Pope Lucius III

Pope Lucius III (c. 1100 – 25 November 1185), born Ubaldo Allucingoli, reigned from 1 September 1181 to his death in 1185.[1]

Pope

Lucius III
Pope Lucius III Illustration
Papacy began1 September 1181
Papacy ended25 November 1185
PredecessorAlexander III
SuccessorUrban III
Orders
Consecration1159
Created cardinalDecember 1138
by Innocent II
Personal details
Birth nameUbaldo Allucingoli
Bornc. 1100
Lucca, Holy Roman Empire
Died25 November 1185
Verona, Holy Roman Empire
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Other popes named Lucius

Biography

A native of the independent republic of Lucca, he was born c. 1100 (perhaps 1097) as Ubaldo, son of Orlando. He is commonly referred to as a member of the aristocratic family of Allucingoli, but this is not proven.[2] He had close ties to the Cistercians, but it seems that he never joined the order.[3] Pope Innocent II named him cardinal in December 1138, initially as cardinal-deacon of San Adriano, then (in May 1141) as cardinal-priest of Santa Prassede. Pope Adrian IV promoted him to the rank of Cardinal Bishop of Ostia and Velletri in December 1158. He was dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals and one of the most influential cardinals under his predecessor Pope Alexander III, whom he had consecrated bishop in 1159.

Election and papacy

After being elected Pope in 1181, he lived at Rome from November 1181 to March 1182, but dissensions in the city compelled him to pass the remainder of his pontificate in exile, mainly at Velletri, Anagni and Verona.

He was in dispute with the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I over the disposal of the territories of the late Countess Matilda of Tuscany. The controversy over the succession to the inheritance of the Countess had been left unsettled by an agreement of 1177, and the Emperor proposed in 1182 that the Curia should renounce its claim, receiving in exchange two-tenths of the imperial income from Italy, one-tenth for the Pope and the other tenth for the cardinals. Lucius consented neither to this proposition nor to another compromise suggested by Frederick I the next year, nor did a personal discussion between the two potentates at Verona in October 1184 lead to any definite result.

During the conflict between Frederick I and the papacy, the problem of heresy required a political solution. In 1184, Pope Lucius III decreed Ad abolendam that all "counts, barons, rectors, [and] consuls of cities and other places" who did not join in the struggle against heresy when called upon to do so would be excommunicated and their territories placed under interdict – and declared that these provisions joined the apostolic authority of the church with the sanction of imperial power.[4]

In the meantime other causes of disagreement appeared when the Pope refused to comply with Frederick I's wishes as to the Imperial regulation of German episcopal elections which had taken place under the authority of the German-sponsored antipopes, both during and after the recent schism (1159-1176), especially as regards an election to the See of Trier in 1183 contested between the papal candidate Folmar of Karden and the imperial candidate Rudolf of Wied.

In pursuance of his anti-imperial policy, Lucius declined in 1185 to crown Henry of Hohenstaufen as Frederick I's destined successor, and the breach between the Empire and the Curia became wider on questions of Italian politics.

In November 1184 Lucius held a synod at Verona which condemned the Cathars, Paterines, Waldensians and Arnoldists, and anathematized all those declared as heretics and their abettors. Contrary to what is often said, he did not institute the Inquisition, which was not created until the reign of Pope Gregory IX in 1234.

Despite the fulminations of the first three Lateran Councils against married clergy, Lucius wrote in 1184 to the abbot of St. Augustine Canterbury suggesting that the parson of Willesborough should retire and pass the benefice to his promising son, who could then pursue his studies,[5] showing continued papal tolerance of married clergy at this late date.

Death

In 1185 preparations began for the Third Crusade in answer to the appeals of King Baldwin IV of Jerusalem. Before they were completed, Lucius III died in Verona.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope Lucius III" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  2. ^ J. M. Brixius, Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums voin 1130–1181, Berlin 1912, p. 90
  3. ^ S. Miranda: Cardinal Ubaldo Allucingoli (note 1); I. S. Robinson, The Papacy 1073–1198. Continuity and innovation, Cambridge University Press 1990, p. 212.
  4. ^ Bornstein, Daniel Ethan, Medieval Christianity , 2009 (Minneapolis: Fortress Press ), 237
  5. ^ A. L. Poole, Domesday Book to Magna Carta, quoting Holtzmann, Papsturkunden

References

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Ugone
Bishop of Ostia
1158–81
Succeeded by
Thibaud of Ostia
Preceded by
Alexander III
Pope
1181–85
Succeeded by
Urban III
1181 papal election

The papal election of 1181 followed the death of Pope Alexander III and resulted in the election of Pope Lucius III. This was the first papal election celebrated in accordance with the decree Licet de evitanda discordia, promulgated in the Third Lateran Council in 1179, which established that the pope is elected by the majority of two thirds votes.

1185

Year 1185 (MCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

1185 papal election

The papal election of 1185 (held November 25) was a convoked after the death of Pope Lucius III. It resulted in the election of Cardinal Uberto Crivelli of Milan, who took the name of Urban III.

Ad abolendam

Ad abolendam ("On abolition" or "Towards abolishing" from the first line, Ad abolendam diversam haeresium pravitatem, or ‘To abolish diverse malignant heresies’ ) was a decretal and bull of Pope Lucius III, written at Verona and issued 4 November 1184. It was issued after the Council of Verona settled some jurisdictional differences between the Papacy and Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor. The document prescribes measures to uproot heresy and sparked the efforts which culminated in the Albigensian Crusade and the Inquisitions. Its chief aim was the complete abolition of Christian heresy.

Adelardo Cattaneo

Adelardo Cattaneo (died before October 1214) was an Italian cardinal and bishop. His first name is also listed as Alardo.

He was canon of the cathedral chapter of Verona. Pope Lucius III created him Cardinal-Priest of S. Marcello in the consistory of 6 March 1185 (or in December 1183, or in 1184). As such, he countersigned the papal bulls issued between 20 April 1185 and 28 October 1188. He participated in the papal elections of 1185 and October 1187, and possibly also in that of December 1187 and 1191. In the pontificate of Pope Clement III he served as papal legate in the Holy Land. Towards the end of 1188 he was elected bishop of Verona; he was confirmed by Clement III and took possession of the see in the following year (1189). At that time he resigned his titular church of S. Marcello, but retained his cardinalate and signed the documents as "Cardinal-Priest of the Holy Roman Church, humble bishop of Verona". He died after 17 July 1212, but before 13 October 1214, when his successor was elected.

Ardoino da Piacenza

Ardoino da Piacenza (died 21 January 1183) was an Italian cardinal. His first name is listed also as Arduino.

He was archdeacon of the cathedral chapter of Piacenza and member of the Order of Canons Regular di San Frediano di Lucca. Pope Alexander III created him Cardinal in the consistory celebrated in Frascati in 1178. Between 4 July and 6 September 1178 he signed a papal bull as Cardinal-Deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata, but shortly thereafter he was promoted to the rank of Cardinal-Priest of Santa Croce in Gerusalemme; as such, he signed the bulls from 1 October 1178 until 8 January 1183. He participated in the papal election, 1181, which elected Pope Lucius III. He wrote an opuscle titled De Deo immortali.

Arnold I (bishop of Coria)

Arnold I (Spanish: Arnaldo) was the Bishop of Coria from 1181 until his death in 1197 or 1198. His diocese was poor—the inhospitable territories of the Sierra de Gata and Las Hurdes lay to the north, breaking off communication with the centre of the kingdom—and it lay exposed to attacks from enemies to the west (Portugal), south (Almohads) and east (Castile). A royal charter of Ferdinand II of 1183 says that it was deserta adhuc [et] in faucibus Sarracenorum: "hitherto desert [and] in the Saracens' throat".Sometime before 1185 Arnold introduced the Augustinian Rule for his cathedral chapter. On 19 March 1185 he acquired a privilege from Pope Lucius III, confirmed in 1186 by Urban III. A royal charter from early in his episcopate portrays him as an ardent defender of the rights of his neglected see. The towns of Alcántara and Cáceres, which had been added to his see in the time of his predecessor minus one Suero I, were lost in that of his immediate predecessor, Peter I, to the Portuguese (1168–69); they were permanently lost to the Almohads in 1174.

Arnoldists

Arnoldists were a pre-Protestant Christian movement in the 12th century, named after Arnold of Brescia who criticized the great wealth and possessions of the Roman Catholic Church, and preached against baptism and the Eucharist. His disciples were also called "Publicans" or "Poplecans", a name probably deriving from Paulicians. The Arnoldists were condemned as heretics by Pope Lucius III in the Ad abolendam during the Synod of Verona in 1184.Their tenets would later be addressed by Bonacursus of Milan, c. 1190, in his Manifestatio haeresis Catharorum, which refuted Arnoldist evangelical poverty and the incapacity of sinful priests to administer the sacraments.

Bosjökloster

Bosjökloster (English: Bosjö Abbey) on the shore of Lake Ringsjön in Höör Municipality, Scania, southern Sweden was originally a nunnery, founded in 1080 by the Benedictine Order. The oldest preserved document that mentions Bosjö Abbey was written by Pope Lucius III in 1181, when he confirmed its privileges. According to local legend, the land was donated by Tord Aagesen Thott of Loddeköping, the first known ancestor of the Scanian noble family Thott. The abbey was transformed into a castle in the 16th century, and only parts of the original building remains.

Bruno (bishop of Segni)

Saint Bruno di Segni (c. 1045 – 18 July 1123) was an Italian Roman Catholic prelate and professed member from the Order of Saint Benedict who served as the Bishop of Segni and the Abbot of Montecassino. He studied under the Benedictines in Bologna before being appointed as the canon of the Siena cathedral and before he was invited to Rome where he became a bishop and counselled four consecutive popes. He served as an abbot in Montecassino but his chastising Pope Paschal II on the Concordat of Segni in 111 prompted the pope to relieve him from his duties as abbot and ordered Bruno to return to his diocese where he died just over a decade later.Bruno's canonization was celebrated on 5 September 1181 under Pope Lucius III who presided over the celebration in the late bishop's diocese.

Gerardo Allucingoli

Gerardo Allucingoli (died 1208) was an Italian cardinal and cardinal-nephew of Pope Lucius III, who elevated him in 1182.

He was canon of the cathedral chapter in his native city of Lucca. After the election of his uncle to the papacy (1 September 1181) he was named Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church (ca.1182/84), and then cardinal-deacon of S. Adriano (probably in December 1182). He signed the papal bulls between 2 January 1183 and 19 April 1204. He was Cardinal Vicar General of Rome from 1184 until 1188. He participated in the papal election, 1191 and papal election, 1198. He was elected bishop of Lucca in 1195 but Pope Celestine III did not ratify this election. Legate in various parts of Italy on several occasions. Cardinal-protodeacon from 1205. Pope Innocent III appointed him spiritual and secular vicar of the Kingdom of Sicily in April 1204. His name appears for the last time in the document dated 20 July 1208.

John Scotus (bishop of Dunkeld)

John Scotus (Latin: Johannes cognomine Scotus, also referred to as John the Scot or l'Escot) was a 12th-century Bishop of St. Andrews and Dunkeld.

John had studied at the University of Oxford and the University of Paris before beginning his ecclesiastical career at St. Andrews, entering the service of Bishop Richard. The latter made him Archdeacon of the see. His nickname would usually be taken to indicate that he was either a Gaelic-speaker or from Scotland-north-of-the-Forth (Scotia), but according to John of Fordun, he was from the villa of Podoth in Cheshire. He certainly had Scottish connections in his family. For instance, he was the nephew of both Robert of Scone, a previous bishop of Cell Rígmonaid, and Matthew, Bishop of Aberdeen.After the death of his patron Richard, he was elected by the cathedral chapter in either 1177 or 1178 in the presence of Cardinal Viviano of S. Stefano in Monte Celio, the Papal legate. His election, however, was not approved of by the king, William I of Scotland, who wanted his chaplain Hugh to succeed to the bishopric. John travelled to appeal to Pope Alexander III, who quashed the case of Hugh and sent to Scotland a man name Alexius as legate. Alexius obtained entrance to William's kingdom, and consecrated John at Holyrood Abbey in the presence of four other Scottish bishops, in the year 1180. Nevertheless, the struggle continued, and in 1183, both John and Hugh resigned their rights.John demanded another Scottish bishopric in compensation, as well as continued use of the revenues he had previous had access to. John was subsequently elected by the clergy of Dunkeld as bishop. The new Pope, Pope Lucius III, granted the see of St Andrew to Hugh, and John, having previously been elected to the Bishopric of Dunkeld, had this see confirmed. It did not, however, end the struggle, as King William still objected, and in 1186 both John and Hugh were summoned to Rome once more. Hugh refused to go, and was suspended and excommunicated by the Pope. In February 1188 John returned with a Letter of Confirmation of his position from Pope Clement III, and King William finally conceded that John could hold the see "of Dunkeld and the revenues which he had before his consecration", on the condition that John should quit-claim forever the episcopate of St. Andrews.John subsequently reorganized the see of Dunkeld. His most notable act was dividing the see into two parts, and his actions thereby led to the creation of the Bishoric of Argyll.John died in 1203 at Newbattle. He was buried in the choir on the north of the altar.

Monreale Cathedral

The Cathedral of Monreale (Italian: Duomo di Monreale) is a church in Monreale, Metropolitan City of Palermo, Sicily, southern Italy. One of the greatest existent examples of Norman architecture, it was begun in 1174 by William II of Sicily. In 1182 the church, dedicated to the Nativity of the Virgin Mary, was, by a bull of Pope Lucius III, elevated to the rank of a metropolitan cathedral. Since 2015 it is part of the Arab-Norman Palermo and the Cathedral Churches of Cefalù and Monreale UNESCO Heritage site.

The church is a national monument of Italy and one of the most important attractions of Sicily. Its size is 102 meters long and 40 meters wide.

Peter Waldo

Peter Waldo, Valdo, Valdes, or Waldes (c. 1140 – c. 1205), also Pierre Vaudès or de Vaux, was a leader of the Waldensians, a Christian spiritual movement of the Middle Ages.

Pope Lucius

Pope Lucius may refer to:

Pope Lucius I (c 200–254), 22nd Catholic pope

Pope Lucius II (died 1145), 166th Catholic pope

Pope Lucius III (c 1100–1185), 171st Catholic pope

Samarus

Samarus (died 1201) was the Archbishop of Trani from 1192, when he succeeded Bertrand II, until his death. He was successful as a lawyer before becoming archbishop, and excelled at diplomacy after that.

Samarus was a member of a family of government officials from Trani. A document of 1104 was written by a certain Samarus iudex (judge), probably a relative of his. His relatives Nicholas and Samarus were justiciars at Trani and his father, Rainald, and another relative, Roger, were royal chamberlains. He himself originally served Bertrand as a notary (1160s?) before becoming archdeacon of the cathedral around 1174. Six documents drawn up by Samarus before his election as archbishop are known. In 1182 he argued before Pope Lucius III his cathedral's case against the clergy of Corato. In light of this and his subsequent success at political manoeuvring, it is probable that his election had more to do with his merits than his connexions.In 1192 Samarus was still on good terms with King Tancred, who donated to him "the tithe of the royal revenues at Trani and Barletta", a donation confirmed that year by Pope Celestine III. Nevertheless, Samarus supported Queen Constance and the Emperor Henry VI in their claim on the Kingdom of Sicily. He was warmly praised by Henry in a diploma of April 1195, in which the emperor granted imperial protection to the church of Trani and confirmed all its rights and customs since the time of King William (probably William II). In reward for his service to Henry, Samarus also received the lordship of the Jewry of Trani. On a diplomatic mission to Cyprus in 1196 he negotiated commercial privileges for his town's merchants.

Synod of Verona

The Synod of Verona was held November 1184 under the auspices of Pope Lucius III and the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I.The meeting was to address numerous issues. Some of these were; dispute over claims between empire and papacy in central Italy, proprietary concerns of the bishopric of Gurk, plans for a crusade to the Holy Land, dispute over the investiture of the anti-Archbishop of Trier, Rudolf of Wied, and the condemnation of heresy. It also addressed the issue of marriage, particularly in response to the condemnation of marriage by the Cathars, finally listing it as a sacrament.Though Lucius and Frederick were able to agree on Gurk, a new crusade and heresy issues, the remaining issues were left unsettled.The most significant event of the synod was the declaration of the papal bull Ad abolendam and the joint condemnation of Arnoldists, Cathars, Humiliati, Josephini, Patarenes, Passagini, and Waldensians as heretics. The Waldensians were charged for being in rebellion since they continued to preach despite being forbidden from doing so. The synod also identified this group as part of the Humiliati or "Poor Men of Lyons" and put them in the same category as the Cathari and Patarenes, anathematizing them in the process. A decree was included that detailed a system of trial and punishment for heretics.

Theobald of Ostia

Theobald of Ostia (French: Thibaut de Vermandois or Thibaut de Nanteuil, Italian: Teodobaldo di Vermandois; died 4 November 1188) was a French cardinal.

He entered the Order of Benedictines of the Congregation of Cluny in his youth. He was prior of the monastery of Saint-Arnoult-de-Crepy by 1169 and then abbot of Cluny from 1180 until 1183. In 1184 pope Lucius III named him Cardinal-Bishop of Ostia e Velletri; as such, he signed the papal bulls between 21 May 1184 and 29 October 1188. He served as papal legate in southern Germany in 1187. He participated in the papal election of 1185, of October 1187 and of December 1187; in the last one, he was elected to the papacy but declined in favour of Paolo Scolari, who was elected Pope Clement III. Shortly before his death pope appointed him legate in England but he was unable to fulfill this mission. He was buried in the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls, Rome.

Uberto Allucingoli

Uberto Allucingoli was an Italian cardinal and cardinal-nephew of Pope Lucius III, his uncle who ostensibly elevated him with the title of San Lorenzo in Damaso in 1182.Modern scholars consider him a fictitious individual who owes his existence to a confusion with Uberto Crivelli, who was created cardinal-priest of San Lorenzo in Damaso in December 1182 and then became Pope Urban III (1185–1187).

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