Pope Leo VI

Pope Leo VI (880 – 12 February 929) was Pope for just over seven months, from June 928 to his death in February 929. His pontificate occurred during the period known as the Saeculum obscurum.

Pope

Leo VI
Pope Leo VI Illustration
Papacy beganJune 928
Papacy endedFebruary 929
PredecessorJohn X
SuccessorStephen VII
Created cardinalby John X
Personal details
BornRome, Papal States
DiedFebruary 929
Rome, Papal States
Previous postCardinal-Priest of Santa Susanna (916-928)
Other popes named Leo

Biography

Leo VI was born into a Roman family,[1] and his father was Christophorus, who had been Primicerius under Pope John VIII around the year 876. Tradition has it that he was a member of the Sanguini family.[2] Just immediately prior to his election as pope, Leo had been serving as the Cardinal-Priest of the church of Santa Susanna.[3]

Leo was elected pope around June 928, during a period of anarchy.[3] He was chosen by the senatrix Marozia, who had gained control of Rome via the domination of her husband Guy, Margrave of Tuscany, and who had ordered the imprisonment and death of Leo’s predecessor, Pope John X.[4]

During his brief pontificate, Leo confirmed the decisions of the Synod of Split.[3] He completed his predecessor’s investigations into the ecclesiastical situation in Dalmatia, and proceeded to give the pallium to John, Archbishop of Salona, and ordered all the bishops of Dalmatia to obey him. He also ordered the Bishop of Nona and others to limit themselves to the extent of their dioceses.[5] Leo then issued a ban on castrati entering into a union of marriage.[6] He also issued an appeal for help against the Arab raiders who were threatening Rome, stating that:

”Whoever died faithful in this struggle will not see himself refused entry into the heavenly kingdom.”[7]

The French chronicler Flodoard said of him:

”Through the virtue of Peter, Leo the sixth was taken and received, he was preserved for seven months and five days, and like his predecessors, he joined the company of the prophets.”[3]

Leo died in February 929, and was succeeded by Pope Stephen VII. He was buried at St. Peter’s Basilica.[3]

References

  1. ^ Platina, Bartolomeo (1479), The Lives of the Popes From The Time Of Our Saviour Jesus Christ to the Accession of Gregory VII, I, London: Griffith Farran & Co., p. 247, retrieved 2013-04-25
  2. ^ Georgina Masson, The Companion Guide to Rome (1980), page 177
  3. ^ a b c d e Mann, page 188
  4. ^ Mann, pgs. 163-164
  5. ^ Mann, page 168
  6. ^ Medical problems of performing artists, Volume 13 (1998), page 151
  7. ^ Pierre Riché, The Carolingians: A Family Who Forged Europe (1993), page 311

External links

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
John X
Pope
928–929
Succeeded by
Stephen VII
920s

The 920s decade ran from January 1, 920, to December 31, 929.

== Events ==

=== 920 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

December 17 – Romanos I has himself crowned co-emperor of the Byzantine Empire. He shares the throne with the 15-year-old Constantine VII (his son-in-law), and constructs an alternative palace at Constantinople with an adjoining monastery near the Great Palace. Though Constantine retain his formal position as first on the protocol list, Romanos becomes the sole ruler.

====== Europe ======

The nobles of Lotharingia under Gilbert, duke of Lorraine, revolt against King Charles III ("the Simple"). They recognize King Henry I ("the Fowler") as their sovereign. Charles invades Lotharingia as far as Pfeddersheim (near Worms), but retreats when he learns that Henry is mobilizing an army to attack the West Frankish Kingdom.

Henry I conquers Utrecht (modern-day Netherlands), which has been in possession of the Vikings for 70 years. Balderic, bishop of Utrecht, moves his seat back from Deventer to Utrecht (approximate date).

====== Britain ======

High-Reeve Ealdred I, ruler of the former kingdom of Bernicia (Northumbria), and his brother Uhtred, submit to the overlordship of King Edward the Elder (approximate date).

The Welsh ruler Hywel Dda ("the Good") merges Dyfed and Seisyllwg, establishing a new kingdom known as Deheubarth.

====== Iberian Peninsula ======

July 26 — At the Battle of Valdejunquera, the Muslim forces of the Emir Abd-ar-Rahman III of Córdoba, defeat the Christian armies of King Ordoño II of León and King Sancho I of Pamplona. The decisive battle at the Val de Junquera takes place following the Emir's pre-emptive strike and his invasion of the upper Douro valley and the capture of Osma. The Arab army proceeds on to the upper Ebro, restoring and replenishing Umayyad garrisons in the region.

====== Africa ======

The Golden Age of the Ghana Empire begins in Africa (approximate date).

====== Asia ======

Emperor Taizu of the Khitan Empire orders the adoption of a written script by the Khitan, resulting in the creation of Khitan "Large Script."

==== By topic ====

====== Climate ======

Muslim chroniclers in Baghdad record an unusually cold summer.

=== 921 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

March – Battle of Pegae: Bulgarian forces under kavhan (first minister) Theodore Sigritsa defeat the Byzantine army at the outskirts of Constantinople. After the battle the Bulgarians burn the palaces in Pegae ("the Spring") and devastate the area north of the Golden Horn.

====== Europe ======

Summer – King Henry I (the Fowler) defeats his rival Arnulf I (the Bad), duke of Bavaria, in two campaigns. Arnulf is besieged at Regensburg and forced to accept peace negotiations, recognising Henry as sole sovereign of the East Frankish Kingdom (Germany).

Landulf I, prince of Benevento, supports an anti-Greek Apulian rebellion, ravaging several Byzantine strongpoints as far as Ascoli. The Apulian nobility, professing loyalty to the Byzantine Empire, appoints Landulf as stratego of the Theme of Longobardia.

September 15 – Ludmila, Bohemian duchess and widow of Bořivoj I, is murdered by her daughter-in-law Drahomíra at Tetín (modern Czech Republic). Ludmila will be canonised and become the patron saint of the Orthodox and the Catholic Church.

November 7 – Treaty of Bonn: King Charles III (the Simple) and Henry I sign a peace treaty or 'pact of friendship' (amicitia) at a ceremony aboard a ship in the middle of the Rhine, recognising the border between their two Frankish kingdoms.

A Hungarian mercenary force led by Dursac and Bogát defeats an army of insurgents, who plans to overthrow their ally, Emperor Berengar I, at Brescia. He appoints Giselbert I as count palatine of Bergamo (Northern Italy).

====== Arabian Empire ======

June 21 – A diplomatic delegation is sent from Baghdad to establish trade routes between the Abbasid Caliphate towards Bukhara (modern Uzbekistan). Ahmad ibn Fadlan, an Arab diplomat and traveller, makes contact with Almış, the İltäbär (vassal-king under the Khazars) of Volga Bulgaria, on behalf of Caliph al-Muqtadir.

Battle of Sevan: Sajid forces under Yusuf Beshir invade Armenia and besiege King Ashot II near Lake Sevan. After gathering a small force he attacks Beshir's camps and drives the enemy out of the country. Ashot starts a counter-offensive to rebuild the ruined cities and fortresses.

====== Africa ======

The Fatimid Caliphate crushes Idrisid forces in battle, capturing the cities of Tlemcen and Fez.

The Fatimid Caliphate creates a new capital in Ifriqiya, al-Mahdiya on the Tunisian coast.

====== China ======

The Later Liang Dynasty reports that all "barbarian" tribes have been pacified by the Khitan Empire.

=== 922 ===

==== By place ====

=== 923 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

June 15 – Battle of Soissons: King Robert I is killed, the Frankish army led by Charles the Simple is defeated and routed near Soissons. Charles is captured and imprisoned at Péronne. The nobles elect Robert's son-in-law Rudolph, duke of Burgundy, as king of the West Frankish Kingdom (until 936).

July 29 – Battle of Fiorenzuola: Lombard forces led by King Rudolph II and Adalbert I, margrave of Ivrea, defeat the deposed Emperor Berengar I at Firenzuola (Tuscany). A pact is reached between Rudolph and Berengar, who abdicates the imperial throne and cedes sovereignty over the rest of Italy.

====== Asia ======

May 13 – The Later Liang, one of the Five Dynasties in China, falls to Later Tang (founded by Li Cunxu). Li proclaims himself emperor and moves his residence back to the old Tang capital of Luoyang.

=== 924 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Byzantine–Bulgarian War: Forces led by Simeon I, ruler (knyaz) of the Bulgarian Empire, arrive before the walls of Constantinople, after they have pillaged the suburbs of the capital. Simeon meets Emperor Romanos I on the Golden Horn to arrange a truce, according to which he pays the Bulgarians an annual tax. Simeon in return cedes back some cities on the Black Sea coast.

====== Europe ======

Spring – King Berengar I makes a new alliance with the Hungarians who, following his death, sack and burn the city of Pavia. They cross the Alps via the St. Bernard Pass, where Provence and Septimania (Southern France) are pillaged. Hungarian forces penetrate as far as the Pyrenees.

Summer – King Ordoño II of Galicia dies after a 14-year reign. He is succeeded by his brother Fruela II, reuniting Asturias now known as the Kingdom of León. Fruela, who is not popular with the nobles, has assassinated the sons of Olmundo, possible descendants of the Visigothic king Wittiza.

Fall – Bulgarian–Serbian War: Tsar Simeon I sends a punitive expedition force against Serbia, led by Theodore Sigritsa and Marmais, but they are ambushed and defeated. Zaharija, prince of the Serbs, sends their heads and armour later to Constantinople (approximate date).

Winter – The Hungarians invade Saxony and force King Henry I (the Fowler) to retreat into the Castle of Werla. He makes a pact and agrees to pay them tribute for 9 years. They return to the Po Valley and sack the cities of Bergamo, Brescia and Mantua (Northern Italy).

====== Britain ======

July 17 – King Edward the Elder dies at Farndon after a 25-year reign in which he has gained direct control over Mercia, including the Danish-occupied areas. He is succeeded by his eldest son Æthelstan, who will reign as King of England (see 927). He continues his father's conquest of the Danelaw north of the Thames-Lea line from the Vikings.

====== Asia ======

Emperor Taizu of the Liao Dynasty leads a campaign to the West. He reaches the former capital of the Uyghur Kingdom on the Orkhon River. The Zubu begin to pay tribute to the Khitan Empire.

Emperor Zhuang Zong of Later Tang bestows the chancellor title on Gao Jixing (Prince of Nanping) and creates the Nanping State (Central China). The Qi State falls to Later Tang.

=== 925 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

May 15 – Nicholas I Mystikos, twice the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople and having reigned a second time since 912, dies at the age of 73

June 29 — Stephen II becomes the new Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople and head of the Eastern Orthodox Church, succeeding Nicholas I.

Fall – John Mystikos, chief minister (paradynasteuon), is deposed and sent into exile in a monastery. He is replaced by the chamberlain (protovestiarios) Theophanes who becomes the closest adviser of Emperor Romanos I. At this time the Byzantine Empire has been embroiled in a protracted and disastrous war with Tsar Simeon I of Bulgaria.

====== Europe ======

Summer – King Fruela II dies after a reign of only 14 months. He is succeeded by his son Alfonso Fróilaz who ascends the throne. With the support of King Jimeno II of Pamplona (later Navarra), Sancho Ordóñez, Alfonso, and Ramiro (the sons of the late King Ordoño II) revolt and drive their cousin Alfonso to the eastern marches of Asturias, then divide the kingdom amongst themselves. Alfonso IV (the Monk) receives the crown of León, and Sancho I is acclaimed king of Galicia.

Alberic I, duke of Spoleto, attempts to seize Rome on his own account. Pope John X organizes an uprising and expels him. Alberic flees to Orte, where he sends out messengers calling on the Magyars for assistance. But a mob in Orte, informed by papal agents, rises up and murders Alberic (approximate date).

King Rudolph II of Burgundy (who also rules Italy) and his father-in-law, Burchard II of Swabia, lead a Burgundian expeditionary force over the Great St. Bernard Pass to confront Hugh of Provence. They head to the city of Ivrea where Rudolph's forces begin a civil war against Lombard partisans.

Tomislav, duke of the Croatian duchies of Pannonia and Dalmatia, is crowned as king of Croatia. He forges an alliance with the Byzantines during the struggle with the Bulgarian Empire (approximate date).

====== Africa ======

A Fatimid expeditionary force led by Jafar ibn Obeid lands in Abruzzo (Southern Italy). They overrun Apulia all the way to the city of Otranto. After defeating the Byzantine garrisons, the Arabs lay siege to the castle of Oria (which shortly after is destroyed). The defenders are massacred and the remainder (mostly woman and children) are taken as slaves back to North Africa.

====== Asia ======

Winter – Former Shu, one of the Ten Kingdoms in China, is invaded by Later Tang forces of Emperor Zhuang Zong, who incorporates the kingdom into his domains.

A visiting Uyghur delegation spurs the development of Khitan small script, based on alphabetic principles (approximate date).

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Ha-Mim proclaims himself a prophet and a messenger of Islam, among the Ghomara Berbers near the city of Tétouan (modern Morocco).

=== 926 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Spring – The Italian nobles turn against King Rudolph II of Burgundy and request that Hugh of Provence, the effective ruler of Lower Burgundy, is elected as king of Italy. Rudolph's father-in-law Duke Burchard II of Swabia is ambushed and killed near Novara by the henchmen of Archbishop Lambert of Milan. Rudolph, disillusioned by the news, returns to Burgundy to protect himself. Hugh has himself crowned King of Italy.

Battle of the Bosnian Highlands: Bulgarian forces under Duke Alogobotur, are ambushed and defeated by a Croatian army of King Tomislav in the mountainous area of Eastern Bosnia. Tsar Simeon I (the Great) meets his first defeat against Croatia, but overruns the Western Balkans several times.

The Hungarians besiege Augsburg in Bavaria, then conquer the monastery of St. Gallen (modern Switzerland). After an unsuccessful battle with the locals, they burn the suburbs of Konstanz, then they cross westwards and defeat a Frankish army led by Duke Liutfred of Alsace.

====== Britain ======

King Æthelstan of Wessex and Mercia annexes Northumbria, and forces Wales and Strathclyde to accept his sovereignty along with the Picts and the Scots (approximate date).

====== Asia ======

May 15 – Emperor Zhuang Zong is killed during an officer's rebellion led by Guo Congqian at the old Tang capital of Luoyang. He is succeeded by his adoptive brother Li Siyuan (Ming Zong) as ruler of Later Tang. Li sends Yao Kun, as an emissary, to create a friendly relationship with the Khitan Empire.

September 6 – Emperor Taizu dies after a 10-year reign. He is succeeded by his second son Tai Zong (Yaogu) as ruler of the Chinese Liao Dynasty. Taizu's eldest son Yelü Bei (designated heir apparent) becomes ruler of the Dongdan Kingdom (former Balhae), a puppet state of the Khitan Empire.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Pope John X allies himself with Hugh of Provence provoking the ire of Marozia, daughter of the Roman consul Theophylact I, who is married to Hugh's rival Guy of Tuscany.

=== 927 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

May 27 – Simeon I, emperor (tsar) of the Bulgarian Empire, dies of heart failure in his palace at Preslav after a 34-year reign. He is survived by four sons and succeeded by his second son Peter I, who signs a peace treaty with the Byzantine Empire. The peace is confirmed by Peter's marrying Maria Lekapene (the daughter of Christopher Lekapenos, son and co-emperor of Romanos I). The treaty restores the borders to those established by several treaties (thus recognizing Bulgaria's possession of Macedonia).

July 12 – King Æthelstan of Wessex claims his kingdom and receives the submission of High-Reeve Ealdred I of Bamburgh and probably also of Owain ap Dyfnwal, King of Strathclyde, at Eamont Bridge. He unifies the various small kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy, creating the Kingdom of England, and also secures a pledge from King Constantine II of Scotland, that he will not ally with the Viking kings. This summer also Kings Hywel Dda of Deheubarth and Owain of Glywysing and Gwent submit to the overlordship of Æthelstan at Hereford. The borders between England and Wales are set at the River Wye.

Summer – The Hungarians fight in Rome, helping Margrave Peter against Pope John X. They then go to southern Italy, and conquer the cities of Taranto and Oria.

August 15 – The Saracens led by the Slavic Sabir, in conjunction with the Fatimids from Sicily, capture and destroy Taranto. They enslave much of the population.

====== Asia ======

Hubaekje, one of the Later Three Kingdoms of Korea, sacks the Silla capital at Gyeongju. King Gyeongae commits suicide and Gyeongsun is placed on the throne by the Hubaekje king Gyeon Hwon.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

The Bulgarian Orthodox Church is recognised as autocephalous, by the Patriarchate of Constantinople.

September 14 – Cele Dabhaill mac Scannal, Irish preacher and abbot, dies on his pilgrimage at Rome.

=== 928 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

King Rudolph I loses the support of Herbert II, count of Vermandois, who controls the prison at Péronne in which former King Charles III (the Simple) is imprisoned. Herbert brings him before William I (Longsword), count of Rouen, for homage and then to Rheims as leverage to blackmail Rudolph to make him cede sovereignty over Laon (Northern France).

June 5 – Louis III (the Blind), former king of Provence (Lower Burgundy), dies at Arles after a 27-year reign (of which 23 are sightless). He is succeeded by his brother-in-law Hugh I who is King of Italy. With the approval of his kinsman Rudolph I, Hugh strips Louis's son and heir, Charles Constantine, of his inheritance and proclaims himself as ruler of Provence.

Winter – King Henry I (the Fowler) subdues the Polabian Slavs who live on the eastern borders. He then marches against the Slavic Hevelli tribes and seizes their capital, Brandenburg. Henry invades the Glomacze lands in the middle Elbe valley, where he besieges and destroys the main castle called Gana (the later Albrechtsburg) at Meissen (Saxony).

====== England ======

King Hywel Dda (the Good) of Deheubarth makes a pilgrimage to Rome, he becomes the first Welsh ruler to undertake such a trip. Hywel begins the codification of English customary law and mints his own coinage.

====== Arabian Empire ======

Summer – An Arab expeditionary force led by the Slavic Sabir returns and seizes Otranto (Southern Italy). Although pressed by an epidemic, they withdraw their forces. After capturing some enclaves on the Tyrrhenian coast, Sabir sails into the harbors of Naples and Salerno, and forces the dukes (dux) to pay an enormous sum of tribute to go away.

====== Asia ======

Ishanavarman II dies after a 5-year reign and is succeeded by his uncle Jayavarman IV as king of the Khmer Empire (modern Cambodia). He moves the capital north from Angkor to Koh Ker.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Summer – Pope John X is deposed and imprisoned in Castel Sant'Angelo at Rome by order of the Roman senatrix Marozia after a 14-year reign. He is succeeded by Leo VI as the 123rd pope of the Catholic Church.

Leo VI abolishes the Nin Bishopric and transfers bishop Gregory (Croatian: Grgur Ninski) to Skradin. This ends the long running dispute between the Split and Nin Bishoprics in the Croatian kingdom.

July 18 – Tryphon succeeds Stephen II as patriarch of Constantinople (until 931).

=== 929 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

January 16 – Emir Abd-al-Rahman III of Córdoba proclaims himself caliph and creates the Caliphate of Córdoba. He breaks his allegiance to, and ties with, the Fatimid and Abbasid caliphs.

February 3 – Guy (the Philosopher) of Tuscany, second husband (third lover) of the Roman noblewoman Marozia, dies. He is succeeded by his brother Lambert as margrave of Tuscany.

Early 929 – Siege of Gana: German king Henry I (the Fowler) besieges Gana with an East Frankish army and conquers the stronghold. He establishes the fort of Meissen nearby.

Early 929 –Henry the Fowler invades Bohemia from the north and marches on Prague. Duke Arnulf I of Bavaria invades Bohemia from the south. The Bohemians capitulate.

Summer – The Slavic-Arab leader Sabir defeats a small Byzantine fleet and seizes Termoli (in Molise, on the Adriatic coast). He returns to Africa laden with booty and slaves.

September 4 – Battle of Lenzen: Slavic forces (the Redarii and the Obotrites) are defeated by a Saxon army near the fortified stronghold of Lenzen (modern Germany).

October 7 – Former king Charles III (the Simple) of dies in prison at Péronne, leaving Rudolph with no opposition except that of Herbert II, count of Vermandois.

====== Asia ======

Mpu Sindok, ruler of the Mataram Kingdom, moves his court from Central Java to East Java (modern Indonesia). Probably after the eruption of Mount Merapi and/or invasion from Srivijaya.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Pope Leo VI dies at Rome after a 7-month reign. He is succeeded (probably handpicked–by Marozia from the Tusculani family) by Stephen VII as the 124th pope of the Catholic Church.

929

Year 929 (CMXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Councils of Split

There have been several church councils held in the town of Split in the early Middle Ages, and whose conclusions have significance for the whole territory of the early Croatian Kingdom.

Since 920's the Byzantine Empire was considerably weakened so Emperor Romanos I gave management over Dalmatia to the Croatian King Tomislav who needed it in order to connect the church authorities in Croatia and Dalmatia so he could easily integrate Dalmatia into his Kingdom. This transfer of powers is confirmed by the fact that the Byzantine governor of Dalmatia wasn't listed as one of the participants on the official council documents.

Leo VI

Leo VI (or Leon VI, notably in Greek) may refer to :

Leo VI the Wise, Byzantine emperor 886 to 912

Pope Leo VI, 928 to 929

King Leo VI of Armenia (1342 – 1393), of the House of Lusignan, last Latin king of the Armenian crusader Kingdom of Cilicia (in Anatolia)

List of cardinals created between 904–985

List of the cardinals attested in the contemporary sources during the period of pornocracy (904 – 964) and later until the election of Pope John XV in August 985. It certainly contains only small part of all cardinals living at that time because only small number of documents and other accounts useful for the reconstruction of that list have been preserved to our times.

The dates in the parentheses mark the first and last time when the cardinal appears in the sources.

List of papal relatives created cardinal

This is a list of papal relatives created cardinal by a pope other than their relative. These creates are similar to cardinal-nephews but this list does not include cardinals included in the list of cardinal-nephews

List of popes by country

This page is a list of popes by country of origin. They are listed in chronological order within each section.

As the office of pope has existed for almost two millennia, many of the countries of origin of popes no longer exist, and so they are grouped under their modern equivalents. Popes from Italy are in a separate section, given the very large number of popes from that peninsula.

Pope John X

John X redirects here. It can also refer to John X of Antioch.

Pope John X can also refer to Pope John X of Alexandria.Pope John X (Latin: Ioannes X; d. 28 May 928) was Pope from March 914 to his death in 928. A candidate of the Counts of Tusculum, he attempted to unify Italy under the leadership of Berengar of Friuli, and was instrumental in the defeat of the Saracens at the Battle of Garigliano. He eventually fell out with Marozia, who had him deposed, imprisoned, and finally murdered. John’s pontificate occurred during the period known as the Saeculum obscurum.

Pope Leo

Pope Leo was the name of thirteen Roman Catholic Popes:

Pope Leo I (the Great) (440–461)

Pope Leo II (682–683)

Pope Leo III (795–816)

Pope Leo IV (847–855)

Pope Leo V (903)

Pope Leo VI (928)

Pope Leo VII (936–939)

Pope Leo VIII (964–965)

Pope Leo IX (1049–1054)

Pope Leo X (1513–1521)

Pope Leo XI (1605)

Pope Leo XII (1823–1829)

Pope Leo XIII (1878–1903)

Romano Bobone

Romano Bobone was an Italian cardinal. He was made cardinal deacon of S.R.C. in 928 by Pope Leo VI.

Saeculum obscurum

Saeculum obscurum (Latin: the Dark Age) is a name given to a period in the history of the Papacy during the first two-thirds of the 10th century, beginning with the installation of Pope Sergius III in 904 and lasting for sixty years until the death of Pope John XII in 964. During this period, the popes were influenced strongly by a powerful and corrupt aristocratic family, the Theophylacti, and their relatives.

Timeline of Croatian history

This is a timeline of Croatian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Croatia and its predecessor states. Featured articles are in bold. To read about the background to these events, see History of Croatia. See also the list of rulers of Croatia and years in Croatia.

Trpimir II of Croatia

Trpimir II was King of Croatia from 928 to 935. He was from the Trpimirović dynasty. Trpimir was probably the son of Duke Muncimir and younger brother of King Tomislav.Following the death of Simeon I of Bulgaria, Byzantium no longer needed Croatia's military support and repealed its alliance. Previously, Byzantium relied heavily on the Croats to threaten Simeon from the west. Despite the achievements of King Tomislav in halting Bulgaria's expansion, Byzantium reversed Croatia's supremacy over the Theme of Dalmatia, which fell once again under its administration. However, Byzantine administration was nominal.

Trpimir's woes did not stop there. Pope Leo VI abolished the Diocese of Nin in 928 and transferred Bishop Grgur to Skradin, in what was seen as a humiliating defeat for pro-Slavic proponents in the long running dispute between the Split and Nin Bishoprics.

De Administrando Imperio mentions that in the time of Trpimir, Croatia had a significant merchant fleet that traded across the entire Adriatic Sea.

Year of three popes

A year of three popes is a common reference to a year when the College of Cardinals of the Catholic Church are required to elect two new popes within the same calendar year. Such a year generally occurs when a newly elected pope dies or resigns very early into his papacy. This results in the Catholic Church being led by three different popes during the same calendar year.

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