Pope Linus

Linus (/ˈlaɪnəs/ (listen); died c. AD 76) was the second Bishop of Rome, and is listed by the Catholic Church as the second pope.

His papacy lasted from c. AD 67 to his death. Among those to have held the position of pope, Peter, Linus and Clement are specifically mentioned in the New Testament.[1]

Linus is mentioned in the closing greeting of the Second Epistle to Timothy as being with Paul in Rome near the end of Paul's life.

Pope Saint

Linus
Linus primi
Papacy beganc. AD 67
Papacy endedc. AD 76
PredecessorSaint Peter
SuccessorPope Anacletus
Orders
Ordinationby Paul the Apostle
Personal details
Bornca. AD 10
Volterra, Italy
Diedc. AD 76
Rome, Italy
Sainthood
Feast day23 September
Venerated inAnglicanism
Lutheranism
Catholicism
Eastern Orthodox Church

Early Bishops of Rome

Patrobulus, Hermas, Linus, Caius, Philologus of 70 disciples (Menologion of Basil II)
Patrobulus, Hermas, Linus, Caius, Philologus of 70 disciples (Menologion of Basil II)

The earliest witness to Linus's status as bishop was Irenaeus, who in about the year 180 wrote, "The blessed apostles, then, having founded and built up the Church, committed into the hands of Linus the office of the episcopate."[2] The Oxford Dictionary of Popes interprets Irenaeus as classifying Linus as the first bishop of Rome.[3] Linus is presented by Jerome as "the first after Peter to be in charge of the Roman Church"[4] and by Eusebius as "the first to receive the episcopate of the church at Rome, after the martyrdom of Paul and Peter".[5] John Chrysostom wrote, "This Linus, some say, was second Bishop of the Church of Rome after Peter",[6] while the Liberian Catalogue[7] presents Peter as the first Bishop of Rome and Linus as his successor in the same office.

The Liber Pontificalis[8] also presents a list that makes Linus the second in the line of bishops of Rome, after Peter, while also stating that Peter consecrated two bishops, Linus and Anacletus, for the priestly service of the community, devoting himself instead to prayer and preaching, and that it was to Clement that he entrusted the Church as a whole, appointing him as his successor. Tertullian too wrote of Clement as the successor of Peter.[9] Jerome classified Clement as "the fourth bishop of Rome after Peter" (i.e., fourth in a series that included Peter), adding that, "most of the Latins think that Clement was second after the apostle."[10]

The Apostolic Constitutions[11] denote that Linus, who was consecrated by Paul, was the first bishop of Rome and was succeeded by Clement, who was ordained and consecrated by Peter. Cletus is considered Linus's successor by Irenaeus, and the others cited above, who present Linus either as the first bishop of Rome or, if they give Peter as the first, as the second.

Life

The Liberian Catalogue and the Liber Pontificalis date Linus's episcopate to 56–67, during the reign of Nero, but Jerome dates it to 67–78, and Eusebius puts the end of his episcopate at the second year of the reign of Titus (80).

Linus is mentioned in the closing greeting of the Second Epistle to Timothy.[12] In that epistle, Linus is noted as being with Paul in Rome near the end of Paul's life. Irenæus stated that this is the same Linus who became Bishop of Rome, a view that is generally still accepted.

According to the Liber Pontificalis, Linus was an Italian born in Volterra in the Tuscany region. His father's name was recorded as Herculanus. The Apostolic Constitutions name his mother as Claudia (immediately after the name "Linus" in 2 Timothy 4:21 a Claudia is mentioned, but the Apostolic Constitutions does not explicitly identify that Claudia was Linus's mother). According to Liber Pontificalis, Linus issued a decree that women should cover their heads in church, created the first fifteen bishops, and that he died a martyr and was buried on the Vatican Hill next to Peter. It gives the date of his death as 23 September, the date on which his feast is still celebrated.[13] His name is included in the Roman Canon of the Mass.

With respect to Linus's supposed decree requiring women to cover their heads, J. P. Kirsch commented in the Catholic Encyclopedia: "Without doubt this decree is apocryphal, and copied by the author of the Liber Pontificalis from Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians (11:5) and arbitrarily attributed to the first successor of the Apostle in Rome. The statement made in the same source, that Linus suffered martyrdom, cannot be proved and is improbable. For between Nero and Domitian there is no mention of any persecution of the Roman Church; and Irenaeus (1. c., III, iv, 3) from among the early Roman bishops designates only Telesphorus as a glorious martyr."[1]

The Roman Martyrology does not list Linus as a martyr. The entry about him is as follows: "At Rome, commemoration of Saint Linus, Pope, who, according to Irenaeus, was the person to whom the blessed Apostles entrusted the episcopal care of the Church founded in the City, and whom blessed Paul the Apostle mentions as associated with him."[13]

A tomb found in St. Peter's Basilica in 1615 by Torrigio was inscribed with the letters LINVS, and was once taken to be Linus's tomb. However a note by Torrigio shows that these were merely the last five letters of a longer name (e.g. Aquilinus or Anullinus). A letter on the martyrdom of Peter and Paul was once attributed to him, but in fact dates to the 6th century.[1]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Kirsch, Johann Peter (1910). "Pope St. Linus". Catholic Encyclopedia. 9. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  2. ^ Against Heresies 3:3.3
  3. ^ J. N. D. Kelly, Oxford Dictionary of Popes, 2005
  4. ^ "Post Petrum primus Ecclesiam Romanam tenuit Linus" – Chronicon; 14g (p. 267)
  5. ^ Church History 3.2
  6. ^ "Church Fathers: Homily 10 on Second Timothy (Chrysostom)".
  7. ^ The Chronography of 354 AD Part 13: Bishops of Rome
  8. ^ Liber Pontificalis 2
  9. ^ "CHURCH FATHERS: The Prescription Against Heretics (Tertullian)".
  10. ^ "CHURCH FATHERS: De Viris Illustribus (Jerome)".
  11. ^ Apostolic Constitutions 7.4
  12. ^ 2 Timothy 4:21
  13. ^ a b Martyrologium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2001 ISBN 88-209-7210-7)

Further reading

  • Louise Ropes Loomis, The Book of Popes (Liber Pontificalis). Merchantville, New Jersey: Evolution Publishing. ISBN 1-889758-86-8 (Reprint of the 1916 edition. Stops with Pope Pelagius, 579–590. English translation with scholarly footnotes, and illustrations).

External links

70s

== Events ==

=== AD 70 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Vespasian and his son Caesar Vespasian (the future emperor Titus) become Roman consuls.

Panic strikes Rome as adverse winds delay grain shipments from Africa and Egypt, producing a bread shortage. Ships laden with wheat from North Africa sail 300 miles to Rome's port of Ostia in 3 days, and the 1,000 mile voyage from Alexandria averages 13 days. The vessels often carry 1,000 tons each to provide the city with the 8,000 tons per week it normally consumes.

Sextus Julius Frontinus is praetor of Rome. Legio II Adiutrix is created from marines of Classis Ravennatis.

Pliny the Elder serves as procurator in Gallia Narbonensis.

14th of Xanthikos (14th of Nisan, about April 14) – Siege of Jerusalem: Titus surrounds the Jewish capital, with three legions (V Macedonica, XII Fulminata and XV Apollinaris) on the western side and a fourth (X Fretensis) on the Mount of Olives to the east. He puts pressure on the food and water supplies of the inhabitants by allowing pilgrims to enter the city to celebrate Passover and then refusing them egress.

About April 21 – Titus opens a full-scale assault on Jerusalem, concentrating his attack on the city's Third Wall (HaHoma HaShlishit) to the northwest. The Roman army begins trying to breach the wall using testudos, mantlets, siege towers, and battering rams.

7th of Artemisios(7th of Iyar, about May 6) – The Third Wall of Jerusalem collapses and the Jews withdraw from Bezetha to the Second Wall, where the defences are unorganized.

12th of Artemisios (12th of Iyar, about May 11) – Titus and his Roman legions breach the Second Wall of Jerusalem. The Jewish defenders retreat to the First Wall. The Romans start building a circumvallation; all trees within 90 stadia (ca. fifteen kilometres) of the city are cut down.

21st of Artemisios (about May 20 or 21) – A "certain prodigious and incredible phenomenon", "chariots and troops" seen running in the clouds around Jerusalem

Pentecost (Shavuot, 6th of Sivan, about June 4) – Priests in the Temple in Jerusalem feel a quaking and hear "a sound as of a great multitude saying, Let us remove hence".

17th of Panemos (17th of Tammuz), about July 14) – Sacrifices cease in the temple.

24th of Panemos (about July 20) – Romans set fire to a cloister after the capture of the Fortress of Antonia, north of the Temple Mount. The Romans are drawn into street fighting with the Zealots.

10th of Loios (9th or 10th of Av, about August 4) – Titus destroys the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem. Roman troops are stationed in Jerusalem and abolish the Jewish high priesthood and Sanhedrin. This becomes known as the Fall of Jerusalem, a conclusive event in the First Jewish–Roman War (the Jewish Revolt), which began in 66 AD. Following this event, the Jewish religious leadership moves from Jerusalem to Jamnia (present day Yavne), and this date is mourned annually as the Jewish fast of Tisha B'Av.

August – Titus lays siege to the Upper City of Jerusalem.

8th of Gorpiaios (8th of Elul, about September 2) – Romans gain control of all of Jerusalem and proceed to burn it and kill its remaining residents, except for some who are taken captive to be killed later or enslaved.

Neapolis (present day Nablus) is founded in Iudaea Province.

Naval clashes on the Rhine during the Batavian Revolt; the crew of a captured Roman flagship is imprisoned at Augusta Treverorum (modern Trier).

Roman legions V Alaudae and XV Primigenia are destroyed by the Batavi. Later, Quintus Petillius Cerialis puts down the Batavian rebellion of Gaius Julius Civilis.

Vespasian disbands four Rhine legions (I Germanica, IV Macedonica, XV Primigenia and XVI Gallica), disgraced for having surrendered or lost their eagles during the revolt of Julius Civilis.

Later Roman emperor Domitian marries Domitia Longina.

Romans make a punitive expedition against the Garamantes – they are forced to have an official relationship with the Roman Empire.

Annexation of the island of Samothrace by the Empire under Vespasian.

====== Asia ======

India sees the end of the Hellenistic dynasties.

====== Africa ======

Expedition by the Roman Septimius Flaccus to southern Egypt. He probably reaches Sudan.

Ze-Hakèlé (Zoskales in Greek) becomes king of Aksum.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Members of the Oneida Community, a now non-existent religious group formed in the nineteenth century, believed this was the year Jesus Christ returned.

=== AD 71 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

The Romans establish a fortress at York (Eboracum), as a base for their northern forces. Initially established solely for Legio IX Hispana, it expands later to include public housing, baths and temples.

Battle of Stanwick: Quintus Petillius Cerialis, governor of Britain, puts down a revolt by the Brigantes.

Emperor Vespasian and Marcus Cocceius Nerva are Roman Consuls.

Cerialis defeats Claudius Civilis at the Battle of Treves, thus quelling the Batavian rebellion.

Titus is awarded with a triumph, accompanied by Vespasian and his brother Titus Flavius Domitian. In the parade are Jewish prisoners and treasures of the Temple of Jerusalem, including the Menorah and the Pentateuch. The leader of the Zealots, Simon Bar Giora, is lashed and strangled in the Forum.

Titus is made praetorian prefect of the Praetorian Guard and receives pro-consular command and also tribunician power, all of which indicates that Vespasian will follow the hereditary tradition of succession.

Herodium, a Jewish fortress south of Jerusalem, is conquered and destroyed by Legio X Fretensis on their way to Masada.

====== Asia ======

Reign of Rabel II, king of Nabataea. He makes Bostra, Syria, his second capital.

==== By topic ====

====== Arts and sciences ======

Use of locks with keys of clever design begins in Rome.

====== Religion ======

Mithraism begins to spread throughout the Roman Empire.

=== AD 72 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Antiochus IV of Syria is deposed by emperor Vespasian.

Vespasian and Titus are Roman Consuls.

First Jewish-Roman War: The Roman army (Legio X Fretensis) under Lucilius Bassus lays siege to the Jewish garrison of Machaerus at the Dead Sea. After they capitulate, the Zealots are allowed to leave the fortress before it is destroyed.

The Romans lay siege to Masada, a desert fortress held by Jewish victims of the Sicarii.

Flavia Neapolis (Nablus) is founded.

Vespasian starts the building of the Colosseum; the amphitheatre is used for gladiatorial games and public spectacles, such as sea battles, re-enactments of famous battles, and dramas of Classical mythology.

=== AD 73 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Spring – The Roman governor Lucius Flavius Silva lays siege to Masada, the last outpost of the Jewish rebels following the end in AD 70 of the First Jewish-Roman War (Jewish Revolt). The Roman army (Legio X Fretensis) surrounds the mountain fortress with a 7-mile long siege wall (circumvallation) and builds a rampart of stones and beaten earth against the western approach. After the citadel is conquered, 960 Zealots under the leadership of Eleazar ben Ya'ir commit mass suicide when defeat becomes imminent.

Pliny the Elder serves as procurator in Hispania Tarraconensis.

Titus Flavius Domitianus becomes Roman Consul.

Emperor Vespasian begins conquest of territory east of the upper Rhine and south of the Main. In addition, he reorganizes the defenses of the upper and lower Danube.

====== Asia ======

February – The Chinese Han Dynasty launches a major campaign against the Xiongnu, whom they confront in the Battle of Yiwulu in the Kumul oasis, an ultimate Han military victory led by General Dou Gu (d. AD 88).

Ban Chao (Pan-Ch’ao), competing with the Xiongnu, imposes a Chinese protectorate on the kings of Lop Nor and Khotan in the Tarim basin, with the aim of controlling the Silk Road.

==== By topic ====

====== Arts and sciences ======

Martial writes a satire on "military cowardice".

=== AD 74 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Vespasianus and his son Titus Caesar Vespasianus become Roman Consuls.

The Black Forest region is reattached to the Roman Empire.

December 27 – Emperor Vespasianus granted generous privileges to doctors and teachers.

====== Asia ======

The Chinese reestablish a protectorate of the Western Regions.

Chinese generals Dou Gu (Teou Kou) and Geng Bing (Keng Ping) take control of Turpan.

==== By topic ====

====== Arts and sciences ======

Mesopotamia: The last known cuneiform text is written.

=== AD 75 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Vespasianus and his son Titus Caesar Vespasianus become Roman Consuls.

The Temple of Peace, also known as the Forum of Vespasian, is built in Rome. The temple celebrates the conquest of Jerusalem (in AD 70) and houses the Menorah from Herod's Temple.

Vespasian fortifies Armazi (Georgia) for the Iberian king Mithridates I. The Alans raid the Roman frontier in Armenia.

Sextus Julius Frontinus becomes governor of Britannia and makes his headquarters in Isca Augusta (Wales).

Frontinus begins his conquest of Wales; Legio II Augusta is moved to the border of the River Usk.

Caerwent is founded by the Romans as the market town of Venta Silurum, a settlement of the Silures.

====== Asia ======

Accession of Han Zhangdi.

Revolt against the Chinese in Tarim: Cachera and Turpan are besieged. Luoyang orders the evacuation of Tarim. Ban Chao makes the rebels retreat towards Khotan. At the same time, the Chinese army of Ganzhou reconquers Turpan in Northern Xiongnu. Ban Chao convinces the emperor of the need to control Central Asia in the fight against Xiongnu.

=== AD 76 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Vespasianus Augustus and Titus Caesar Vespasianus become Roman Consuls.

Governor Sextus Julius Frontinus subdues the Silures and other hostile tribes of Wales, establishing a fortress at Caerleon or Isca Augusta for Legio II Augusta, and makes a network of smaller forts for his auxiliary forces.

====== China ======

First year of Jianchu era of the Chinese Han Dynasty.

==== By topic ====

====== Arts and sciences ======

Chinese historian Ban Gu develops a theory of the origins of the universe.

====== Religion ======

Pope Anacletus I succeeds Pope Linus as the third pope (according to the official Vatican list).

=== AD 77 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Gnaeus Julius Agricola is named governor of Britannia, a post he occupies until AD 84. He extends the Roman influence to the mouth of the River Clyde (Scotland) and builds fortifications.

Agricola subdues the Ordovices in Wales and pursues the remnants of the tribe to Anglesey, the holy island of the Druids.

The Caledonian tribes in Scotland form a confederacy of 30,000 warriors, under the leadership of Calgacus.

A Roman squadron, sent by Agricola, explores the north of Scotland for the first time, discovering the Orkney and Shetland Islands.

Winter – Agricola conquers Anglesey and disperses his army to their winter quarters.

====== Asia ======

King Giru of Baekje succeeds to the throne of Baekje in the Korean peninsula.

==== By topic ====

====== Arts and sciences ======

Pliny the Elder publishes the first ten books of Naturalis Historia.

The Romans develop a simple method of distillation.

=== AD 78 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

The Romans conquer the Ordovices, located in present-day northern Wales, as well as the Silures.

Gnaeus Julius Agricola replaces Sextus Julius Frontinus as governor of Roman Britain, which leads to the eventual taming of the Welsh tribes of Britain.

====== Asia ======

Indian Prince Aji Caka introduces the Sanskrit language and Pallawa script, used to inscribe Javanese words and phrases, to the Indonesian islands.

Emperor Kadphises of the Kushan Empire sends a delegation to Rome, to seek support against the Parthians.

This is the base year (year zero) of the Saka era used by some Hindu calendars, the Indian national calendar, and the Cambodian Buddhist calendar. It begins near the vernal equinox for the civil solar calendar, but begins opposite the star Spica for the traditional solar calendar.

Pacorus II is king of Parthia (78–115).

==== By topic ====

====== Philosophy ======

The philosopher Wang Chong (Wang-Tchoung) claims all phenomena have material causes.

=== AD 79 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Vespasianus Augustus and Titus Caesar Vespasianus become Roman Consuls.

June 23 – Vespasian dies of fever from diarrhea; his last words on his deathbed are: "I think I'm turning into a god." Titus succeeds his father as Roman emperor. Titus' Jewish mistress, Berenice (daughter of Herod Agrippa), comes to join him in Rome, but he exiles her to please the Senate.

August 24 (or October 24?) – Eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79: Mount Vesuvius erupts, destroying Pompeii, Herculaneum, Stabiae, and Oplontis. The Roman navy based at Misenum, commanded by Pliny the Elder, evacuates refugees, but he dies after inhaling volcanic fumes.

Roman conquest of Britain: Gnaeus Julius Agricola campaigns in Britain:

Chester is founded as a castrum or Roman fort with the name Deva Victrix. The fortress is built by Legio II Adiutrix and contains barracks, granaries, military baths and headquarters.

Mamucium (the first Manchester) is founded as a frontier fort and settlement in the North West of England, a distance to the north of Chester.

Agricola enters Caledonia (modern-day Scotland) but is resisted by the

====== China ======

A commission of scholars canonizes the text of works of Confucius and his school.

A.D. (miniseries)

A.D. (1985) is an American/Italian miniseries in six parts which adapts the narrative in the Acts of the Apostles. Considered as the third and final installment in a TV miniseries trilogy which began with Moses the Lawgiver (1974) and Franco Zeffirelli's Jesus of Nazareth (1977), it was adapted from Anthony Burgess's novel The Kingdom of the Wicked, which was itself a sequel to Burgess's book Man of Nazareth, on which was based Zeffirelli's movie. The title is the abbreviation for Anno Domini (Medieval Latin, "In the year of the Lord"), as the events occur in the first years of the Christian Era.

AD 76

AD 76 (LXXVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Titus and Vespasianus (or, less frequently, year 829 Ab urbe condita). The denomination AD 76 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

American Society of Cinematographers Award for Outstanding Achievement in Cinematography in Theatrical Releases

The following is a list of those who have won the American Society of Cinematographers Award for Outstanding Achievement in Theatrical Releases. The award is given by the American Society of Cinematographers.

Antipope

An antipope (Latin: antipapa) is a person who, in opposition to the one who is generally seen as the legitimately elected Pope, makes a significantly accepted competing claim to be the Pope, the Bishop of Rome and leader of the Roman Catholic Church. At times between the 3rd and mid-15th centuries, antipopes were supported by a fairly significant faction of religious cardinals and secular or anti-religious monarchs and kingdoms. Persons who claim to be pope, but have few followers, such as the modern sedevacantist antipopes, are not classified with the historical antipopes.

Caratacus

Caratacus (Brythonic *Caratācos, Middle Welsh Caratawc; Welsh Caradog; Breton Karadeg; Greek Καράτακος; variants Latin Caractacus, Greek Καρτάκης) was a 1st-century AD British chieftain of the Catuvellauni tribe, who led the British resistance to the Roman conquest.

Before the Roman invasion Caratacus is associated with the expansion of his tribe's territory. His apparent success led to Roman invasion, nominally in support of his defeated enemies. He resisted the Romans for almost a decade, mixing guerrilla warfare with set-piece battles, but was unsuccessful in the latter. After his final defeat he fled to the territory of Queen Cartimandua, who captured him and handed him over to the Romans. He was sentenced to death as a military prisoner, but made a speech before his execution that persuaded the Emperor Claudius to spare him.

The legendary Welsh character Caradog ap Bran and the legendary British king Arvirargus may be based upon Caratacus. Caratacus's speech to Claudius has been a common subject in art.

Clair of Nantes

According to late traditions, Saint Clair (Latin Clarus) was the first bishop of Nantes, France in the late 3rd century.

Conclavism

Conclavism is the claim to election as pope by a group acting or purporting to act in the stead of (i.e., under an assumption of the authority ordinarily vested in) the established College of Cardinals. This claim is usually associated with the claim, known as sedevacantism, that the present holder of the title of pope is a heretic and therefore not truly pope, as a result of which the faithful remnant of the Catholic Church has the right to elect a true pope.The term comes from the word "conclave", the term for a meeting of the College of Cardinals convened to elect a Bishop of Rome, when that see is vacant, but which proponents of conclavism apply to the group that elects an antipope.

A similar but distinct phenomenon is that of those (referred to as "mysticalists") who base their claim to the papacy on supposed personal supernatural revelations.

Lino

Lino may refer to:

Lino, short for linoleum, a common flooring material

Lino, slang for linesman, the former name (still in widespread common use) for an assistant referee in football

Lino, slang for a habitual user of the narcotic cocaine.LINO is also a politics-related acronym for:

Libertarian In Name Only

Liberal In Name Only

Labour In Name OnlyLino is also a male given name.

Pope Linus, second Pope, alive during first century

Lino Lacedelli (1925–2009), Italian mountaineer

Lino Rulli, American talk radio host

Lino Saputo, Canadian businessman and founder of the Canadian-based cheese manufacturer Saputo, Inc.

Lino Tagliapietra, glass artist

Lino Ventura, an Italian actor who starred in French movies

Lino Facioli, Brazilian actorLino is also the surname of

Pascal Lino, a French former road racing cyclist

Paulo Rui Lino Borges (born 1971), Portuguese footballer known as LinoLino is the title / stage name of:

Lino (footballer) (born 1977), Brazilian footballer

Lino (rapper), French rapper; part of the rap duo Ärsenik

List of canonised popes

This article lists the Popes who have been canonised or recognised as Saints in the Roman Catholic Church they had led. A total of 83 (out of 266) Popes have been recognised universally as canonised saints, including all of the first 35 Popes (31 of whom were martyrs) and 52 of the first 54. If Pope Liberius is numbered amongst the Saints as in Eastern Christianity, all of the first 49 Popes become recognised as Saints, of whom 31 are Martyr-Saints, and 53 of the first 54 Pontiffs would be acknowledged as Saints. In addition, 13 other Popes are in the process of becoming canonised Saints: as of December 2018, two are recognised as being Servants of God, two are recognised as being Venerable, and nine have been declared Blessed or Beati, making a total of 95 (97 if Pope Liberius and Pope Adeodatus II are recognised to be Saints) of the 266 Roman Pontiffs being recognised and venerated for their heroic virtues and inestimable contributions to the Church.

The most recently reigning Pope to have been canonised was Pope John Paul II, whose cause for canonisation was opened in May 2005. John Paul II was beatified on May 1, 2011, by Pope Benedict XVI and later canonised, along with Pope John XXIII, by Pope Francis on April 27, 2014. Pope Francis also canonised Pope Paul VI on October 14, 2018.

List of non-extant papal tombs

This is a list of non-extant papal tombs, which includes tombs not included on the list of extant papal tombs. Information about these tombs is generally incomplete and uncertain.

Chronologically, the main locations of destroyed or unknown papal tombs have been: the obscure tombs of the first two centuries of popes near Saint Peter, the repeated waves of translations from the Catacombs of Rome, the demolition of the papal tombs in Old St. Peter's Basilica, and the 1306 and 1361 fires in the Basilica of St. John Lateran.

Papal tombs have also been destroyed by other instances of fire, remodeling, and war (most recently, World War II). Others are unknown due to creative or geographically remote methods of martyrdom, or—in the case of Pope Clement I—both. Burial in churches outside the Aurelian Walls of Rome (Italian: fuori le Mura)—in the basilicas of Paul or Lorenzo—have not generally survived.

List of popes who died violently

A collection of popes who have had violent deaths through the centuries. The circumstances have ranged from martyrdom (Pope Stephen I) to war (Lucius II), to a beating by a jealous husband (Pope John XII). A number of other popes have died under circumstances that some believe to be murder, but for which definitive evidence has not been found.

Pope Anacletus

Pope Anacletus (died c. 92), also known as Cletus, was the third Bishop of Rome, following Saint Peter and Pope Linus. Anacletus served as pope between c. 79 and his death, c. 92. Cletus was a Roman, who during his tenure as Pope, is known to have ordained a number of priests and is traditionally credited with setting up about twenty-five parishes in Rome. Although the precise dates of his pontificate are uncertain, he "...died a martyr, perhaps about 91". Cletus is mentioned in the Roman Canon of the mass; his feast day is April 26.

Saint Claudia

Saint Claudia is a saint and a mother of later Pope Linus. Her father, British King Caratacus led the British resistance, and later got chained after being defeated by Aulus Plautius. After emperor Claudius set him free, she took a name of Claudia and was baptized as such in Rome. She was mentioned in a second letter to Timothy which he received from Saint Paul. Second Timothy is generally viewed as Paul's last letter, and Claudia's name in 2 Timothy 4:21 appears as the last name of the letter and, hence, the last person Paul names in writing. It is also believed to be that Claudia was actually a daughter of Claudius Cogidubnus who was Claudius's ally and later became an emperor. He mentions that her real name was Claudia Rufina and she was married to Aulus Pudens, a friend of Martials. Her feast day is on August 7.

San Lino, Volterra

San Lino is a Renaissance-style, Roman Catholic church and former monastery in Volterra, region of Tuscany, Italy. It is located on Via San Lino in the historic center of the town.

September 23

September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 99 days remain until the end of the year. It is frequently the day of the autumnal equinox in the Northern Hemisphere and the day of the vernal equinox in the Southern Hemisphere.

Seventy disciples

The seventy disciples or seventy-two disciples (known in the Eastern Christian traditions as the Seventy[-two] Apostles) were early emissaries of Jesus mentioned in the Gospel of Luke. According to Luke, the only gospel in which they appear, Jesus appointed them and sent them out in pairs on a specific mission which is detailed in the text.

In Western Christianity, they are usually referred to as disciples, whereas in Eastern Christianity they are usually referred to as Apostles. Using the original Greek words, both titles are descriptive, as an apostle is one sent on a mission (the Greek uses the verb form: apesteilen) whereas a disciple is a student, but the two traditions differ on the scope of the words apostle and disciple. Although apostles and disciples exist in many extant churches and denominations, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints is the only current one to use Seventy as a title for a priesthood office.

1st–4th centuries
During the Roman Empire (until 493)
including under Constantine (312–337)
5th–8th centuries
Ostrogothic Papacy (493–537)
Byzantine Papacy (537–752)
Frankish Papacy (756–857)
9th–12th centuries
Papal selection before 1059
Saeculum obscurum (904–964)
Crescentii era (974–1012)
Tusculan Papacy (1012–1044/1048)
Imperial Papacy (1048–1257)
13th–16th centuries
Viterbo (1257–1281)
Orvieto (1262–1297)
Perugia (1228–1304)
Avignon Papacy (1309–1378)
Western Schism (1378–1417)
Renaissance Papacy (1417–1534)
Reformation Papacy (1534–1585)
Baroque Papacy (1585–1689)
17th–20th centuries
Age of Enlightenment (c. 1640-1740)
Revolutionary Papacy (1775–1848)
Roman Question (1870–1929)
Vatican City (1929–present)
21st century
History of the papacy
Virgin Mary
Apostles
Archangels
Confessors
Disciples
Doctors
Evangelists
Church
Fathers
Martyrs
Patriarchs
Popes
Prophets
Virgins
See also

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