Pope Leo XI (2 June 1535 – 27 April 1605), born Alessandro Ottaviano de' Medici, was Pope from 1 to 27 April 1605. His pontificate is one of the briefest in history having lasted under a month. He was from the prominent House of Medici originating from Florence. Medici's mother opposed his entering the priesthood and sought to prevent it by having him given secular honours, but after her death he eventually was ordained a priest in 1567. In his career he served as Florence's ambassador to the pope, Bishop of Pistoia, Archbishop of Florence, papal legate to France, and as the cardinal Prefect for the Congregation of the Bishops and Religious. He was elected to the papacy in the March 1605 papal conclave and served as pope for 27 days.
|Bishop of Rome|
|Papacy began||1 April 1605|
|Papacy ended||27 April 1605|
|Ordination||22 July 1567|
by Antonio Altoviti
by Francisco Pacheco de Villena (Toledo)
|Created cardinal||12 December 1583|
by Pope Gregory XIII
|Birth name||Alessandro Ottaviano de' Medici|
|Born||2 June 1535|
Florence, Duchy of Florence
|Died||27 April 1605 (aged 69)|
Rome, Papal States
|Coat of arms|
|Other popes named Leo|
Alessandro Ottoviano de' Medici was born in Florence as the son of Francesca Salviati and Ottaviano. He was the great-nephew of Pope Leo X. Alessandro's father died when he was a child and he was home schooled by a Dominican priest, Vincenzo Ercolano.
Medici felt the call to the priesthood but his mother opposed his vocation since he was the only male in the family. To discourage this, she sent him to the court of the Grand Duke of Tuscany, who knighted him as a knight of San Stefano. He later travelled to Rome in 1560 where he commenced a lifelong friendship and collaboration with Philip Neri, future saint. It was Neri who predicted that he would ascend to the pontificate. Medici's mother died in 1566 at which point he continued his studies to become a priest. This led to his ordination on 22 July 1567.
Alessandro served as the Florentine ambassador to Pope Pius V from 1569 to 1584 and was later appointed by Pope Gregory XIII as the Bishop of Pistoia in 1573. In March 1573 after the appointment he received episcopal consecration in Rome. He was later made the Archbishop of Florence in 1574.
Medici was elevated into the cardinalate in 1583 and Pope Sixtus V made the Cardinal-Priest of Santi Quirico e Giulitta: a title he received on 9 January 1584. It was a titular church reverted from its previous name of San Ciriaco alle Terme Diocleziane. In the period after this, he would opt for other titular churches.
In 1596 Pope Clement VIII sent him as the papal legate to France where Maria de' Medici was queen. He remained there until 1598 when he received word of his appointment as the Prefect of the Congregation of Bishops and Regulars.
On 14 March 1605, eleven days after the death of Clement VIII, 62 cardinals entered the conclave. Prominent among the candidates for the papacy were the great historian Cesare Baronius and the famous Jesuit controversialist Robert Bellarmine, future saint.
But Pietro Aldobrandini, the leader of the Italian party among the cardinals, allied with the French cardinals and brought about the election of Alessandro against the express wish of King Philip III of Spain. King Henry IV of France is said to have spent 300,000 écus in the promotion of Alessandro's candidacy.
On 1 April 1605, Cardinal Alessandro de' Medici was elected as pope. He chose to be called Leo XI in honor of his uncle Pope Leo X. He was crowned on 10 April 1605 by the protodeacon, Cardinal Francesco Sforza and he took possession of the Basilica of Saint John Lateran on 17 April 1605.
When he was elected, Leo XI was almost 70 years of age, and he died 27 days later. His death came as a result of fatigue and cold in the ceremony of taking possession of the Basilica of St John Lateran on 17 April; he started suffering from a fever the following day. He was called Papa Lampo ("Lightning Pope") because his papacy was so short.
|Catholic Church titles|
1–27 April 1605
Year 1535 (MDXXXV) was not a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.1605
was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1605th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 605th year of the 2nd millennium, the 5th year of the 17th century, and the 6th year of the 1600s decade. As of the start of 1605, the Gregorian calendar was
10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.Alessandro Algardi
Alessandro Algardi (November 27, 1598 – June 10, 1654) was an Italian high-Baroque sculptor active almost exclusively in Rome, where for the latter decades of his life, he was, along with Francesco Borromini and Pietro da Cortona, one of the major rivals of Gian Lorenzo Bernini.Alessandro de' Medici, Duke of Florence
This article is on the first Duke of Florence. For the Alessandro de' Medici who was pope, see Pope Leo XI.Alessandro de' Medici (22 July 1510 – 6 January 1537) called "il Moro" ("the Moor") due to his dark complexion, Duke of Penne and also Duke of Florence (from 1532), was ruler of Florence from 1531 to his death in 1537. The first Medici to rule Florence as a hereditary monarch, Alessandro was also the last Medici from the senior line of the family to lead the city. His assassination at the hands of a distant cousin, Lorenzaccio, caused the duchy of Florence to pass to Cosimo I de Medici, from the family's junior branch.Bernardo Salviati
Bernardo Salviati (17 February 1508 – 6 May 1568) was an Italian condottiero and Roman Catholic Cardinal.
Salviati was born in Florence, the son of Jacopo Salviati and Lucrezia di Lorenzo de' Medici, the sister of Giovanni de' Medici. The year of his birth is given as 1492 and also 1470. From an early age he was a knight of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem. In his military career he fought against the Ottomans, obtaining the grade of admiral in the Military Order of Malta, which he represented as ambassador before Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, at Barcelona. He also fought against the Republic of Siena during the Italian Wars.
He became Grand Almoner to Catherine de' Medici (she was his maternal cousin's daughter), who had convinced him to set aside his fighting career for an ecclesiastical one. He followed his brother as bishop of Saint-Papoul. He was named Cardinal by Pope Pius IV on 26 February 1561.
His brother Giovanni and his nephew Anton Maria were also cardinals. Salviati was also uncle of the future pope Leo XI and of the first Grand Duke of Tuscany, Cosimo I de' Medici.
He died in his residence in Trastevere, Rome, on 6 May 1568 and is entombed at Santa Maria sopra Minerva.Cardinal electors for the March 1605 papal conclave
The papal conclave of March 1605 was convened on the death of Pope Clement VIII and ended with the election of Alessandro Ottaviano de' Medici as Pope Leo XI on 1 April 1605. It was the first of two papal conclaves in 1605, with Leo dying on 27 April 1605, twenty-six days after he was elected, and the conclave to elect his successor being held in May. The conclave saw conflict regarding whether Cesare Baronius should be elected pope, and Philip III of Spain, the Spanish king, excluded both Baronius and the eventually successful candidate, Medici. Philip's exclusion of Medici was announced by Cardinal Ávila after his election to the papacy, and the other cardinals did not view it as valid since Medici had already been elected pope.Nicholas II had reserved the right to elect the pope to the cardinal bishops, priests, and deacons of Rome in 1059. The cardinal bishops were the highest rank, being the bishops of the ancient suburbicarian dioceses, the priests ranked next, who served as the titular head of historically important churches in Rome, and last ranked the cardinal deacons, who were nominally assigned one of the ancient diaconia where traditionally deacons had administered the temporal property of the Church of Rome. Cardinals were required to have been ordained at least to the rank of their order within the College of Cardinals, but could also be ordained to a higher order as well.In 1586, Pope Sixtus V mandated that the maximum number of cardinals would be seventy. Of these, the College of Cardinals had sixty-nine total members at the time of Clement VIII's death, but only sixty were present for the first conclave of 1605 when it opened, and sixty-one total electors were present for the election of Leo XI. The electors present had been created by six different popes: Pius IV, Gregory XIII, Sixtus V, Gregory XIV, Innocent IX, and Clement VIII. Of these, Clement's creations were the most numerous, having created thirty-eight of the cardinal electors. Innocent IX had created one of the conclave's electors, Gregory XIV had created five, Sixtus V had created eleven, Gregory XIII had created four, and Pius IV had created one.Pietro Aldobrandini, the cardinal-nephew of Clement VIII, was the elector who controlled the largest number of votes with twenty-two of Clement's thirty-eight creations following his instructions. Alessandro Peretti di Montalto, the nephew of Sixtus V, controlled eight votes. Thirteen of the cardinal electors were loyal to the Spanish monarchy, and these electors and the faction loyal to Montalto were aligned. In addition to these groups, eight of the electors formed a faction that were loyal to the French crown.Cardinal electors for the May 1605 papal conclave
The papal conclave of May 1605 was convened on the death of Pope Leo XI and ended with the election of Camillo Borghese as Pope Paul V on 16 May 1605. It was the second of two papal conclaves in 1605, with Leo dying on 27 April 1605, twenty-six days after he was elected in the March 1605 papal conclave.
Pope Nicholas II had reserved the right to elect the pope to the cardinal bishops, priests, and deacons of Rome in 1059. The cardinal bishops were the highest rank, being the bishops of the ancient suburbicarian dioceses. Cardinal priests ranked next, serving as the titular head of historically important churches in Rome. Last ranked the cardinal deacons, who were nominally assigned one of the ancient diaconia where traditionally deacons had administered the material possessions of the Church of Rome. Cardinals were required to have been ordained at least to the rank of their order within the College of Cardinals, but could also be ordained to a higher order.In 1586, Pope Sixtus V had mandated that the maximum number of cardinals be seventy. Of these, the College of Cardinals had sixty-nine total members at the time of Clement VIII's death. Following Leo's election, Girolamo Agucchi had also died on 27 April, the same day as Leo, reducing the total number of cardinals in the College by two. The electors present had been created by six different popes: Pius IV, Gregory XIII, Sixtus V, Gregory XIV, Innocent IX, and Clement VIII. Clement's creations were the most numerous, as he had created thirty-nine of the cardinal electors. Innocent IX had created one of the conclave's electors, Gregory XIV had created five, Sixtus V had created eleven, Gregory XIII had created three, and Pius IV had created one.Giovanni Garzia Mellini
Giovanni Garzia Mellini (his first name is also rendered Giangarzia while his middle name is also rendered Garsia) (1562 – 2 October 1629) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Cardinal-Bishop of Frascati (1629), Cardinal-Priest of San Lorenzo in Lucina (1627–1629), Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals (1623–1625), Archpriest of the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore (1622–1629), Cardinal-Priest of Santi Quattro Coronati (1608–1627), Archbishop (Personal Title) of Imola (1607–1611), and Apostolic Nuncio to Spain (1605–1607).House of Medici
The House of Medici (English: MED-i-chee or UK: mə-DEE-chee, Italian: [ˈmɛːditʃi]) was an Italian banking family and political dynasty that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de' Medici in the Republic of Florence during the first half of the 15th century. The family originated in the Mugello region of Tuscany, and prospered gradually until it was able to fund the Medici Bank. This bank was the largest in Europe during the 15th century, and it facilitated the Medicis' rise to political power in Florence, although they officially remained citizens rather than monarchs until the 16th century.
The Medici produced four Popes of the Catholic Church—Pope Leo X (1513–1521), Pope Clement VII (1523–1534), Pope Pius IV (1559–1565) and Pope Leo XI (1605)—and two queens of France—Catherine de' Medici (1547–1589) and Marie de' Medici (1600–1630). In 1532, the family acquired the hereditary title Duke of Florence. In 1569, the duchy was elevated to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany after territorial expansion. The Medicis ruled the Grand Duchy from its inception until 1737, with the death of Gian Gastone de' Medici. The grand duchy witnessed degrees of economic growth under the early grand dukes, but was bankrupt by the time of Cosimo III de' Medici (r. 1670–1723).
The Medicis' wealth and influence was initially derived from the textile trade guided by the wool guild of Florence, the Arte della Lana. Like other families ruling in Italian signorie, the Medicis dominated their city's government, were able to bring Florence under their family's power, and created an environment in which art and humanism flourished. They and other families of Italy inspired the Italian Renaissance, such as the Visconti and Sforza in Milan, the Este in Ferrara, the Borgia in Rome, and the Gonzaga in Mantua.
The Medici Bank, from when it was created in 1397 to its fall in 1494, was one of the most prosperous and respected institutions in Europe, and the Medici family was considered the wealthiest in Europe for a time. From this base, they acquired political power initially in Florence and later in wider Italy and Europe. They were among the earliest businesses to use the general ledger system of accounting through the development of the double-entry bookkeeping system for tracking credits and debits.
The Medici family bankrolled the invention of the piano and opera, funded the construction of Saint Peter Basilica and Santa Maria del Fiore, and patronized Leonardo, Michelangelo, Machiavelli and Galileo. They were also protagonists of the counter-reformation, from the beginning of the reformation through the Council of Trent and the French wars of religion.Ilario Cortesi
Ilario Cortesi, C.R. (1545 – September 1608) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Policastro (1605–1608).Cortesi was born in Naples, Italy and ordained a priest in the Congregation of Clerics Regular of the Divine Providence. On 10 October 1605, he was appointed by Pope Leo XI as Bishop of Policastro. He served as Bishop of Policastro until his death.Ippolito Galantini (teacher)
Blessed Ippolito Galantini (12 October 1565 – 20 March 1619) was an Italian Roman Catholic and the founder of the Congregation of Christian Doctrine. Galantini became a noted educator in Florence and Pope Leo XI - an associate of his - dubbed Galantini as the "Apostle of Florence" due to his activism in educational affairs. He was subject to malicious attacks - even one failed assassination attempt - and was once accused of harboring heretical views though was exonerated from all charges.The beatification cause culminated with the confirmation of heroic virtue from Pope Benedict XIV in 1756. Pope Leo XII later beatified Galantini in Saint Peter's Basilica on 19 June 1825.Juan Portocarrero
Juan Portocarrero, O.F.M. (died 8 March 1631) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Almería (1602–1631).List of popes from the Medici family
The List of popes from the Medici family includes four men from the late-
15th century through the early-17th century. The Medici family, also known as the House of Medici, first attained wealth and political power in Florence in the 13th century through its success in commerce and banking. They were closely associated with the Renaissance and cultural and artistic revival during this period.Lucrezia de' Medici
Lucrezia de' Medici was the name for several women from the Medici family:
Lucrezia di Piero de' Medici (1447–1493), best known as Nannina de' Medici.
Lucrezia di Lorenzo de' Medici (August 4, 1470 – between November 10 and November 15, 1550), the elder daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici and Clarice Orsini, and the grandmother of Pope Leo XI. In 1485 she married to Jacopo Salviati. She was mother to cardinal Giovanni Salviati and Maria Salviati.
Lucrezia di Cosimo de' Medici (June 7, 1544 – 1562)
Lucrezia di Francesco de' Medici (November 7, 1572 – April 14, 1574), the daughter of Francesco I de' Medici and Johanna of Austria. She died as an infant.March 1605 papal conclave
The papal conclave of March–April 1605 was convened on the death of Pope Clement VIII and ended with the election of Alessandro Ottaviano de' Medici as Pope Leo XI. It was the first of two papal conclaves in 1605; Leo died on 27 April 1605, twenty-six days after he was elected. The conclave was dominated by conflict over whether Cesare Baronius should be elected pope, and Philip III of Spain excluded both Baronius and the eventually successful candidate, Medici.May 1605 papal conclave
The papal conclave of May 1605 was convened on the death of Pope Leo XI and ended with the election of Camillo Borghese as Pope Paul V. This was the second conclave of 1605, with the one that had elected Leo XI having concluded just 37 days earlier. It is significant for having the only recorded case of an injury at a papal conclave, which was the result of a physical fight amongst the cardinals over who should be elected pope.Pope Leo
Pope Leo was the name of thirteen Roman Catholic Popes:
Pope Leo I (the Great) (440–461)
Pope Leo II (682–683)
Pope Leo III (795–816)
Pope Leo IV (847–855)
Pope Leo V (903)
Pope Leo VI (928)
Pope Leo VII (936–939)
Pope Leo VIII (964–965)
Pope Leo IX (1049–1054)
Pope Leo X (1513–1521)
Pope Leo XI (1605)
Pope Leo XII (1823–1829)
Pope Leo XIII (1878–1903)Salvador Ribera Avalos
Salvador Ribera Avalos, O.P. (died 1612) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Quito (1605–1612).
During the Roman Empire (until 493)
including under Constantine (312–337)
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