, rather than halting rampant inflation and stabilizing the economy, over time adds to inflationary pressures by flooding the economy with new coinage and by setting price limits too low.

Diocletian begins the construction of new roads in the Roman Empire. The Strata Diocletiana is built and lined with a series of forts (quadriburgia); it runs from the Gulf of Aqaba (Arabia) to the Euphrates.

====== Armenia ======

King Tiridates III of Armenia proclaims Christianity as the official state religion, making Armenia the first nation to adopt Christianity as its official religion. Construction of the original Etchmiadzin Cathedral by Gregory the Illuminator begins.

====== Europe ======

September 3 – The republic of San Marino is established (traditional date).

====== Asia ======

February 3–May 30 – Sima Lun briefly usurps the Jin dynasty.

=== 302 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

====== Persia ======

==== By topic ====

====== Arts and sciences ======

====== Religion ======

304

Year 304 (CCCIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Valerius and Valerius (or, less frequently, year 1057 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 304 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

308

Year 308 (CCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Valerius and Valerius (or, less frequently, year 1061 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 308 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Catacomb of Priscilla

The Catacomb of Priscilla is an archaeological site on the Via Salaria in Rome, Italy, situated in what was a quarry in Roman times. This quarry was used for Christian burials from the late 2nd century through the 4th century. This catacomb, according to tradition, is named after the wife of the Consul Manius Acilius Glabrio; he is said to have become a Christian and was killed on the orders of Domitian. Some of the walls and ceilings display fine decorations illustrating Biblical scenes.

The modern entrance to the catacomb is on the Via Salaria through the cloister of the monastery of the Benedictines of Priscilla. The Catacombs of Priscilla are divided into three principal areas: an arenarium, a cryptoporticus from a large Roman villa, and the underground burial area of the ancient Roman family, the Acilius Glabrio.

Emilianus of Trevi

Saint Emilianus of Trevi (Italian: Emiliano di Trevi), sometimes known as Miliano (died 304), was a 4th-century bishop of Trevi, martyred under Diocletian.

Emygdius

Saint Emygdius (Latin: Emidius, Æmedius, Emigdius, Hemigidius; Italian: Sant'Emidio; c. 279 – c. 309 AD) was a Christian bishop who is venerated as a martyr. Tradition states that he was killed during the persecution of Diocletian.

June 30

June 30 is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 184 days remain until the end of the year.

It is the last day of the first half of the year.

List of canonised popes

This article lists the Popes who have been canonised or recognised as Saints in the Roman Catholic Church they had led. A total of 83 (out of 266) Popes have been recognised universally as canonised saints, including all of the first 35 Popes (31 of whom were martyrs) and 52 of the first 54. If Pope Liberius is numbered amongst the Saints as in Eastern Christianity, all of the first 49 Popes become recognised as Saints, of whom 31 are Martyr-Saints, and 53 of the first 54 Pontiffs would be acknowledged as Saints. In addition, 13 other Popes are in the process of becoming canonised Saints: as of December 2018, two are recognised as being Servants of God, two are recognised as being Venerable, and nine have been declared Blessed or Beati, making a total of 95 (97 if Pope Liberius and Pope Adeodatus II are recognised to be Saints) of the 266 Roman Pontiffs being recognised and venerated for their heroic virtues and inestimable contributions to the Church.

The most recently reigning Pope to have been canonised was Pope John Paul II, whose cause for canonisation was opened in May 2005. John Paul II was beatified on May 1, 2011, by Pope Benedict XVI and later canonised, along with Pope John XXIII, by Pope Francis on April 27, 2014. Pope Francis also canonised Pope Paul VI on October 14, 2018.

List of popes who died violently

A collection of popes who have had violent deaths through the centuries. The circumstances have ranged from martyrdom (Pope Stephen I) to war (Lucius II), to a beating by a jealous husband (Pope John XII). A number of other popes have died under circumstances that some believe to be murder, but for which definitive evidence has not been found.

Petilianus

Petilianus was an eminent Donatist of the 5th century Roman North Africa, who is known to history through the letters he wrote to the Catholic Bishop Augustine of Hippo and discourses in Augustine's replies.

Although most of what we know of him comes from Augustine, his main theology seems to have been "that the true church was only composed of those who were repentant."

Pope (word)

Pope is a title traditionally accorded to the Bishop of Rome, the Coptic and Greek Orthodox Bishop of Alexandria, and some autocratic leaders of other ecclesial communities. Popes may also claim the title Patriarch. Both terms come from a word for father.

Pope Marcellus I

Pope Marcellus I (6 January 255–16 January 309) was the Bishop of Rome or Pope from May or June 308 to his death in 309. He succeeded Pope Marcellinus after a considerable interval. Under Maxentius, he was banished from Rome in 309, on account of the tumult caused by the severity of the penances he had imposed on Christians who had lapsed under the recent persecution. He died the same year, being succeeded by Pope Eusebius. His relics are under the altar of San Marcello al Corso in Rome. His third-class feast day is kept on January 16.

Pope Miltiades

Pope Miltiades (Greek: Μιλτιάδης, Miltiádēs; d. 10 January 314), also known as Melchiades the African (Μελχιάδης ὁ Ἀφρικανός Melkhiádēs ho Aphrikanós), was Pope of the Catholic Church from 311 to his death in 314. It was during his pontificate that Emperor Constantine I issued the Edict of Milan (313), giving Christianity legal status within the Roman Empire. The Pope also received the palace of Empress Fausta where the Lateran Palace, the papal seat and residence of the papal administration, would be built. At the Lateran Council, during the schism with the Church of Carthage, Miltiades condemned the rebaptism of apostatised bishops and priests, a teaching of Donatus Magnus.

Pope Siricius

Pope Siricius (334 – 26 November 399) was Pope from December 384 to his death in 399. He was successor to Pope Damasus I and was himself succeeded by Pope Anastasius I.

In response to inquiries from Bishop Himerius of Tarragona, Siricius issued decrees of baptism, church discipline and other matters. These are the oldest completely preserved papal decretals.

Saint Marcellinus

Saint Marcellinus may refer to:

Pope Marcellinus (died 304), bishop of Rome 296–304 and martyr

Marcellinus and Peter (died 304), d. 304

Marcellinus of Carthage (died 413), secretary of state to Honorius and martyr

Marcellinus of Gaul, feast day April 20

See Narcissus, Argeus, and Marcellinus for Marcellinus (died 320), soldier and martyr, d. 340

St. Marcellinus Secondary School, Mississauga, Ontario

Symmachian forgeries

The Symmachian forgeries are a sheaf of forged documents produced in the papal curia of Pope Symmachus (498–514) in the beginning of the sixth century, in the same cycle that produced the Liber Pontificalis. In the context of the conflict between partisans of Symmachus and Antipope Laurentius the purpose of these libelli was to further papal pretensions of the independence of the Bishops of Rome from criticisms and judgment of any ecclesiastical tribunal, putting them above law clerical and secular by supplying spurious documents supposedly of an earlier age. "During the dispute between Pope St. Symmachus and the anti-pope Laurentius," the Catholic Encyclopedia reports, "the adherents of Symmachus drew up four apocryphal writings called the 'Symmachian Forgeries'. ... The object of these forgeries was to produce alleged instances from earlier times to support the whole procedure of the adherents of Symmachus, and, in particular, the position that the Roman bishop could not be judged by any court composed of other bishops."Their editor Louis Duchesne divided them in two groups, a group produced in the heat of the conflict involving Symmachus and a later group. Among writings to support Symmachus, Gesta de Xysti purgatione narrated a decision by Sixtus III, who cleared his name from defamation and permanently excommunicated the offender; Gesta de Polychronii episcopi Hierosolynitani accusatione concerned a purely apocryphal simonical Bishop of Jerusalem "Polychronius", who claimed Jerusalem as the first see and his supremacy over other bishops; Gesta Liberii papae concerned mass baptisms carried out by Pope Liberius during his exile from the seat of Peter; Sinuessanae synodi gesta de Marcellino recounted the accusation brought against Pope Marcellinus, that in the company of the Emperor Diocletian he had offered incense to the pagan gods, making the point that when Marcellinus eventually confessed to the misdeed it was declared that the pope had condemned himself, since no one had ever judged the pontiff, because the first see will not be judged by anyone.The most important in this group of forgeries was Silvestri constitutum, a report of a fictitious synod convoked by Pope Sylvester, giving twenty promulgated canons, among which was a prohibition of bringing a solitary accusation upon an ecclesiastic of a degree higher than the accuser's: a bishop might only be accused by seventy-two, and a pope could not be accused by anyone. Silvestri constitutum was also an early instance of the fable that Sylvester had cured Constantine the Great of leprosy with the waters of baptism, incurring the Emperor's abject gratitude, which was elaborated and credited to the point that, in greeting Pope Stephen II in 753, Pepin II dismounted to lead the Pope's horse to his palace on foot, as Constantine would have done.The second, somewhat later group centers on the figure of Sylvester, who accepts the decree of the First Council of Nicaea on the date of Easter. One of these forgeries reports a fictitious synod convoking 275 bishops in the Baths of Trajan; several canons exalt the position of the cleric.

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History of the papacy
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