Pope Lucius II

Pope Lucius II (Latin: Lucius II; died 15 February 1145), born Gherardo Caccianemici dal Orso, was Pope from 9 March 1144 to his death in 1145. His pontificate was notable for the unrest in Rome associated with the Commune of Rome and its attempts to wrest control of the city from the papacy.

Pope

Lucius II
B Lucius II
Papacy began9 March 1144
Papacy ended15 February 1145
PredecessorCelestine II
SuccessorEugene III
Personal details
Birth nameGherardo Caccianemici dal Orso
BornBologna, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
Died15 February 1145
Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
Other popes named Lucius

Early life

Gherardo Caccianemici dal Orso, the son of Orso Caccianemici[1] was born in Bologna.[2] He was for many years a canon of the Basilica di San Frediano[3] before his elevation by Pope Honorius II to cardinal priest of Santa Croce in Gerusalemme in 1124.[2] During this time there he renovated the basilica, attached a body of regular canons and improved its revenue stream.[1] After he was elevated as pope, he presented to the church a copy of the Gospels bound with plates of gold and adorned with jewels, as well as an altar-cover and two chased silver-gilt ampullae for use at Mass.[4] Honorius also appointed him the librarian of the Diocese of Rome[1] before appointing him papal legate in Germany in 1125.[2] While there, he helped support the candidacy of Holy Roman Emperor Lothair III[3] as well as appointing Saint Norbert of Xanten as the Archbishop of Magdeburg.[2] In 1128, Gherardo was sent to Benevento to govern the city, which had overthrown the previous rector.[5]

In 1130 he was again appointed legate to Germany by Pope Innocent II, where he was instrumental in convincing Lothair III to make two expeditions to Italy for the purpose of protecting Pope Innocent II against the Antipope Anacletus II.[2] He had a further period as legate to Germany in 1135–36.[3] He was one of the principal negotiators with Lothair III in attempting to force the monks of Monte Cassino to submit themselves to the authority of the papacy.[3] In addition, he was sent to Salerno to negotiate the end of the schism involving Anacletus II with King Roger II of Sicily.[3] As a principal supporter of Pope Innocent II,[3] the pope rewarded him for his efforts by appointing him papal chancellor.[4] After the papal election of 1144, Gherardo was elected as Lucius II and consecrated on 12 March 1144.[2] He probably took his name in honor of Pope Lucius I, who was commemorated a few days prior to Gherardo's consecration.[3]

Pontificate

Relations with England and Portugal

Lucius was involved in the usual running of church business throughout medieval Christendom. In England, he granted a number of privileges to bishops, monasteries and churches, including exempting the monastery of St. Edmund from all subjection to the secular authorities.[6] He also dispatched a papal legate, Igmarus (or Hincmar), to England, charged to investigate the request of Bernard, Bishop of St David's, to elevate his see to the rank of Metropolitan bishop, and to take the pallium to William, Archbishop of York.[6] Regarding the political situation in England, he took the side of the Empress Matilda over the rights to the English crown.[7]

Early in his reign, Lucius received a request from prominent members of the town of Lucca to become the suzerain of the castle within the town in order to protect it from the war between Lucca and Pisa. Lucius received it on 18 March 1144 and for a payment of ten pounds of gold, agreed to defend it on his behalf. Lucius then returned the castle to them as a fief.[8]

Meanwhile, in Portugal, King Afonso I, eager to maintain the newly established independence of Portugal from the Kingdom of León, offered to do homage to Lucius, as he had done to Pope Innocent II, and to make the pope the feudal suzerain of his lands. He offered Lucius his territory and a yearly tribute of four ounces of gold in exchange for the defence and support of the Apostolic See.[8] Although Lucius accepted Afonso’s feudal homage on 1 May 1144, and excused him from appearing in person, he did not acknowledge Afonso as King of Portugal, but instead as Dux Portugallensis.[9] The royal title would eventually be conferred by Pope Alexander III.[10]

Finally, the city of Corneto, formally belonging to the Papal States, was restored to the papacy during Lucius’ pontificate by a formal deed on 20 November 1144.[10]

Conflict with Roger II of Sicily

Although Lucius had been the friend of King Roger II of Sicily and godparent to one of his children,[4] the situation between the two would soon deteriorate. The two parties met at Ceprano in June 1144[11] to clarify the duties of Roger as a vassal of the Holy See. Lucius demanded the return of the principality of Capua, while Roger instead wanted additional territory that formed part of the Papal States in the south.[11] Lucius II, on the advice of his cardinals,[12] was unwilling to accept Roger’s demands and rejected them. Infuriated, Roger returned to Sicily and asked his son Roger III, Duke of Apulia, to invade Campania.[11] Roger did as he was asked, and sent his general Robert of Selby against Lucius, ravaging the country as far north as Ferentino.[11] This forced the Romans to capitulate, and in September 1144, Lucius agreed to Roger’s terms, negotiating a seven-year truce.[7] The Normans in return withdrew back to their conquered territories[11] and promised not to attack Benevento or any other papal territory.[7]

Emergence of the Roman Commune

This surrender on the part of Lucius II gave an opportunity for members of the Roman Senate to reassert their ancient independence and authority and to erect a revolutionary republic at Rome which sought to deprive the Pope of his temporal power. The principal groups involved in this movement were the merchants and artisans, while the urban nobility kept their neutrality.[7]

The Senate, which practically took all temporal power from the Pope during the pontificate of Innocent II, had been managed with considerable skill and firmness by Lucius at the beginning of his pontificate, convincing many senators to either leave the Capitoline Hill or to lay down their magisterium.[13] Now, encouraged by Lucius II's defeat, the Senate, led by Giordano Pierleoni, brother of the former Antipope Anacletus II, rebelled against Lucius II, driving out the papal prefects[7] and establishing the Commune of Rome.[13] They demanded the pope abandon all governmental duties, and that he would retain only ecclesiastical taxes and voluntary tributes.[7] The Senate took over powers to elect magistrates and strike its own coinage.[14] At first, Lucius asked for Roger II's aid, but Roger, still annoyed that Lucius had not fully recognised his kingship, withheld his assistance.[7] Lucius then turned for help to Conrad, King of the Romans,[12] and on December 1144 wrote to him pleading for military assistance against the Senate and the Patrician Giordano Pierleoni.[13] Lucius was supported by Bernard of Clairvaux, who also wrote to Conrad, asking for him to intervene.[15]

While waiting for Conrad’s reply, Lucius decided to take matters into his own hands.[12] Turning to the Roman aristocracy, in particular the Frangipani family, he gave them the fortress of the Circus Maximus on 31 January 1145, allowing them complete control of the southern portion of the Palatine Hill.[15] The Roman Forum had become a battleground, and the confusion prevented Lucius from travelling to the Aventine Hill to ordain the abbot of San Saba on 20 January 1145.[15]

Finally, Lucius marched against the Senatorial positions on the Capitol with a small army. He was driven back by Giordano,[15] and according to Godfrey of Viterbo, he was seriously injured during this battle (by a thrown stone).[15] He did not recover from his injuries and died on 15 February 1145[12] at San Gregorio Magno al Celio, where he was under the protection of the neighbouring Frangipani fortress.[6]

Lucius II was buried at St John Lateran in the circular portico behind the apse.[6] His heraldic badge was a shield of argent, with a bear rampant of proper sable.[16]

See also

Sources

  • Levillain, Philippe, The Papacy: An Encyclopedia, Vol II: Gaius-Proxies, Routledge, 2002
  • Thomas, P. C., A Compact History of the Popes, St Pauls BYB, 2007
  • Mann, Horace K., The Lives of the Popes in the Middle Ages, Vol 9 (1925)
  • Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope Lucius II" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  • Duffy, Eamon (2001). Saints and Sinners: A History of the Popes. Yale University Press. pp. 140–141. ISBN 978-0-300-09165-6.
  • Maxwell-Stuart, P. G. (2002). Chronicle of the Popes: The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Papacy from St. Peter to the Present. Thames & Hudson. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-500-01798-2.

References

  1. ^ a b c Mann, pg. 114
  2. ^ a b c d e f Thomas, pg. 91
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Levillain, pg. 959
  4. ^ a b c Mann, pg. 115
  5. ^ Mann, The Lives of the Popes in the Middle Ages, Vol 8, pg. 256
  6. ^ a b c d Mann, pg. 119
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Levillain, pg. 960
  8. ^ a b Mann, pg. 121
  9. ^ Mann, pg 122
  10. ^ a b Mann, pg. 123
  11. ^ a b c d e Mann, pg. 116
  12. ^ a b c d Thomas, pg. 92
  13. ^ a b c Mann, pg. 117
  14. ^ NORWICH, JOHN JU (2012). The Popes: A History. London: Vintage. ISBN 9780099565871.
  15. ^ a b c d e Mann, pg. 118
  16. ^ Mann, pg. 113
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Celestine II
Pope
1144–45
Succeeded by
Eugene III
1144

Year 1144

(MCXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

1144 papal election

The papal election of 1144 followed the death of Pope Celestine II and resulted in the election of Pope Lucius II.

1145

Year 1145 (MCXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

1145 papal election

The papal election of 1145 followed the death of Pope Lucius II and resulted in the election of Pope Eugene III, the first pope of the Order of Cistercians.

1154 papal election

The papal election of 1154 followed the death of Pope Anastasius IV and resulted in the election of Pope Adrian IV, the only Englishman to become pope.

1185 papal election

The papal election of 1185 (held November 25) was a convoked after the death of Pope Lucius III. It resulted in the election of Cardinal Uberto Crivelli of Milan, who took the name of Urban III.

Caccianemici

Caccianemici is an Italian surname. Notable people with the surname include:

Francesco Caccianemici, Italian Renaissance painter

Gerardo Caccianemici (disambiguation)

Ubaldo Caccianemici, Italian cardinal and cardinal-nephew of Pope Lucius II

Vicenzo Caccianemici, Italian Renaissance painter

Cardinals created by Lucius II

Pope Lucius II (1144–1145) created eleven cardinals in two consistories.

Coriano

Coriano (Romagnol: Curién) is a comune in the province of Rimini. This town is known for being the city of the Motorcycle World Champion, in 250cc class, Marco Simoncelli.

December 1187 papal election

The papal election of December 1187 (held December 19) was convoked after the death of Pope Gregory VIII. It resulted in the election of Cardinal Paolo Scolari, who took the name of Clement III.

Gerard de Namur

Gerard de Namur (died 1155) was a cardinal born in Namur in the modern-day Belgium. In older historiography he is wrongly identified as Gerardo Caccianemici, nephew of Pope Lucius II.

He studied at the abbey of Lobbes in Hainaut. Then he became canon of the cathedral chapter in Liège. He was elevated to the cardinalate by Eugenius III in 1152. He subscribed the papal bulls as cardinal-deacon of the Holy Roman Church between 1 March 1152 and 4 October 1152, and then as cardinal-deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata (31 December 1152 until 21 July 1155). He was legate in Germany in 1154 before Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa; his legation was not successful.

Gerardo Caccianemici

Gerardo Caccianemici may refer to:

Pope Lucius II (1144–1145)

Gerardo Caccianemici (cardinal), cardinal-deacon (1145–1155)

Guarinus of Palestrina

Saint Guarino Foscari (c. 1080 - 6 February 1158) was an Italian Roman Catholic Augustinian canon regular and also the Cardinal-Bishop of Palestrina from December 1144 after his relative Pope Lucius II elevated him into the cardinalate. He is better known as "Guarinus of Palestrina" and is noted for his charitable compassion for the poor of Palestrina.

Pope Alexander III canonized him as a saint of the Roman Catholic of Church in 1159.

Jordan of Santa Susanna

Jordan (Italian: Giordano Bobone Orsini; died after 1154) was a Carthusian monk, created Cardinal Deacon by Pope Lucius II in December 1144 and then Cardinal Priest of Santa Susanna by Eugene III on 21 December 1145. He is often referred to as a member of the Roman family of the Orsini, but more recent research concludes that he was probably a Frenchman. He served as Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church under Eugene III (attested 8 March 1147 until 1151) and subscribed the papal bulls between 9 January 1145 and 11 June 1154.He was described by John of Salisbury as mean and parsimonious and dressing in filthy rags as a gesture of austerity. When he was sent with Octavian of Santa Cecilia as a papal legate to summon Conrad III of Germany to Italy to be crowned Holy Roman Emperor, he quarrelled with his co-legate and, in the words of Salisbury, "made the Church a laughingstock."He participated in the papal election of 1153 and perhaps also in the papal election of 1154. The date of his death is uncertain.

Pope Lucius

Pope Lucius may refer to:

Pope Lucius I (c 200–254), 22nd Catholic pope

Pope Lucius II (died 1145), 166th Catholic pope

Pope Lucius III (c 1100–1185), 171st Catholic pope

Robert of Selby

Robert of Selby (or Salebia) (died 1152) was an Englishman, a courtier of Roger II and chancellor of the Kingdom of Sicily. It is likely that his name indicates that he was from Selby in Yorkshire. He probably journeyed to Sicily about 1130. In his train was Thomas Brun.

In 1137, he was appointed governor of Campania shortly before Salerno, the capital of Campania, was besieged by Count Ranulf of Alife, Duke Henry the Proud, and Prince Robert II of Capua, with the troops of the Emperor Lothair II. Robert stayed in Salerno to defend the city while Roger was in the island capital Palermo. With the cause hopeless, Robert advised the city to surrender and beg imperial protection to prevent a sack by the eager Pisans. The citizens did so and Robert of Selby left to organise the defence of the rest of the province.

In 1143, when Pope Innocent II refused to recognise the Treaty of Mignano, Robert of Selby marched on papal Benevento. The Beneventans argued that their royal charter was being violated, whereupon Robert entered the palace and the charter was never seen again.

In Summer 1144, Pope Lucius II was barred from Rome by the senatores and the patricius Giordano Pierleoni. He failed in his negotiations with Roger at Ceprano. Robert of Selby led expeditions against the ill-defended Papal States. Lucius' successor, Pope Eugene III, was invited back after the deposition of Giordano, but forced out again in March 1146. Late in 1149, Robert of Selby led him back into the Lateran with a Sicilian troop.

Robert of Selby probably acted as a sort of guardian for the young duke of Apulia, Roger, the son of Roger II. According to John of Hexham, writing in 1147, Robert was "the most influential of the King's friends, a man of great wealth and loaded with honours." Likewise, in his Policraticus, VII.19, John of Salisbury calls him "an able administrator . . . feared by all because of his influence with the Prince, and respected for the elegance of his life . . ." A modern opinion is that of John Julius Norwich: "Robert's administrative methods were as unorthodox as his way of life. He emerges as a far more cheerful and extrovert character than his master. . ." Perhaps Norwich had in mind the incident, recorded in the Policraticus, of Robert negotiating three large bribes from three candidates for the vacant see of Avella—and promptly disclosing the simony to an assembly of bishops, who elected a worthy abbot instead. Robert collected the bribes nevertheless.

Santa Croce in Gerusalemme

The Basilica of the Holy Cross in Jerusalem or Basilica di Santa Croce in Gerusalemme, (Latin: Basilica Sanctae Crucis in Hierusalem) is a Roman Catholic minor basilica and titular church in rione Esquilino, Rome, Italy. It is one of the Seven Pilgrim Churches of Rome.

According to tradition, the basilica was consecrated circa 325 to house the relics of the Passion of Jesus Christ brought to Rome from the Holy Land by Empress St. Helena, mother of Roman Emperor Constantine I. At that time, the Basilica's floor was covered with soil from Jerusalem, thus acquiring the title in Hierusalem; it is not dedicated to the Holy Cross which is in Jerusalem, but the Basilica itself is "in Jerusalem" in the sense that a "piece" of Jerusalem was moved to Rome for its foundation. The most recent Cardinal Priest of the Titulus S. Crucis in Hierusalem was Juan José Omella, since 28 June 2017.

Ubaldo

Ubaldo is a masculine Italian and Spanish given name. Notable people with the name include:

Ubald of Gubbio (Ubaldo Baldassini) (ca. 1084–1160), Italian bishop and Catholic saint

Guido Ubaldo Abbatini (1600–1656), Italian painter of the Baroque period

Ubaldo Aquino (born 1958), football (soccer) referee from Paraguay

Ubaldo Bellugi (1899–1992), Italian poet, writer and playwright and Podestà of Massa

Ubaldo Buttafava (died 2007), Italian communist politician

Ubaldo Caccianemici (died 1171), Italian cardinal and cardinal-nephew of Pope Lucius II

Ubaldo Fillol (born 1950), Argentine football coach and former goalkeeper

Ubaldo Gandolfi (1728–1781), Italian painter of the late-Baroque period

Ubaldo Giraldi (1692–1775), Italian canonist

Ubaldo Heredia (born 1956), former Major League Baseball right-handed starting pitcher

Ubaldo I Visconti (died 1230), the de jure overlord of the Giudicato of Cagliari from 1217

Ubaldo Jiménez (born 1984), Major League Baseball starting pitcher

Ubaldo Mesa (1973–2005), male professional road cyclist from Colombia

Ubaldo Nestor Sacco (1955–1997), Argentine boxer

Ubaldo of Gallura, the Judge of Gallura from 1225 to his death in 1238

Ubaldo Passalacqua (born 1918), Italian professional football player

Ubaldo Ranzi, Italian bobsledder who competed in the late 1990s and the early 2000s

João Ubaldo Ribeiro (born 1941), Brazilian author born in Itaparica, Bahia

Ubaldo Ricci, Italian painter of the late-Baroque who practised in Italy in the 18th century

Ubaldo Righetti (born 1963), retired Italian professional football player

Ubaldo Soddu (1883–1949), Italian military officer, commanded the Italian Forces in the Greco-Italian War for a month

Ubaldo Terzano, Italian cinematographer and camera operator, with numerous collaborations with Mario Ubaldo

Ubaldo Caccianemici

Ubaldo Caccianemici (died 1171) was an Italian cardinal and cardinal-nephew of Pope Lucius II, his cousin who elevated him in May or June 1144.

Before his elevation to the cardinalate he was canon regular of the Congregation of S. Frediano in Lucca. He was elevated to the cardinalate by his uncle shortly after his election to the papacy. He subscribed the papal bulls as Cardinal-Priest of S. Croce in Gerusalemme between 28 June 1144 and 12 September 1170. After the double papal election, 1159 he supported the obedience of Pope Alexander III and served as his legate at the council of Saint-Jean-de-Losne in 1162. He probably became protopriest of the Sacred College in 1158 or 1166.

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