Pope Leo III

Pope Leo III (Latin: Leo; fl. 12 June 816) was Bishop of Rome and ruler of the Papal States from 26 December 795[2] to his death in 816. Protected by Charlemagne from his enemies in Rome, he subsequently strengthened Charlemagne's position by crowning him Holy Roman Emperor and "Augustus of the Romans".

Leo was assaulted in Rome by partisans of the late Pope Adrian I, and fled to Charlemagne at Paderborn. The King of the Franks arbitrated the dispute, restoring Leo to his office. Leo subsequently crowned Charlemagne as Roman Emperor, which was not approved in Constantinople, although the Byzantines, occupied with their own defenses, were in no position to offer much opposition.

Pope Saint

Leo III
Papacy began27 December 795
Papacy ended12 June 816
PredecessorAdrian I
SuccessorStephen IV
Created cardinalby Adrian I[1]
Personal details
Birth nameLeone[1]
BornRome, Exarchate of Ravenna, Eastern Roman Empire
Died12 June 816 (aged 66)
Rome, Papal States
Previous postCardinal-Priest of Santa Susanna
Sainthood
Feast day12 June
Venerated inCatholic Church
Canonized1669
by Pope Clement X
Other popes named Leo

Biography

Early life and pontifical selection

Leo was of a modest family in southern Italy, the son of Atyuppius and Elizabeth. At the time of his election he was Cardinal-Priest of Santa Susanna, and seemingly also vestiarius, or chief of the pontifical treasury, or wardrobe.[3]

He was elected on the very day his predecessor, Adrian I, was buried (26 December 795), and consecrated on the following day. It is quite possible that this haste may have been due to a desire on the part of the Romans to anticipate any interference of the Franks with their freedom of election. With the letter informing Charlemagne that he had been unanimously elected pope, Leo sent him the keys of the confession of St. Peter, and the standard of the city, and requested an envoy. This he did to show that he regarded the Frankish king as the protector of the Holy See.[3]

Pontificate

In return he received from Charlemagne letters of congratulation and a great part of the treasure which the king had captured from the Avars. The acquisition of this wealth enabled Leo to be a great benefactor to the churches and charitable institutions of Rome. While Charlemagne's letter is respectful and even affectionate, it also exhibits his concept of the coordination of the spiritual and temporal powers, nor does he hesitate to remind the pope of his grave spiritual obligations.[4] Charlemagne's reply stated that it was his function to defend the Church, and the function of the pope to pray for the realm and for the victory of his army.

Prompted by jealousy or ambition, or the thought that only someone of the nobility should hold the office of pope, a number of the relatives of Pope Adrian I formed a plot to render Leo unfit to hold his sacred office. On the occasion of the procession of the Greater Litanies (25 April 799), when the pope was making his way towards the Flaminian Gate, he was suddenly attacked by a body of armed men. He was dashed to the ground, and an effort was made to root out his tongue and tear out his eyes which left him injured and unconscious. He was rescued by two of the king's missi dominici, who came with a considerable force.[3] The Duke of Spoleto sheltered the fugitive pope, who went later to Paderborn, where the king's camp then was.[4] He was received by the Frankish king with the greatest honour at Paderborn.[3] This meeting forms the basis of the epic poem Karolus Magnus et Leo Papa.

His enemies had accused Leo of adultery and perjury. Charlemagne ordered them to Paderborn, but no decision could be made. He then had Leo escorted back to Rome. In November 800, Charlemagne himself went to Rome, and on 1 December held a council there with representatives of both sides. Leo, on 23 December, took an oath of purgation concerning the charges brought against him, and his opponents were exiled.[3]

Coronation of Charlemagne

Karel Leo
Pope Leo III, crowning Charlemagne from Chroniques de France ou de Saint Denis, vol. 1; France, second quarter of 14th century.

Charlemagne's father, Pepin the Short, defended the papacy against the Lombards and issued the Donation of Pepin, which granted the land around Rome to the pope as a fief. In 754 Pope Stephen II had conferred on Charles's father the dignity of Patricius Romanus, which implied primarily the protection of the Roman Church in all its rights and privileges; above all in its temporal authority which it had gradually acquired (notably in the former Byzantine Duchy of Rome and the Exarchate of Ravenna) by just titles in the course of the two preceding centuries.[4]

Two days after Leo's oath, on Christmas Day 800, he crowned Charlemagne as emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. According to Charlemagne's biographer, Einhard, Charles had no suspicion of what was about to happen, and if informed would not have accepted the imperial crown.[5] On the other hand, there seems no reason to doubt that for some time previous the elevation of Charles had been discussed, both at home and at Rome, especially in view of two facts: the scandalous condition of the imperial government at Constantinople, and the acknowledged grandeur and solidity of the Carolingian house.[4] The coronation offended Constantinople, which had seen itself still as the rightful defender of Rome, but the Eastern Roman Empress Irene of Athens, like many of her predecessors since Justinian, was too weak to offer protection to the city or its much reduced citizenry.

In 808, Leo committed Corsica to Charlemagne for safe-keeping because of Muslim raids, originating from Al-Andalus,[6] on the island.[7] Nonetheless, Corsica, along with Sardinia, would still go on to be occupied by Muslim forces in 809 and 810.[8]

Significance

On Christmas Day in 800, Leo crowned Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor at Old St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. Under Charlemagne's leadership there arose a cultural enrichment still known as the Carolingian Renaissance. Charlemagne gathered to his court the cream of available intellect, centered on the scholar Alcuin, whom he brought from York in England. Monks and other copyists were set to transcribing ancient manuscripts, both classical and Christian, for the preservation and extension of learning. Schools were established at monasteries and cathedrals, the forerunners of the great universities. Myriad hymns and poems were composed, along with commentaries on Holy Scripture, treatises on music, theological works, and numerous chronicles of history.[9]

Leo helped restore King Eardwulf of Northumbria and settled various matters of dispute between the Archbishops of York and Canterbury.[3] He also reversed the decision of his predecessor Pope Adrian I in regards to the granting of the pallium to Hygeberht, Bishop of Lichfield. He believed that the English episcopate had been misrepresented before Adrian and that therefore his act was invalid. In 803, Lichfield was a regular diocese again.[10]

Leo forbade the addition of the filioque to the Nicene Creed, when asked to confirm the decision of a Council of Aachen held in 809. Although he approved of the doctrine expressed by the filioque, he also ordered that the Nicene Creed, without filioque, be displayed on silver tablets placed in Saint Peter's Basilica, adding: "Haec Leo posui amore et cautela orthodoxae fidei" ("I, Leo, put these here for love and protection of orthodox faith").[11]

The reasons for the coronation of Charlemagne, the involvement beforehand of the Frankish court, and the relationship to the Eastern Roman Empire are matters of debate among historians. An effective administrator of the papal territories, Leo contributed to the beautification of Rome.

Death and burial

Leo III died in 816 after a reign of more than 20 years. He was originally buried in his own monument. However, some years after his death, his remains were put into a tomb that contained the first four Popes Leo. In the 18th century, the relics of Leo I were separated from the other Leos, and he was given his own chapel.[12]

Canonization

Leo III was canonized by Pope Clement X, who, in 1673, had Leo's name entered in the Roman Martyrology.[13]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Miranda, Salvador. "Leone (?-816)". The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church – Biographical Dictionary. Florida International University. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
  2. ^ Pope Leo III at the Encyclopædia Britannica
  3. ^ a b c d e f  Mann, Horace Kinder (1910). "Pope St. Leo III" . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. 9. New York: Robert Appleton.
  4. ^ a b c d  Shahan, Thomas; Macpherson, Ewan (1908). "Charlemagne" . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. 3. New York: Robert Appleton.
  5. ^ Einhard (1880). "Charlemagne Crowned Emperor". The Life of Charlemagne. Translated by Turner, Samuel Epes. New York: Harper & Brothers.
  6. ^ Raymond Davis (1 January 1995). The Lives of the Ninth-century Popes (Liber Pontificalis): The Ancient Biographies of Ten Popes from A.D. 817–891 (illustrated ed.). Liverpool University Press. p. 93. ISBN 9780853234791.
  7. ^ Noble, Thomas F. X. (1 January 2011). The Republic of St. Peter: The Birth of the Papal State, 680-825. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 173. ISBN 9780812200911.
  8. ^ Pirenne, Henri (7 March 2013). Mohammed and Charlemagne. Routledge. p. 160. ISBN 9781135030179.
  9. ^ Reardon, Patrick Henry (2006). "Turning Point: The Crowning of Charlemagne". Christian History Biography. No. 89. Christian History Institute. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
  10. ^  Moyes, James (1908). "Councils of Clovesho" . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. 4. New York: Robert Appleton.
  11. ^ "Agreed Statement of the North American Orthodox-Catholic Theological Consultation, 25 October 2003". United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. Archived from the original on 7 March 2012. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  12. ^ Reardon, Wendy (2012). The deaths of the Popes. McFarland. p. 41. ISBN 9781476602318.
  13. ^ Baring-Gould, Sabine (1874). The Lives of the Saints. J. Hodges. p. 156. Retrieved 24 April 2018.

External links

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Adrian I
Pope
795–816
Succeeded by
Stephen IV
Albano Cathedral

Albano Cathedral (Italian: Duomo di Albano, Cattedrale di San Pancrazio) is a Roman Catholic cathedral in the city of Albano Laziale, in the province of Rome and the region of Lazio, Italy. It is the seat of the Suburbicarian Diocese of Albano.The present cathedral building was consecrated in 1721, but stands on the site of a much older basilica, dedicated to Saint John the Baptist, founded by Constantine the Great. Pope Leo III (d. 816) built a new cathedral on the site and changed the dedication to Saint Pancras, as it now is.

Benedict of Farfa

Benedict (died 815) was the Abbot of Farfa, Italy from 802 until his death. He is the first abbot mentioned in the eleventh-century history of the abbey written by Gregory of Catino whose origins were not known.Benedict continued the policy of his predecessor of expanding Farfa's landed endowments. Nevertheless, according to the forensic testimony of his successor, Ingoald, the monastery lost property during the reign of Pope Leo III (795–816), partly from the unlawful seizures of the Holy See.Two charters from 802 and 804 show that Benedict and his predecessor Mauroald financed the military service of two brothers from the Sabina, Probatus and Picco, sons of Ursus of the Pandoni family, who were serving the army of Charlemagne then targeting the Principality of Benevento. In 804 they defaulted on their debt to the abbey of twenty gold mancuses, ten pounds of silver, and cloth worth sixty mancuses. They ceded all their wealth to the abbey save their lands in Fermo, a few movables and their slaves.

Byzantine Empire under the Nikephorian dynasty

Following the deposition of the Byzantine empress Irene of Athens, the throne of the Byzantine Empire passed to a relatively short-lived dynasty, the Nikephorian dynasty, named after its founder, Nikephoros I. The empire was in a weaker and more precarious position than it had been for a long time and its finances were problematic.During this era Byzantium was almost continually at war on two frontiers which drained its resources, and like many of his predecessors, Nikephoros (802-811) himself died while campaigning against the Bulgars to the north. Furthermore, Byzantium's influence continued to wane in the west with the crowning of Charlemagne (800-814) as Holy Roman emperor by Pope Leo III at Old St. Peter's Basilica in Rome in the year 800 and the establishment of a new empire in Western Europe laying claim to the universal Roman monarchy.

Catholic Church in France

The Catholic Church in France is part of the worldwide Catholic Church in communion with the Pope in Rome. Established in the 2nd century in unbroken communion with the bishop of Rome, it is sometimes called the "eldest daughter of the church".

The first written records of Christians in France date from the 2nd century when Irenaeus detailed the deaths of ninety-year-old bishop Saint Pothinus of Lugdunum (Lyon) and other martyrs of the 177 AD persecution in Lyon. In 496 Remigius baptized King Clovis I, who therefore converted from paganism to Catholicism. In 800, Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, forming the political and religious foundations of Christendom in Europe and establishing in earnest the French government's long historical association with the Catholic Church. The French Revolution (1789–1790) was followed by heavy persecution of the Catholic Church. Laïcité, absolute neutrality of the state with respect to religious doctrine, is nowadays the official policy of the Republic of France.

Estimates of the proportion of Catholics range between 41% and 88% of France's population, with the higher figure including lapsed Catholics and "Catholic atheists". The Catholic Church in France is organised into 98 dioceses, which in 2012 were served by 7,000 sub-75 priests. 80 to 90 priests are ordained every year, when the church would need eight times as many to compensate the number of priest deaths. Approximately 45,000 Catholic church buildings and chapels are spread out among 36,500 cities, towns, and villages in France, but a majority are no longer regularly used for mass. Notable churches of France include Notre Dame de Paris, Chartres Cathedral, Reims Cathedral, and Basilique du Sacre-Coeur, Eglise de la Madeleine, and Amiens Cathedral. Its national shrine, Lourdes, is visited by 5 million pilgrims yearly. The capital city, Paris, is a major pilgrimage site for Catholics as well.

Some of the most famous French saints include St. Thérèse of Lisieux, St. Irenaeus, St. Jean-Marie Vianney the Curé of Ars, St. Joan of Arc, St. Bernadette, Louis IX of France, St. Vincent de Paul, St. Louise de Marillac, St. Catherine Labouré and St. Bernard of Clairvaux.

Council of Aachen

A number of significant councils of the Roman Catholic Church were held at Aachen (also known in French as Aix-la-Chapelle) in the early Middle Ages.

In the mixed council of 798, Charlemagne proclaimed a capitulary of eighty-one chapters, largely a repetition of earlier ecclesiastical legislation, that was accepted by the clergy and acquired canonical authority. At the council of 799, after a discussion of six days Felix, Bishop of Urgel in Spain, avowed himself overcome by Alcuin and withdrew his theory of Adoptianism.

At the council held in 809, the Frankish Church adopted the filioque addition in the Creed (which contributed to the East-West Schism), although Pope Leo III refused to recognize it as valid (and the Church of Rome did not accept this addition until 1014).In the Synods of Aachen (816-819), clerical and monastic discipline was the chief issue. The council of 816 established the Rule of Aix which was made obligatory on all establishments of canons and canonesses. The later councils imposed a new revision of the Rule of St. Benedict on the monks of the Benedictine Order by Benedict of Aniane. A list of monasteries and the services to the crown that they owed following these councils can be found in the Notitia de servitio monasteriorum. The synod of 836 was largely attended and devoted itself to the restoration of ecclesiastical discipline that had been affected by the civil wars between Louis the Pious and his sons.

From 860 to 862 three councils were occupied with the question of the divorce of King Lothaire II from his wife, Theutberga.In 1166 took place the schismatic council, approved by the Antipope Paschal III, in which was decreed the canonization of Charlemagne, that was solemnly celebrated 29 December of that year.

Eadberht III Præn

Eadberht III Præn was the King of Kent from 796 to 798. His brief reign was the result of a rebellion against the hegemony of Mercia, and it marked the last time that Kent existed as an independent kingdom.

Offa of Mercia seems to have ruled Kent directly from 785 until 796, when the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that Offa died and Eadberht, "who was by another name Præn", took possession of Kent. Eadberht had apparently previously been in exile on the continent under the protection of Charlemagne, and his rebellion has been seen as serving Frankish interests.The pro-Mercian Archbishop of Canterbury, Æthelhard, fled during the rebellion. Cœnwulf of Mercia was engaged in correspondence with Pope Leo III at this time concerning the situation of the Church in England, and in the course of this Leo accepted a Mercian reconquest of Kent and excommunicated Eadbert, on the grounds that he was a former priest. Having received papal approval, Cœnwulf reconquered Kent. He placed his brother in charge and captured Eadberht in 798. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Cœnwulf "ravaged over Kent and captured Eadberht Præn, their king, and led him bound into Mercia." A later addition to the Chronicle says that Eadberht was blinded and had his hands cut off, but Roger of Wendover states that he was set free by Coenwulf at some point as an act of clemency.

Embrun Cathedral

Embrun Cathedral (French: Cathédrale Notre-Dame du Réal d'Embrun) is a Roman Catholic church and former cathedral located in the town of Embrun, Hautes-Alpes, France.

The cathedral is a national monument and was the seat of the former Archbishopric of Embrun, which was divided between the Bishopric of Gap and the Archbishopric of Aix in 1822. On its door were posted in 1489 the thirty-two propositions imputed to the Waldenses, that presaged the campaign to extirpate them as heretics, which resurfaced in the Dauphiné with intense savagery during the Wars of Religion in France: Lesdiguières pillaged Embrun Cathedral in 1585.

In the fifth century relics of St Nazarius were translated to Embrun, which had supported a bishop since the fourth century; Embrun became a noted place of pilgrimage. Charlemagne erected the basilica that was visited by Pope Leo III. The cathedral church, built on foundations that date to its founding in the ninth century, was constructed between 1170 and 1220; its Romanesque portal, columns supported on crouching lions in the north portal and striped stonework courses in cream and gray stone express cultural links with Lombardy. The interior has an elaborate Baroque high altar inlaid in colored marbles, recently rediscovered frescoes, an organ (the oldest working in France) donated by Louis XI of France, who habitually sported in his cap a leaden emblem of the Virgin of Embrun, and whose last words were addressed to "Nôtre Dame d'Embrun, ma bonne maîtress, ayez pitié de moi".

Grimoire of Pope Leo

The Grimoire of Pope Leo or Enchiridion of Pope Leo is a French grimoire (a textbook of magic) that is falsely attributed to Pope Leo III. The book claims to have been published in 1523, but the earliest known version of the text is from 1633. It was listed in police records in association with the Affair of the Poisons, and a copy was owned by Marc Antoine René de Voyer.This grimoire, along with other Bibliothèque bleue grimoires such as the Grimoire of Pope Honorius and Petit Albert, were brought to the French Caribbean colonies, becoming the foundation of that region's literary magical tradition.

Ingoald

Ingoald (died 830) was the Abbot of Farfa from 815, succeeding Benedict. At the beginning of his abbacy he vigorously protested the policies of Pope Leo III (795–816), which had resulted in the abbey's loss of property. Ingoald complained about not only the—illegitimate, as he saw it—seizure of Farfa's lands, but also the application of dubious laws of Roman origin in a zone that followed Lombard law. While Ingoald also fostered close contacts with the Carolingian rulers of Francia and Lombardy, he resisted secular encroachments on the abbey's privileges as staunchly as he resisted papal ones. The rate of property transactions at Farfa seems to have peaked under Ingoald, but the surviving documentary evidence is far from complete.In 817 Pope Stephen IV issued a bull claiming that Farfa's lands lay within the Papal patrimonium sabinense (Sabine patrimony) and under Papal ius (jurisdiction), and that therefore the abbey owed the Holy See an annual rent (pensio) of ten gold solidi. Hoping to recover Farfa's lost territories, Ingoald agreed to pay the pensio. When the lands were not returned, he sent a complaint to King Lothair I that the monastery was "constrained under tribute and payment to the Roman pontiffs" and its lands "violently taken away". In 824, on the occasion of the promulgation of the Constitutio Romana, the king and his father, the Emperor Louis I, responded with a privilege for Farfa. In the next pontificate, that of Paschal I (817–24), this claim to an annual rent was withdrawn, but in January 829 Farfa's advocate, Audolf, accused Leo III and the earlier Adrian II of having invaded the monastery's properties with force. By the time of this tribunal, held in the presence of imperial missi dominici and Pope Gregory IV in the Basilica of Saint John Lateran, the complaint of payment had been dropped, so the imperial privilege seems to have had its intended effect. Although Ingoald presented charters from Duke Theodicius of Spoleto and Queen Ansa with confirmations from King Desiderius and Charlemagne, and the tribunal found in Farfa's favour, Gregory IV "refused to do anything" (facere noluit).Ingoald was succeeded by Sichard.

Irene of Athens

Irene of Athens (c. 752 – 9 August 803 AD), also known as Irene Sarantapechaina, was Byzantine empress consort by marriage to Leo IV from 775 to 780, Byzantine regent during the minority of her son Constantine VI from 780 until 790, and finally sole empress regnant of the Byzantine Empire from 797 to 802. A member of the politically prominent Sarantapechos family, she was selected as Leo IV's bride for unknown reasons in 768. Even though her husband was an iconoclast, she harbored iconophile sympathies. During her rule as regent, she called the Second Council of Nicaea in 787, which condemned iconoclasm as heretical and brought an end to the first iconoclast period (730–787).

As Irene's son Constantine reached maturity, he began to move out from under the influence of his mother. In the early 790s, several attempted revolts tried to proclaim him as sole ruler. In 797, Irene gouged out her son's eyes, maiming him so severely that he died a few days later. With her son dead, Irene proclaimed herself sole ruler. Irene's unprecedented status as a female ruler of the Roman Empire led Pope Leo III to proclaim Charlemagne emperor of the Holy Roman Empire on Christmas Day of 800 under the pretext that a woman could not rule and so the throne of the Roman Empire was actually vacant. A revolt in 802 overthrew Irene and exiled her to the island of Lesbos, supplanting her on the throne with Nikephoros I. Irene died in exile less than a year later.

Karolus magnus et Leo papa

Karolus magnus et Leo papa (Classical Latin: [ka.roː.lʊs maŋ.nʊs ɛt le.oː paː.pa]; lit. "Charles the Great and Pope Leo"), sometimes called the Paderborn Epic or the Aachen Epic, is a Carolingian Latin epic poem of which only the third of four books is extant. It recounts the meeting of Charlemagne, king of the Franks, with Pope Leo III, in AD 799.

Lateran

Lateran and Laterano are the shared names of several buildings in Rome. The properties were once owned by the Lateranus family of the Roman Empire. The Laterani lost their properties to Emperor Constantine who gave them to the Roman Catholic Church in 311.The most famous Lateran buildings are the Lateran Palace, once called the Palace of the Popes, and the Basilica of St. John Lateran, the cathedral of Rome, which although part of Italy is a property of the Holy See, which has extraterritorial privileges as a result of the 1929 Lateran Treaty. As the official ecclesiastical seat of the Pope, St. John Lateran is the Papal cathedra. The Lateran is Christendom's earliest basilica.

Attached to the basilica is the Lateran Baptistery, one of the oldest in Christendom. Other constituent parts of the Lateran complex are the building of the Scala Sancta with the Sancta Sanctorum and the Triclinium of Pope Leo III.

The Pontifical Lateran University, or simply Lateranum, is one of the pontifical universities of Rome. An ecclesiastical college in the Philippines was named after the Basilica of St. John Lateran, the Colegio de San Juan de Letran, founded in 1620.

Leo III

Leo III, Leon III, or Levon III may refer to:

PeopleLeo III the Isaurian (685-741), Byzantine emperor 717-741

Pope Leo III (d. 816), Pope 795-816

Leon III of Abkhazia, King of Abkhazia 960–969

Leo II, King of Armenia (c. 1236-1289), sometimes referred to as Leo III, ruled from 1269-1289.

Leo III, King of Armenia (1287-1307), ruled from 1303-1307Other usesLeo A, an irregular galaxy in the constellation of Leo

The Oath of Leo III, 16th-century painting about the 9th century Pope Leo III

LEO III (computer), an early computer used for commercial business applications

Papal oath (traditionalist Catholic)

While a papal oath can be any oath taken by a pope, such as that which Pope Leo III took on 23 December 800 at a council held in Rome in the presence of Charlemagne declaring himself innocent of the charges brought against him, the term is used in particular for the "Papal Oath" that some Traditionalist Catholics say was taken by the popes of the Catholic Church, starting with Pope Saint Agatho who was elected on 27 June 678. They claim that over 180 popes, down to and including Pope Paul VI, swore this oath during their papal coronations. Pope John Paul I, Pope John Paul II, Pope Benedict XVI, and Pope Francis who had no coronation ceremonies, did not take the oath, and some Traditionalists interpret this fact negatively, even to the point of declaring them to be false popes.

They claim that by this oath the popes swore never to innovate or change anything that has been handed down to them. This coronation oath is at times confused with the oath against modernism that Pope Pius X mandated for those taking up certain offices in the Catholic Church. There is no evidence that any pope took such an oath during his coronation ceremony.

Ragambald

Ragambald (died 786) was the Abbot of Farfa from 781 until his death. According to the abbey's twelfth-century historian Gregory of Catino, Ragambald was born in a city in Gaul (Gallia), that is, Francia, but he does not explicitly call him a Frank. Succeeding Probatus, a local-born abbot, Ragambald was the first of a line of abbots from Francia, including Altpert (786–90) and Mauroald (790–802). The significance of the Frankish presence at Farfa and of Ragambald's abbacy is summed up:

. . . the ‘new’ abbeys of the time not only arose under Frankish influence but also infiltrated the religious life of Lombard Italy with ‘Frankish’ ideas and attitudes, providing a kind of ‘fifth column’ that prepared the way for Frankish military victory and a more ready acceptance of Frankish political domination.

Under Ragamblad the abbey's patronage may have declined as compared with that under his predecessor. He is recorded to have received a single grant from Duke Hildeprand of Spoleto during his tenure. This may have been related to Papal encroachments. By the reign of Pope Leo III, Farfa was losing land to the Papacy.

The Coronation of Charlemagne

The Coronation of Charlemagne is a painting by the workshop of the Italian Renaissance artist Raphael. Though it is believed that Raphael did make the designs for the composition, the fresco was probably painted by Gianfrancesco Penni. The painting was part of Raphael's commission to decorate the rooms that are now known as the Stanze di Raffaello, in the Apostolic Palace in the Vatican. It is located in the room that was named after The Fire in the Borgo, the Stanza dell'incendio del Borgo. The painting shows how Charlemagne was crowned Imperator Romanorum by Pope Leo III (pontiff from 795 to 816) on Christmas Evening, 800. It is quite likely that the fresco refers to the Concordat of Bologna, negotiated between the Holy See and the kingdom of France in 1515, since Leo III is in fact a portrait of Leo X and Charlemagne a portrait of Francis I.

The Oath of Leo III

The Oath of Leo III is a painting by the workshop of the Italian renaissance artist Raphael. The painting was part of Raphael's commission to decorate the rooms that are now known as the Stanze di Raffaello, in the Apostolic Palace in the Vatican. It is located in the room that was named after The Fire in the Borgo, the Stanza dell'incendio del Borgo. In the fresco, Pope Leo III is seen during the trial on December 23 AD 800 during which he was brought face to face with the nephews of his predecessor Pope Hadrian I, who had accused him of misconduct. The assembled bishops declared that they could not judge the pope, after which Leo took an oath of purgation of his own free will.

Winiges of Spoleto

Winiges (or Winichis) (contemporary Latin: Winigisus, Italian: Guinigi) (died 822) was the Duke of Spoleto (dux Spolitanus) from 789 to his death. He was probably a Lombard in the entourage of Charlemagne when he was sent in 788 to lead Hildeprand of Spoleto and Grimoald III of Benevento in cooperation with Frankish troops against a Byzantine invasion.

In this, his first recorded action, he was successful, defeating the Greeks led by Theodoros in Apulia. Hildeprand, however, died on the campaign and Charlemagne appointed Winiges to succeed him in the Duchy of Spoleto.

Winiges was appointed by Charlemagne to act as his missus dominicus in the Ducatus Romae and he was at Saint Peter's Basilica when Pope Leo III was assaulted on 25 April 799. It was then he who brought him to shelter in Spoleto until he could safely return to Rome.

Winiges got involved in a war with Grimoald of Benevento, however, and was captured while being besieged at Lucera in 802. He was held captive for a year before being released in 803.While Leo III was nearing death in 815, the Roman citizens revolted, but King Bernard sent Winiges to Rome to quell the unrest.

In 822, Winiges abdicated his worldly office and retired to a monastery, where he died not too long after (probably that same year). His successor was Suppo I, Brixiæ civitatis comes ("Count of the city of Brescia").

Ælfwald II of Northumbria

Ælfwald, according to one tradition, reigned as king of Northumbria following the deposition of Eardwulf in 806. This information appears only in the anonymous tract De primo Saxonum adventu and in the later Flores Historiarum of Roger of Wendover. Roger states that Ælfwald had overthrown Eardwulf.

Ælfwald allegedly reigned for two years before Eardwulf returned, restored to power with the aid of the Emperor Charlemagne and of Pope Leo III. Alternatively, Eardwulf's son Eanred may have succeeded to the throne, rather than Eardwulf.

While only late and exiguous written sources for Ælfwald's reign have survived, modest numbers of coins from his reign exist - minted at York by a moneyer named Cuthheard, who also produced all known coins of Eardwulf's reign.

Lakeland author W. G. Collingwood in a 1917 book, The Likeness of King Elfwald: A Study of Iona and Northumbria, imagined the life of Ælfwald. The work, based on Collingwood's long study of Northumbria which led to his 1919 work Northumbrian Crosses of the pre-Norman Age, was well regarded and has been reprinted.

1st–4th centuries
During the Roman Empire (until 493)
including under Constantine (312–337)
5th–8th centuries
Ostrogothic Papacy (493–537)
Byzantine Papacy (537–752)
Frankish Papacy (756–857)
9th–12th centuries
Papal selection before 1059
Saeculum obscurum (904–964)
Crescentii era (974–1012)
Tusculan Papacy (1012–1044/1048)
Imperial Papacy (1048–1257)
13th–16th centuries
Viterbo (1257–1281)
Orvieto (1262–1297)
Perugia (1228–1304)
Avignon Papacy (1309–1378)
Western Schism (1378–1417)
Renaissance Papacy (1417–1534)
Reformation Papacy (1534–1585)
Baroque Papacy (1585–1689)
17th–20th centuries
Age of Enlightenment (c. 1640-1740)
Revolutionary Papacy (1775–1848)
Roman Question (1870–1929)
Vatican City (1929–present)
21st century
History of the papacy
General
Early Church
Late antiquity
Early Middle Ages
High Middle Ages
Late Middle Ages
19th century
20th century
21st century
Virgin Mary
Apostles
Archangels
Confessors
Disciples
Doctors
Evangelists
Church
Fathers
Martyrs
Patriarchs
Popes
Prophets
Virgins
See also

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