Pope Leo X

Pope Leo X (11 December 1475 – 1 December 1521), born Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, was Pope from 9 March 1513 to his death in 1521.[1]

Born into the prominent political and banking Medici family of Florence, Giovanni was the second son of Lorenzo the Magnificent, ruler of the Florentine Republic, he was elevated to the cardinalate in 1489. Following the death of Pope Julius II, Giovanni was elected pope after securing the backing of the younger members of the Sacred College. Early on in his rule he oversaw the closing sessions of the Fifth Council of the Lateran, but struggled to implement the reforms agreed. In 1517 he led a costly war that succeeded in securing his nephew as Duke of Urbino, but which reduced papal finances.

In Protestant circles, Leo is associated with granting indulgences for those who donated to reconstruct St. Peter's Basilica, a practice that was soon challenged by Martin Luther's 95 Theses. He refused to acknowledge the legitimacy of the demands of what would become the Protestant Reformation, and his Papal Bull of 1520, Exsurge Domine, condemned Martin Luther's condemnatory stance, rendering ongoing communication difficult. Notwithstanding these divisions, he granted establishment to the Oratory of Divine Love.

He borrowed and spent money without circumspection. A significant patron of the arts, upon election Leo is alleged to have said, "Since God has given us the papacy, let us enjoy it."[2] Under his reign, progress was made on the rebuilding of St. Peter's Basilica and artists such as Raphael decorated the Vatican rooms. Leo also reorganised the Roman University, and promoted the study of literature, poetry and antiquities. He died in 1521 and is buried in Santa Maria sopra Minerva, Rome. He was the last pope not to have been in priestly orders at the time of his election to the papacy.

Pope

Leo X
Bishop of Rome
Raffael 040 (crop)
Papacy began9 March 1513
Papacy ended1 December 1521
PredecessorJulius II
SuccessorAdrian VI
Orders
Ordination15 March 1513
by Raffaele Sansone Riario
Consecration17 March 1513
by Raffaele Sansone Riario
Created cardinal

by Innocent VIII
Personal details
Birth nameGiovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici
Born11 December 1475
Florence, Republic of Florence
Died1 December 1521 (aged 45)
Rome, Papal States
Previous post
Coat of armsLeo X's coat of arms
Other popes named Leo
Papal styles of
Pope Leo X
Medici popes
Reference styleHis Holiness
Spoken styleYour Holiness
Religious styleHoly Father
Posthumous styleNone
Ordination history of
Pope Leo X

Early life

Celio - santa Maria in Domnica 1831
Santa Maria in Domnica

Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici was born on December 11, 1475 in the Republic of Florence, the second son of Lorenzo the Magnificent, who was head of the Florentine Republic.[1]

From an early age he was destined for an ecclesiastical career. He received the tonsure at the age of seven and was soon granted rich benefices and preferments.

Cardinal

His father prevailed on his relative Innocent VIII to name him cardinal-deacon of Santa Maria in Domnica on 8 March 1488 when he was age 13,[3] although he was not allowed to wear the insignia or share in the deliberations of the college until three years later. Meanwhile, he received an education at Lorenzo's humanistic court under such men as Angelo Poliziano, Pico della Mirandola, Marsilio Ficino and Bernardo Dovizio Bibbiena. From 1489 to 1491 he studied theology and canon law at Pisa.[1]

On 23 March 1492, he was formally admitted into the Sacred College of Cardinals and took up his residence at Rome, receiving a letter of advice from his father. The death of Lorenzo on the following 8 April, however, temporarily recalled the 16-year-old Giovanni to Florence. He returned to Rome to participate in the conclave of 1492 which followed the death of Innocent VIII, and unsuccessfully opposed the election of Cardinal Borgia (elected as Pope Alexander VI).

He subsequently made his home with his elder brother Piero in Florence throughout the agitation of Savonarola and the invasion of Charles VIII of France, until the uprising of the Florentines and the expulsion of the Medici in November 1494. While Piero found refuge at Venice and Urbino, Giovanni traveled in Germany, in the Netherlands, and in France.[4]

In May 1500, he returned to Rome, where he was received with outward cordiality by Pope Alexander VI, and where he lived for several years immersed in art and literature. In 1503 he welcomed the accession of Pope Julius II to the pontificate; the death of Piero de' Medici in the same year made Giovanni head of his family. On 1 October 1511 he was appointed papal legate of Bologna and the Romagna, and when the Florentine republic declared in favour of the schismatic Pisans, Julius II sent Giovanni (as legate) with the papal army venturing against the French. The French won a major battle and captured Giovanni.[5] This and other attempts to regain political control of Florence were frustrated until a bloodless revolution permitted the return of the Medici. Giovanni's younger brother Giuliano was placed at the head of the republic,[6] but Giovanni managed the government.

Pope

Papal election

Giovanni was elected Pope on 9 March 1513, and this was proclaimed two days later.[7] The absence of the French cardinals effectively reduced the election to a contest between Giovanni (who had the support of the younger and noble members of the College) and Raffaele Riario (who had the support of the older group). On 15 March 1513, he was ordained priest, and consecrated as bishop on 17 March. He was crowned Pope on 19 March 1513 at the age of 37. He was the last non-priest to be elected Pope.[1]

Raffaello Sanzio - Ritratto di Leone X coi cardinali Giulio de' Medici e Luigi de' Rossi - Google Art Project
Raphael's Portrait of Leo X with cardinals Giulio de' Medici (later Pope Clement VII) and Luigi de' Rossi, his first cousins, (Uffizi gallery, Florence).[8]

War of Urbino

Leo had intended his younger brother Giuliano and his nephew Lorenzo for brilliant secular careers. He had named them Roman patricians; the latter he had placed in charge of Florence; the former, for whom he planned to carve out a kingdom in central Italy of Parma, Piacenza, Ferrara and Urbino, he had taken with himself to Rome and married to Filiberta of Savoy.[6]

The death of Giuliano in March 1516, however, caused the pope to transfer his ambitions to Lorenzo. At the very time (December 1516) that peace between France, Spain, Venice and the Empire seemed to give some promise of a Christendom united against the Turks, Leo obtained 150,000 ducats towards the expenses of the expedition from Henry VIII of England, in return for which he entered the imperial league of Spain and England against France.[6]

The war lasted from February to September 1517 and ended with the expulsion of the duke and the triumph of Lorenzo; but it revived the policy of Alexander VI, increased brigandage and anarchy in the Papal States, hindered the preparations for a crusade and wrecked the papal finances. Francesco Guicciardini reckoned the cost of the war to Leo at the sum of 800,000 ducats. Ultimately, however, Lorenzo was confirmed as the new duke of Urbino.[6]

Plans for a Crusade

The war of Urbino was further marked by a crisis in the relations between pope and cardinals. The sacred college had allegedly grown especially worldly and troublesome since the time of Sixtus IV, and Leo took advantage of a plot of several of its members to poison him, not only to inflict exemplary punishments by executing one (Alfonso Petrucci) and imprisoning several others, but also to make a radical change in the college.[6]

On 3 July 1517 he published the names of thirty-one new cardinals, a number almost unprecedented in the history of the papacy. Among the nominations were such notable men such as Lorenzo Campeggio, Giambattista Pallavicini, Adrian of Utrecht, Thomas Cajetan, Cristoforo Numai and Egidio Canisio. The naming of seven members of prominent Roman families, however, reversed the policy of his predecessor which had kept the political factions of the city out of the Curia. Other promotions were for political or family considerations or to secure money for the war against Urbino. The pope was accused of having exaggerated the conspiracy of the cardinals for purposes of financial gain, but most of such accusations appear unsubstantiated.[6]

Leo, meanwhile, felt the need of staying the advance of the Ottoman sultan, Selim I, who was threatening western Europe, and made elaborate plans for a crusade. A truce was to be proclaimed throughout Christendom; the pope was to be the arbiter of disputes; the emperor and the king of France were to lead the army; England, Spain and Portugal were to furnish the fleet; and the combined forces were to be directed against Constantinople. Papal diplomacy in the interests of peace failed, however; Cardinal Wolsey made England, not the pope, the arbiter between France and the Empire; and much of the money collected for the crusade from tithes and indulgences was spent in other ways.[6]

In 1519 the Hungary concluded a three years' truce with Selim I, but the succeeding sultan, Suleiman the Magnificent, renewed the war in June 1521 and on 28 August captured the citadel of Belgrade. The pope was greatly alarmed, and although he was then involved in war with France he sent about 30,000 ducats to the Hungarians. Leo treated the Eastern Catholic Greeks with great loyalty, and by bull of 18 May 1521 forbade Latin clergy to celebrate mass in Greek churches and Latin bishops to ordain Greek clergy. These provisions were later strengthened by Clement VII and Paul III and went far to settle the constant disputes between the Latins and Uniate Greeks.[6]

Protestant Reformation

Leo was disturbed throughout his pontificate by schism, especially the Reformation sparked by Martin Luther.[6]

Bulla-contra-errores
Bulla Contra errores Martini Lutheri of 1521

In response to concerns about misconduct from some indulgence preachers, in 1517 Martin Luther wrote his Ninety-five Theses on the topic of indulgences. The resulting pamphlet spread Luther's ideas throughout Germany and Europe. Leo failed to fully comprehend the importance of the movement, and in February 1518 he directed the vicar-general of the Augustinians to impose silence on his monks.[6]

On 24 May, Luther sent an explanation of his theses to the pope; on 7 August he was summoned to appear at Rome. An arrangement was effected, however, whereby that summons was cancelled, and Luther went instead to Augsburg in October 1518 to meet the papal legate, Cardinal Cajetan; but neither the arguments of the cardinal, nor Leo's dogmatic papal bull of 9 November requiring all Christians to believe in the pope's power to grant indulgences, moved Luther to retract. A year of fruitless negotiations followed, during which the controversy took popular root across the German states.[6]

A further papal bull of 15 June 1520, Exsurge Domine or Arise, O Lord, condemned forty-one propositions extracted from Luther's teachings, and was taken to Germany by Eck in his capacity as apostolic nuncio. Leo followed by formally excommunicating Luther by the bull Decet Romanum Pontificem or It Pleases the Roman Pontiff, on 3 January 1521. In a brief the Pope also directed Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor to take energetic measures against heresy.[6]

It was also under Leo that Lutheranism spread into Scandinavia. The pope had repeatedly used the rich northern benefices to reward members of the Roman curia, and towards the close of the year 1516 he sent the impolitic Arcimboldi as papal nuncio to Denmark to collect money for St Peter's. This led to the Reformation in Denmark-Norway and Holstein. King Christian II took advantage of the growing dissatisfaction of the native clergy toward the papal government, and of Arcimboldi's interference in the Swedish revolt, to expel the nuncio and summon Lutheran theologians to Copenhagen in 1520. Christian approved a plan by which a formal state church should be established in Denmark, all appeals to Rome should be abolished, and the king and diet should have final jurisdiction in ecclesiastical causes. Leo sent a new nuncio to Copenhagen (1521) in the person of the Minorite Francesco de Potentia, who readily absolved the king and received the rich bishopric of Skara. The pope or his legate, however, took no steps to remove abuses or otherwise reform the Scandinavian churches.[6]

Ara Coeli (12)
Statue of Leo X in the church of Santa Maria in Aracoeli, Rome.

Other activities

Consistories

The pope created 42 new cardinals in eight consistories including two cousins (one who would become his successor Pope Clement VII) and a nephew. He also elevated Adriaan Florensz Boeyens into the cardinalate who would become his immediate successor Pope Adrian VI. Leo X's consistory of 1 July 1517 saw 31 cardinals created, and this remained the largest allocation of cardinals in one consistory until Pope John Paul II named 42 cardinals in 2001.

Canonizations

Pope Leo X canonized eleven individuals during his reign with seven of those being a group cause of martyrs. The most notable canonization from his papacy was that of Francis of Paola on 1 May 1519.

Final years

That Leo did not do more to check the anti-papal rebellion in Germany and Scandinavia is to be partially explained by the political complications of the time, and by his own preoccupation with papal and Medicean politics in Italy. The death of the emperor Maximilian in 1519 had seriously affected the situation. Leo vacillated between the powerful candidates for the succession, allowing it to appear at first that he favoured Francis or a minor German prince. He finally accepted Charles of Spain as inevitable.[6]

Leo was now eager to unite Ferrara, Parma and Piacenza to the States of the Church (The Papal States). An attempt late in 1519 to seize Ferrara failed, and the pope recognized the need for foreign aid. In May 1521 a treaty of alliance was signed at Rome between him and the emperor. Milan and Genoa were to be taken from France and restored to the Empire, and Parma and Piacenza were to be given to the Church on the expulsion of the French. The expense of enlisting 10,000 Swiss was to be borne equally by pope and emperor. Charles V took Florence and the Medici family under his protection and promised to punish all enemies of the Catholic faith. Leo agreed to invest Charles V with the Kingdom of Naples, to crown him Holy Roman Emperor, and to aid in a war against Venice. It was provided that England and the Swiss might also join the league. Henry VIII announced his adherence in August 1521. Francis I had already begun war with Charles V in Navarre, and in Italy, too, the French made the first hostile movement on 23 June 1521. Leo at once announced that he would excommunicate the king of France and release his subjects from their allegiance unless Francis I laid down his arms and surrendered Parma and Piacenza to the Church. The pope lived to hear the joyful news of the capture of Milan from the French and of the occupation by papal troops of the long-coveted provinces (November 1521).[6]

Having fallen ill with bronchopneumonia,[9] Pope Leo X died on 1 December 1521, so suddenly that the last sacraments could not be administered; but the contemporary suspicions of poison were unfounded. He was buried in Santa Maria sopra Minerva.[6]

Character, interests and talents

General assessment

Leo was short-sighted, fat and lazy.[10] He had a musical and pleasant voice and was cheerful in temper.[11] He was eloquent in speech, and elegant in his manners and epistolary style.[12] He enjoyed music and the theatre, art and poetry, the masterpieces of the ancients and the creations of his contemporaries, especially those seasoned with wit and learning. He especially delighted in ex tempore Latin verse-making (at which he excelled) and cultivated improvisatori.[13] It is by no means certain that he made the remark often attributed to him, "Let us enjoy the papacy since God has given it to us",[14] Ludwig von Pastor says that it is by no means certain that he made the remark; and historian Klemens Löffler says that "the Venetian ambassador who related this of him was not unbiased, nor was he in Rome at the time."[15] However there is no doubt that he was by nature pleasure-loving and that the anecdote reflects his casual attitude to the high and solemn office to which he had been called.[16] On the other hand, in spite of his worldliness, Leo prayed, fasted, went to confession before celebrating Mass in public, and conscientiously participated in the religious services of the church.[17] To the virtues of liberality, charity, and clemency he added the Machiavellian qualities of deception and shrewdness, so highly esteemed by the princes of his time.[6][18]

The character of Leo X was formerly assailed by lurid aspersions of debauchery, murder, impiety, and atheism. In the 17th century it was estimated that 300 or 400 writers, more or less, reported (on the authority of a single polemical anti-Catholic source) a story that when someone had quoted to Leo a passage from one of the Four Evangelists, he had replied that it was common knowledge "how profitable that fable of Christe hath ben to us and our companie."[19] These aspersions and more were examined by William Roscoe in the 19th century (and again by Ludwig von Pastor in the 20th) and rejected.[20] Nevertheless, even the eminent philosopher David Hume, while claiming that Leo was too intelligent to believe in Catholic doctrine, conceded that he was "one of the most illustrious princes that ever sat on the papal throne. Humane, beneficent, generous, affable; the patron of every art, and friend of every virtue".[21] Martin Luther, in a conciliatory letter to Leo, himself testified to Leo's universal reputation for morality, although later he accused Leo for being complicit towards clergy who kept boys for sexual purposes:

Indeed, the published opinion of so many great men and the repute of your blameless life are too widely famed and too much reverenced throughout the world to be assailed by any man, of however great name, or by any arts. I am not so foolish to attack one whom everybody praises ...[22]

The final report of the Venetian ambassador Marino Giorgi supports Hume's assessment of affability, and testifies to the range of Leo's talents.[23] Bearing the date of March 1517 it indicates some of his predominant characteristics:[6]

The pope is a good-natured and extremely free-hearted man, who avoids every difficult situation and above all wants peace; he would not undertake a war himself unless his own personal interests were involved; he loves learning; of canon law and literature he possesses remarkable knowledge; he is, moreover, a very excellent musician.[6]

Leo is the fifth of the six popes who are unfavorably profiled by historian Barbara Tuchman in The March of Folly, and who are accused by her of precipitating the Protestant Reformation. Tuchman describes Leo as a cultured – if religiously devout – hedonist.

Intellectual interests

Leo X Rubens
17th century portrait of Leo X by Peter Paul Rubens

Leo X's love for all forms of art stemmed from the humanistic education he received in Florence, his studies in Pisa and his extensive travel throughout Europe when a youth. He loved the Latin poems of the humanists, the tragedies of the Greeks and the comedies of Cardinal Bibbiena and Ariosto, while relishing the accounts sent back by the explorers of the New World. Yet "Such a humanistic interest was itself religious. ... In the Renaissance, the vines of the classical world and the Christian world, of Rome, were seen as intertwined. It was a historically minded culture where artists' representations of Cupid and the Madonna, of Hercules and St. Peter could exist side-by-side".[24]

Love of music

Pastor says that "From his youth, Leo, who had a fine ear and a melodious voice, loved music to the pitch of fanaticism".[25] As pope he procured the services of professional singers, instrumentalists and composers from as far away as France, Germany and Spain. Next to goldsmiths, the highest salaries recorded in the papal accounts are those paid to musicians, who also received largesse from Leo's private purse. Their services were retained not so much for the delectation of Leo and his guests at private social functions as for the enhancement of religious services on which the pope placed great store. The standard of singing of the papal choir was a particular object of Leo's concern, with French, Dutch, Spanish and Italian singers being retained. Large sums of money were also spent on the acquisition of highly ornamented musical instruments, and he was especially assiduous in securing musical scores from Florence.[26] He also fostered technical improvements developed for the diffusion of such scores. Ottaviano Petrucci, who had overcome practical difficulties in the way of using movable type to print musical notation, obtained from Leo X the exclusive privilege of printing organ scores (which, according to the papal brief, "adds greatly to the dignity of divine worship") for a period for 15 years from 22 October 1513.[27] In addition to fostering the performance of sung Masses, he promoted the singing of the Gospel in Greek in his private chapel.[28]

Unworthy pursuits

Hanno.raffael
Leo X's pet elephant, Hanno

Even those who defend him against the more outlandish attacks on his character condemn him for his love of masquerades, buffoonery and low jests, his irresponsible frivolous pursuits, and his inordinate passion for fowling and hunting boar and other wild beasts.[29] According to one biographer, he was "engrossed in idle and selfish amusements".[30]

Leo indulged buffoons at his Court, but also tolerated cruel antics which made them the object of ridicule. A notorious case concerned the conceited improvisatore Giacomo Baraballo, Abbot of Gaeta, who was the butt of a burlesque procession organised in the style of an ancient Roman triumph. Baraballo was dressed in festal robes of velvet and silk trimmed with ermine and presented to the pope. He was then taken to the piazza of St Peter's and was mounted on the back of Hanno, a white elephant, the gift of King Manuel I of Portugal. The magnificently ornamented animal was then led off in the direction of the Capitol to the sound of drums and trumpets. But while crossing the bridge of Sant'Angelo over the Tiber, the elephant, already distressed by the noise and confusion around him, shied violently, throwing his passenger onto the muddy riverbank below.[31]

Sexuality

Leo's most recent biographer, Carlo Falconi, claims Leo hid a private life of moral irregularity behind a mask of urbanity.[32] Scabrous verse libels of the type known as pasquinades were particularly abundant during the conclave which followed Leo's death in 1521 and made imputations about Leo's unchastity, implying or asserting homosexuality.[33] Suggestions of homosexual attraction appear in works by two contemporary historians, Francesco Guicciardini and Paolo Giovio. Zimmerman notes Giovio's "disapproval of the pope's familiar banter with his chamberlains – handsome young men from noble families – and the advantage he was said to take of them."[34]

Luther spent a month in Rome in 1510, three years before Leo became pontiff, and was disillusioned at the corruption he found there.[35] He later said that Leo had vetoed a measure that cardinals should restrict the number of boys they kept for their pleasure, "otherwise it would have been spread throughout the world how openly and shamelessly the pope and the cardinals in Rome practice sodomy."[36]

Against this allegation is the papal bull Supernae dispositionis arbitrio from 1514 which, inter alia, required cardinals to live "... soberly, chastely, and piously, abstaining not only from evil but also from every appearance of evil" and a contemporary and eye-witness at Leo's Court (Matteo Herculaneo), emphasized his belief that Leo was chaste all his life.[37]

Historians have dealt with the issue of Leo's chasteness at least since the late 18th century, and few have given credence to the imputations made against him in his later years and decades following his death, or else have at least regarded them as unworthy of notice; without necessarily reaching conclusions on whether he was homosexual.[38] Those who stand outside this consensus generally fall short of concluding with certainty that Leo was unchaste during his pontificate.[39] Joseph McCabe accused Pastor of untruthfulness and Vaughan of lying in course of their treatment of the evidence, pointing out that Giovio and Guicciardini seemed to share the belief that Leo engaged in "unnatural vice" (homosexuality) while pope.[40]

Benevolence

Leo X made charitable donations of more than 6,000 ducats annually to retirement homes, hospitals, convents, discharged soldiers, pilgrims, poor students, exiles, cripples, and the sick and unfortunate.[41]

Legacy

Patron of learning

As a patron of learning, Leo X deserves a prominent place among the popes. He raised the Church to a high rank as the friend of whatever seemed to extend knowledge or to refine and embellish life. He made the capital of Christendom, Rome, a center of European culture. While yet a cardinal, he had restored the church of Santa Maria in Domnica after Raphael's designs; and as pope he had San Giovanni dei Fiorentini, on the Via Giulia, built, after designs by Jacopo Sansovino and pressed forward the work on St Peter's Basilica and the Vatican under Raphael and Agostino Chigi. Leo's constitution of 5 November 1513 reformed the Roman university, which had been neglected by Julius II. He restored all its faculties, gave larger salaries to the professors, and summoned distinguished teachers from afar; and, although it never attained to the importance of Padua or Bologna, it nevertheless possessed in 1514 a faculty (with a good reputation) of eighty-eight professors.

Portrait of Pope Leo X
Portrait of Pope Leo X (1846)

Leo called Janus Lascaris to Rome to give instruction in Greek, and established a Greek printing-press from which the first Greek book printed at Rome appeared in 1515. He made Raphael custodian of the classical antiquities of Rome and the vicinity. The distinguished Latinists Pietro Bembo and Jacopo Sadoleto were papal secretaries, as well as the famous poet Bernardo Accolti. Other poets, such as Marco Girolamo Vida, Gian Giorgio Trissino and Bibbiena, writers of novelle like Matteo Bandello, and a hundred other literati of the time were bishops, or papal scriptors or abbreviators, or in other papal employ.

Under his pontificate, Latin Christianity assumed a pagan, Greco-Roman character, which, passing from art into manners, gives to this epoch a strange complexion. Crimes for the moment disappeared, to give place to vices; but to charming vices, vices in good taste, such as those indulged in by Alcibiades and sung by Catullus.

Alexandre Dumas père[42]

Excessive spending

Pope Leo X spent money lavishly — on the arts; on charities; on benefices for his friends, relatives, and even people he barely knew; on dynastic wars, such as the War of Urbino; and on his own immoderate, personal luxury. Within two years of becoming Pope, Leo X spent all of the treasure amassed by the previous Pope, the frugal Julius II, and drove the Papacy into deep debt. This debt contributed not only to the calamities of Leo's own pontificate, (e.g. the sale of indulgences that precipitated Protestantism), but severely constrained later pontificates (i.e. that of Adrian VI; and that of Leo's beloved cousin, Clement VII), forcing austerity measures.[43]

Leo X's personal spending was likewise vast. For example, during the year 1517, his personal income is recorded as 580,000 ducats, of which 420,000 came from the states of the Church, 100,000 from annates, and 60,000 from the composition tax instituted by Sixtus IV. These sums, together with the considerable amounts accruing from indulgences, jubilees, and special fees, vanished as quickly as they were received. To remain financially solvent, the Pope resorted to desperate measures: instructing his cousin, Cardinal Giulio de' Medici, to pawn the Papal jewels; palace furniture; tableware; and even statues of the apostles. Additionally, Leo sold cardinals' hats; memberships to a fraternal order he invented in 1520, the Papal Knights of St. Peter and St. Paul; and borrowed such immense sums from bankers that upon his death, many were ruined.[44]

At Leo's death, the Venetian ambassador Gradenigo estimated the number of the Church's paying offices with a capital value of approximately 3,000,000 ducats and a yearly income of 328,000 ducats at two thousand one hundred and fifty.

Statesman

Several minor events of Leo's pontificate are worthy of mention. He was particularly friendly with King Manuel I of Portugal as a result of the latter's missionary enterprises in Asia and Africa. His concordat with Florence (1516) guaranteed the free election of the clergy in that city.

His constitution of 1 March 1519 condemned the king of Spain's claim to refuse the publication of papal bulls. He maintained close relations with Poland because of the Turkish advance and the Polish contest with the Teutonic Knights. His bull of July 1519, which regulated the discipline of the Polish Church, was later transformed into a concordat by Clement VII.

Leo showed special favours to the Jews and permitted them to erect a Hebrew printing-press at Rome.

He approved the formation of the Oratory of Divine Love, a group of pious men at Rome which later became the Theatine Order, and he canonized Francis of Paola.[45]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Löffler 1910.
  2. ^ Statement to his brother, Giuliano, as quoted in The Claims of Christianity (1894) by William Samuel Lilly, p. 191
  3. ^ Penny Cyclopaedia 1839, p. 426.
  4. ^ "Pope Leo X", Reformation 500, Concordia Seminary, St. Louis, Missouri
  5. ^ The Papacy and the Levant, 1204–1571 By Kenneth Meyer Setton pp. 117–119
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Leo (popes) § Leo X" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 16 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  7. ^ "The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church – Biographical Dictionary – Consistory of March 9, 1489".
  8. ^ Minnich & Raphael 2003, pp. 1005–1052.
  9. ^ "Leo X,Pope (1475–1521)" (in Italian). Mediateca di Palazzo Medici Riccardi. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014.
  10. ^ Paul Strathern, The Medici: Godfathers of the Renaissance, 2008, p.244
  11. ^ Pastor 1908, pp. 72, 74.
  12. ^ Pastor 1908, pp. 78.
  13. ^ Roscoe gives an instance of Leo's skill (Roscoe 1806, p. 493). See also Pastor 1908, pp. 77, 149ff.
  14. ^ Statement to his brother, Giuliano, as quoted in The Claims of Christianity (1894) by William Samuel Lilly, p. 191
  15. ^ Löffler, Klemens. "Pope Leo X." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 9. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. 23 December 2018
  16. ^ Pastor 1908.
  17. ^ Pastor 1908, p. 76 and Vaughan 1908, p. 282, both citing the Venetian ambassador Marco Minio, and also Pastor 1908, pp. 78–80.
  18. ^ Virtues of benevolence: Pastor 1908, p. 81; political treachery: Roscoe 1806, pp. 464ff.
  19. ^ The claim was made by John Bale in Pageant of Popes (published posthumously in 1574); for the proliferation of the story, see Pierre Bayle quoted by Roscoe 1806, pp. 479ff.
  20. ^ Roscoe 1806, pp. 478–486; Pastor 1908, pp. 79–81. Vaughan, reviewing the allegation of blasphemous infidelity, called it "a spiteful and monstrous invention by a rabid or unscrupulous Reformer". (Vaughan 1908, pp. 280–283 at p. 281)
  21. ^ Siebert 1990, p. 95 citing Hume's History of England (1754–1762), vol. 3, p. 95.
  22. ^ Letter of 6 September 1520, published as a preface to his Freedom of a Christian. See Hans Joachim Hillerbrand, The Division of Christendom, Westminster John Knox Press (Louisville, 2007), p. 53.
  23. ^ Pastor 1908, pp. 75ff.
  24. ^ Crocker III 2001, p. 222.
  25. ^ Pastor 1908, p. 144.
  26. ^ See generally on his love of music: Roscoe 1806, pp. 487–490 and Pastor 1908, pp. 144–148.
  27. ^ Cummings 1884–1885, pp. 103ff.
  28. ^ Cummings 2009, p. 586.
  29. ^ Buffoonery: Roscoe 1806, pp. 491–496; Pastor 1908, pp. 77, 151–156. Fowling and hunting: Roscoe 1806, pp. 496–498; Pastor 1908, pp. 157–161; Vaughan 1908, pp. 192–214.
  30. ^ Vaughan 1908, p. 283.
  31. ^ Bedini 1981, pp. 79ff. And see Pastor 1908, pp. 154ff.
  32. ^ Falconi, Carlo, Leone X, Milano (1987).
  33. ^ See, e.g., Cesareo 1938, pp. 4ff, 78; see also references to lampoons in (Roscoe 1806, p. 464 footnote) (he also prints several in his appendix); and Pastor 1908, p. 68.
  34. ^ Paolo Giovio, De Vita Leonis Decimi Pont. Max., Firenze (1548, 4 vols), written for the Medici Pope Clement VII and completed in 1533; and (covering the years 1492 to 1534) Francesco Guicciardini, Storia d'Italia, Firenze (1561, first 16 books; 1564 full edn. 20 books) written between 1537 and 1540, and published after his death in the latter year. For the characterisation of the relevant passages (few and brief) in these authors, see, e.g., Vaughan 1908, p. 280:- and Wyatt, Michael, "Bibbiena's Closet: Interpretation and the Sexual Culture of a Renaissance Papal Court", comprising chap. 2 of Cestaro, Gary P. (ed.), Queer Italia, London (2004) pp. 35–54 a. To these can be added Zimmerman, T.P., Paolo Giovio: The Historian and the Crisis of Sixteenth-Century Italy, Princeton University Press (1996), citing at p. 23 Giovio's disapproval of the banter. Two pages later Zimmerman notes Giovio's penchant for gossip.
  35. ^ "Martin Luther", BBC
  36. ^ Wilson 2007, p. 282; This allegation (made in the pamphlet Warnunge D. Martini Luther/ An seine lieben Deudschen, Wittenberg, 1531) is in stark contrast to Luther's earlier praise of Leo's "blameless life" in a conciliatory letter of his to the pope dated 6 September 1520 and published as a preface to his Freedom of a Christian. See on this, Hillerbrand 2007, p. 53.
  37. ^ Passage from Supernae dispositionis arbitrio quoted by Jill Burke (Burke 2006, p. 491). Herculaneo, Matteo, publ. in Fabroni, Leonis X: Pontificis Maximi Vita at note 84, and quoted in the material part by Roscoe 1806, p. 485 in a footnote.
  38. ^ Those who have rejected the evidence include: Fabroni, Angelo, Leone X: Pontificis Maximi Vita, Pisa (1797) at p. 165 with note 84; Roscoe 1806, pp. 478–486; and (Pastor 1908, pp. 80f. with a long footnote). Those who have treated of the life of Leo at any length and ignored the imputations, or summarily dismissed them, include: Gregorovius, Ferdinand, History of the City of Rome in the Middle Ages Eng. trans. Hamilton, Annie, London (1902, vol. VIII.1), p. 243; Vaughan 1908, p. 280; Hayes, Carlton Huntley, article "Leo X" in The Encyclopædia Britannica, Cambridge (1911, vol. XVI); Creighton, Mandell, A History of the Papacy from the Great Schism to the Sack of Rome, London (new edn., 1919), vol. 6, p. 210; Pellegrini, Marco, articles "Leone X" in Enciclopedia dei Papi, (2000, vol.3) and Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani (2005, vol. 64); and Strathern, Paul The Medici: Godfathers of the Renaissance (a popular history), London (2003, pbk 2005), p. 277. Of these, Ludwig von Pastor and Hayes are known Catholics, and Roscoe, Gregorovius, and Creighton are known non-Catholics.
  39. ^ The most recent biography of the pope speculates that his private life may have been marked by moral irregularity: Falconi, Carlo, Leone X, Milano (1987). Giovanni Dall'Orto gathered and reviewed the most relevant material (including Falconi, pp. 455–461) in an entry in Wotherspoon & Aldrich, Who's Who in Gay and Lesbian History, Routledge, London and New York (2001), at p.264, arriving only at tentative and provisional conclusions as to Leo's suggested homosexuality.
  40. ^ A History of the Popes, London (1939), p. 409.
  41. ^ See, e.g., Pastor 1908, p. 81
  42. ^ Celebrated Crimes, Vol. I. New York: P.F. Collier & Son, 1910, pp. 361–414 [1]
  43. ^ http://www.sgira.org/hm/pope_hadrian_6.htm
  44. ^ http://www.knightsofstpeterandstpaul.com/history.html
  45. ^ Flesch, Marie. "“That spelling tho”: A Sociolinguistic Study of the Nonstandard Form of Though in a Corpus of Reddit Comments." of the 6th Conference on Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) and Social Media Corpora (CMC-corpora 2018).

Sources

Further reading

  • Luther Martin. Luther's Correspondence and Other Contemporary Letters, 2 vols., tr. and ed. by Preserved Smith, Charles Michael Jacobs, The Lutheran Publication Society, Philadelphia, Pa. 1913, 1918. vol.I (1507–1521) and vol.2 (1521–1530) from Google Books. Reprint of Vol.1, Wipf & Stock Publishers (March 2006). ISBN 1-59752-601-0
  • Zophy, Jonathan W. A Short History of Renaissance and Reformation: Europe Dances over Fire and Water. 1996. 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2003.

External links

Pope Leo X
Born: 11 December 1475 Died: 1 December 1521
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Pope Julius II
Pope
9 March 1513 – 1 December 1521
Succeeded by
Pope Adrian VI
1513 papal conclave

The papal conclave of 1513, occasioned by the death of Pope Julius II on 21 February 1513, opened on 4 March with twenty-five cardinals in attendance, out of a total number of thirty-one. The Conclave was presided over by Cardinal Raffaele Sansoni Riario, who was both Dean of the College of Cardinals and Cardinal Chamberlain of the Holy Roman Church (Camerlengo). Voting began on 10 March, and there were only two Scrutinies. Negotiations after the first balloting led to the election of Giovanni de'Medici, the son of Lorenzo the Magnificent and the de facto ruler of Florence, as Pope Leo X on the morning of 11 March.

Abbé

Abbé (from Latin abbas, in turn from Greek ἀββᾶς, abbas, from Aramaic abba, a title of honour, literally meaning "the father, my father", emphatic state of abh, "father") is the French word for abbot. It is the title for lower-ranking Catholic clergymen in France.A concordat between Pope Leo X and King Francis I of France (1516), gave the kings of France the right to nominate 255 commendatory abbots (abbés commendataires) for almost all French abbeys, who received income from a monastery without needing to render service.From the mid-16th century, the title abbé has been used in France for all young clergymen with or without consecration. Their clothes consisted of a black or dark violet robes with a small collar; they were tonsured.Since such abbés only rarely commanded an abbey, they often worked in upper-class families as tutors, spiritual directors, etc.; some (such as Gabriel Bonnot de Mably) became writers.

Alessandro Geraldini

Alessandro Geraldini (also Gerardini or Gueraldini) (1455 – March 8, 1524) was a Renaissance humanist scholar at the Spanish court of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella. He is known for his support of Christopher Columbus. He served as tutor to the royal children and later accompanied the Infanta Catharine of Aragon to England, as her confessor. He served as Bishop of Vulturara e Montecorvino (1496-1516); and in 1519, at 64 years of age, he traveled to the Spanish settlements in the New World, and became Bishop of Santo Domingo (1516-1524).

Clarice Orsini

Clarice Orsini (1450–1488) was the daughter of Jacopo Orsini, and his wife and cousin Maddalena Orsini. She was the wife of Lorenzo de' Medici and mother of Pope Leo X.

Concordat of Bologna

The Concordat of Bologna (1516), marking a stage in the evolution of the Gallican Church, was an agreement between King Francis I of France and Pope Leo X that Francis negotiated in the wake of his victory at Marignano in September 1515. The groundwork was laid in a series of personal meetings of king and pope in Bologna, 11–15 December 1515. The concordat was signed in Rome on 18 August 1516.

The Concordat explicitly superseded the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges (1438), which had proved ineffective in guaranteeing the privileges of the Church in France, where bishoprics and abbacies had been wrangled over even before the Parlement of Paris: "hardly anywhere were elections held in due form", R. Aubenas observes, "for the king succeeded in foisting his own candidates upon the electors by every conceivable means, not excluding the most ruthless".

The Concordat permitted the Pope to collect all the income that the Catholic Church made in France, and the King of France was confirmed in his right to tithe the clerics and to restrict their right of appeal to Rome. The Concordat confirmed the King of France's right to nominate appointments to benefice (archbishops, bishops, abbots and priors), enabling the Crown, by controlling its personnel, to decide who was to lead the Gallican Church.Canonical installation of those church officers was reserved to the Pope; thus the agreement confirmed the papal veto of any leader the King of France chose who might be deemed truly unqualified. The Concordat confirmed the Apostolic Camera's right to collect annates, the first year's revenue from each benefice, a right that when abused led to shuffling of prelates among dioceses. The fiction of elections to bishopric by canons and to abbacies by monks was discontinued. On Francis's part, it was at last firmly conceded that the Pope's powers were not subject to any council (the previous French position had been to support the decisions of the Council of Basel), an affirmation of the papal position in the long-crushed Conciliar Movement, which was in the process of being condemned at the contemporaneous Fifth Lateran Council (1512–17), which confirmed the Concordat.

Decet Romanum Pontificem

Not to be confused with Romanum decet pontificem.

Decet Romanum Pontificem (English: It Befits the Roman Pontiff) (1521) is the papal bull excommunicating Martin Luther, bearing the title of the first three Latin words of the text. It was issued on January 3, 1521, by Pope Leo X to effect the excommunication threatened in his earlier papal bull Exsurge Domine (1520) since Luther failed to recant. Luther had burned his copy of Exsurge Domine on December 10, 1520, at the Elster Gate in Wittenberg, indicating his response to it.

There are at least two other important papal bulls with the title Decet Romanum Pontificem: one dated February 23, 1596, issued by Pope Clement VIII, and one dated March 12, 1622, issued by Pope Gregory XV.

Toward the end of the 20th century, Lutherans in dialogue with the Catholic Church requested the lifting of this excommunication; however, the Vatican's response was that its practice is to lift excommunications only on those still living. Roland Bainton in "Here I Stand after a Quarter of a Century", his preface for the 1978 edition of his Luther biography, concludes: "I am happy that the Church of Rome has allowed some talk of removing the excommunication of Luther. This might well be done. He was never a heretic. He might better be called, as one has phrased it, 'a reluctant rebel.'"

Luther's rehabilitation has been denied however by the Vatican: "Rumors that the Vatican is set to rehabilitate Martin Luther, the 16th-century leader of the Protestant Reformation, are groundless", said the Vatican spokesman, the Jesuit Federico Lombardi.

Exsurge Domine

Exsurge Domine (Latin for "Arise, O Lord") is a papal bull promulgated on 15 June 1520 by Pope Leo X. It was written in response to the teachings of Martin Luther which opposed the views of the Church. It censured forty one propositions extracted from Luther's Ninety-five Theses and subsequent writings, and threatened him with excommunication unless he recanted within a sixty-day period commencing upon the publication of the bull in Saxony and its neighboring regions. Luther refused to recant and responded instead by composing polemical tracts lashing out at the papacy and by publicly burning a copy of the bull on 10 December 1520. As a result, Luther was excommunicated in 1521.

Gospel According to the Mark of Silver

The Gospel According to the Mark of Silver is a work from the Carmina Burana later used to satirise Pope Leo X (1513-1521), who was famous for his profligate spending of church money. While Leo was also criticized by ecclesiastical officials after his death, the Gospel was a product of the Goliard movement.

Hanno (elephant)

Hanno (Italian: Annone; c. 1510 – 8 June 1516) was the pet white elephant given by King Manuel I of Portugal to Pope Leo X (born Giovanni de' Medici) at his coronation. Hanno, an Asian elephant, came to Rome in 1514 with the Portuguese ambassador Tristão da Cunha and quickly became the Pope's favorite animal. Hanno died two years later from complications of a treatment for constipation with gold-enriched laxative.

James Ogilvie (bishop)

James Ogilvie [Ogilvy] (died 1518) was a late medieval Scottish prelate. After the death of William Elphinstone (died 24 October 1514), the bishopric of Aberdeen became vacant. Ogilvy was nominated for the vacancy by John Stewart, Duke of Albany. At Rome however, Pope Leo X provided Robert Forman to the vacant see, while the canons of Aberdeen elect Alexander Gordon, allegedly under pressure from the latter's cousin Alexander Gordon, 3rd Earl of Huntly.

It was because of this that Ogilvie resigned his rights to this bishopric, and in compensation, became Commendator-Abbot of Dryburgh. During the early days of his commendatorship, it was recorded that he was a canon of the diocese of Aberdeen and the parson of Kinkell. Ogilvie held the commendatorship for merely three years, dying on 30 May 1518.

Michelangelo and the Medici

Michelangelo (6 March 1475 – 18 February 1564) had a complicated relationship with the Medici family, who were for most of his lifetime the effective rulers of his home city of Florence. The Medici rose to prominence as Florence's preeminent bankers. They amassed a sizable fortune some of which was used for patronage of the arts. Michelangelo's first contact with the Medici family began early as a talented teenage apprentice of the Florentine painter, Domenico Ghirlandaio. Following his initial work for Lorenzo de' Medici, Michelangelo's interactions with the family continued for decades including the Medici papacies of Pope Leo X and Pope Clement VII.

Despite pauses and turbulence in the relationship between Michelangelo and his Medici patrons, it was commissions from the Medici Popes that produced some of Michelangelo's finest work, including the completion of the tomb of Pope Julius II with its monumental sculpture of Moses and The Last Judgement, a complex and fresco covering the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel (the earlier Sistine Chapel ceiling was not a Medici commission).

Niccolò Ridolfi

Niccolò Ridolfi (1501 – January 31, 1550) was an Italian cardinal.

Born in Florence, son of Piero Ridolfi and Contessina de' Medici (the daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici the Magnificent), he was therefore nephew of Pope Leo X, who granted him a quick ecclesiastical career. He was named governor of Spoleto in the period 1514-1516 and protonotary apostolic at the age of thirteen.

Pope Leo X created him cardinal deacon in the consistory of July 1, 1517 at the age of sixteen with the deaconry of SS. Vito e Modesto. Later his uncle appointed him administrator of the see of Orvieto on August 24, 1520 and he kept that post until September 3, 1529. Ridolfi participated in the conclaves of 1521–1522 and 1523.

Pope Clement VII elected him archbishop of Florence on January 11, 1524. He resigned from that position on October 11, 1532. He served also as administrator of Vicenza from March 14, 1524 until his death, administrator of Forli (April 16, 1526 - August 7, 1528). During the Sack of Rome (1527) he was taken hostage to Hugo of Moncada with other cardinals. Later he was named administrator of Viterbo (November 16, 1532 – June 6, 1533), administrator of the metropolitan see of Salerno (February 7, 1533- December 19, 1548) and administrator of Imola (August 4, 1533 - May 17, 1546). Pope Clement VII opted him for the deaconry of Santa Maria in Cosmedin on January 19, 1534. He participated in the Papal conclave, 1534.

Pope Paul III appointed him administrator of Viterbo again (August 8, 1538 - May 25, 1548) and opted him for the deaconry of Santa Maria in Via Lata on May 31, 1540] as he became cardinal protodeacon. He was a member of a special commission of eleven cardinals for reform of the Roman Curia. On January 8, 1543 he was named Archbishop of Florence for second time and resigned again on May 25, 1548.

After the death of Pope Paul III he was a papabile, entered the conclave of 1549 - 1550, but left because of illness. He died on January 31, 1550 of an apoplexy before the new Pope Julius III was elected on February 7, 1550. Cardinal Ridolfi was buried in the church of Sant'Agostino.

Ottaviano Maria Sforza

Ottaviano Maria Sforza (1475–1545) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Titular Patriarch of Alexandria (1541–1545), Bishop of Terracina, Priverno e Sezze (1541–1545), Bishop of Arezzo (1519–1525), and Bishop of Lodi (1497–1499, 1512–1519 and 1527–1530).

Palazzo Jacopo da Brescia

Palazzo Jacopo da Brescia was a Renaissance palace in Rome, Italy, which was located in the Borgo rione.

It was built for Jacopo (also known as Giacomo di Bartolomeo) da Brescia, a physician at the service of Pope Leo X, between 1515 and 1519. Its design is commonly attributed to Raphael, and was based to Bramante's nearby Palazzo Caprini (also demolished). The palace, which had a triangular footprint, stood at the confluence of Borgo Nuovo and Borgo S.Angelo. It was demolished to allow the construction of the Via della Conciliazione in 1937, and rebuilt (with a different footprint) along Via Rusticucci and Via dei Corridori, not far from its original location.

Portrait of Leo X (Raphael)

The Portrait of Pope Leo X with two Cardinals is a painting by the Italian High Renaissance master Raphael, c. 1517. It is housed in the Uffizi Gallery of Florence.

In contrast to works depicting classical, idealised Madonnas and figures from antiquity, this portrait shows the sitter in a realistic manner. The Pope is depicted with the weight of late middle age, while his sight appears to be strained. The painting sets up a series of visual contradictions between appearance and reality, intended by Raphael to reflect the unrest of a period of turmoil for the papacy. Martin Luther had recently challenged papal authority, listing among other grievances, Leo X's method of selling indulgences to fund work on St Peter's.

The pommel on top of the Pope's chair evokes the symbolic abacus balls of the Medici family, while the illuminated Bible open on the table has been identified as the Hamilton Bible.The cardinals are usually identified as Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici and Luigi de' Rossi.

The Holy Family of Francis I (Raphael)

The Holy Family is a 1518 painting of the Holy Family (Jesus, Mary and Joseph), Saint Elisabeth, an infant John the Baptist and two angels. It is signed by Raphael, but most of the work was delegated to his workshop assistants. It was commissioned by Pope Leo X as a gift to Claude, wife of Francis I of France, hence its name. It is now in the Louvre.

The Meeting of Leo the Great and Attila

The Meeting of Leo I and Attila is a fresco by the Italian Renaissance artist Raphael and his assistant Giulio Romano. It was painted in 1514 as part of Raphael's commission to decorate the rooms that are now known as the Stanze di Raffaello, in the Apostolic Palace in the Vatican. It is located in the Stanza di Eliodoro, which is named after The Expulsion of Heliodorus from the Temple.

The painting depicts the meeting between the Pope Leo I and Attila the Hun, and includes the images of Saint Peter and Saint Paul in the sky bearing swords. Initially, Raphael depicted Leo I with the face of Pope Julius II but after Julius' death, Raphael changed the painting to resemble the new pope, Leo X.

Tristão da Cunha

Tristão da Cunha (sometimes misspelled Tristão d'Acunha; Portuguese pronunciation: [tɾiʃˈtɐ̃w̃ ðɐ ˈkuɲɐ]; c. 1460 – c. 1540) was a Portuguese explorer and naval commander. In 1514, he served as ambassador from king Manuel I of Portugal to Pope Leo X, leading a luxurious embassy presenting in Rome the new conquests of Portugal. He later became a member of the Portuguese privy council.

Zacharias Ferreri

Zacharias Ferreri or Ferrari (1479–1524) was an Italian monk and papal legate, Latin poet and ecclesiastical writer.

Ferreri was born in Vicenza to a noble family. As a student in Padua, he became a Benedictine monk at the Abbey of Monte Cassino. However, at the age of 25 he left the monastery and moved to Rome. He finished his education receiving master's degrees in law and theology. He served Pope Julius II but soon joined ranks of his opponents and attended the Conciliabulum of Pisa in 1511. For these activities he was excommunicated in 1513. He made peace with the new Pope Leo X and was tasked with preparing a new, shorter and more convenient, edition of the breviary. In 1518 he became titular Bishop of Sebaste in Cilicia and was nominated to become Bishop of Guardialfiera. He renounced the nomination two months later, but kept the title and rights. In 1520–21 he was sent as a papal legate to the Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In Poland he mediated a truce in the Polish–Teutonic War (1519–21) and campaigned against the spread of Lutheranism. In Lithuania he investigated evidence for the canonization of Saint Casimir. His planned journey to the Grand Duchy of Moscow was cancelled. In 1521, he returned to Rome and continued working on the breviary. After the death of Pope Leo X on 1 December 1521, he claimed his rights as Bishop of Guardialfiera then occupied by Valentinus de Valentiuis. His breviary was published after his death in 1524.

History
Priestly ordination
Date15 March 1513
Episcopal consecration
Consecrated byRaffaele Sansone Riario
Date17 March 1513
Cardinalate
Elevated byInnocent VIII
Date9 March 1489 in pectore (revealed: 26 March 1492)
Episcopal succession
Bishops consecrated by Pope Leo X as principal consecrator
Lorenzo Pucci13 December 1513
Baltasar del Río22 October 1515
Pedro de Urieta29 October 1516
Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici21 December 1517
Ferdinando Ponzetti21 December 1517
Alessandro Farnese2 July 1519
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