Pope Leo II

Pope Leo II (611 – 28 June 683) was Pope from 17 August 682 to 28 June 683.[2] He is one of the popes of the Byzantine Papacy.

Pope Saint

Leo II
LeoII
Papacy began17 August 682
Papacy endedJuly 683[1]
PredecessorAgatho
SuccessorBenedict II
Orders
Created cardinal5 December 680
by Agatho
Personal details
Birth nameLeo Maneius
BornSicily, Byzantine Empire
DiedJuly 683 (aged 72)
Rome, Byzantine Empire
Papal styles of
Pope Leo II
Emblem of the Papacy SE
Reference styleHis Holiness
Spoken styleYour Holiness
Religious styleHoly Father
Posthumous stylePope Saint

Background and early activity in the Church

He was a Sicilian by birth (the son of a man named Paulus). He may have ended up being among the many Sicilian clergy in Rome, at that time, due to the Islamic Caliphate battles against Sicily in the mid-7th century.[3] Though elected pope a few days after the death of Pope St. Agatho on January 10, 681, he was not consecrated till after the lapse of a year and seven months (17 August 682).[2] Leo was known as an eloquent preacher who was interested in music, and noted for his charity to the poor.[4]

Reign as Bishop of Rome

Elected shortly after the death of Agatho, Leo was not consecrated for over a year and a half. The reason may have been due to negotiations regarding imperial control of papal elections.

These negotiations were undertaken by Leo's predecessor Agatho between the Holy See and Emperor Constantine IV. They concerned the relations of the Byzantine Court to papal elections. Constantine IV had already promised Agatho to abolish or reduce the tax that the popes had been paying to the imperial treasury at the time of their consecration, an imperial policy that had been in force for about a century.[2]

Leo's short-lived pontificate did not allow him to accomplish much, but there was one achievement of major importance: he confirmed the acts of the Sixth Ecumenical Council (680–681). This council had been held in Constantinople against the Monothelite controversy, and had been presided over by the legates of Pope Agatho. After Leo had notified the Emperor that the decrees of the council had been confirmed, he made them known to the nations of the West. In letters written to the king, the bishops, and the nobles of Spain, he explained what the council had effected, and he called upon the bishops to subscribe to its decrees.[2]

During this council, Pope Honorius I was anathematized for his views in the Monothelite controversy as tolerant of heresy. Leo took great pains to make it clear that in condemning Honorius, he did so not because Honorius taught heresy, but because he was not active enough in opposing it.[5] In accordance with the papal mandate, a synod was held at Toledo (684) in which the Third Council of Constantinople was accepted.

Regarding the decision of the council, Leo wrote once and again in approbation of the decision of the council and in condemnation of Honorius, whom he regarded as one who profana proditione immaculatem fidem subvertare conatus est (roughly, "one who by betrayal has tried to overthrow the immaculate faith"). In the Greek text of the letter to the Emperor in which the phrase occurs, the milder expression subverti permisit ("allowed to be overthrown...") is used for subvertare conatus est.

At this time, Leo put an end to the attempts of the Ravenna archbishops to get away from the control of the Bishop of Rome, but also abolished the tax it had been customary for them to pay when they received the pallium.[6]

Also, in apparent response to Lombard raids, Leo transferred the relics of a number of martyrs from the catacombs to churches inside the walls of the city. He dedicated two churches, St. Paul's and Sts. Sebastian and George.[6] Leo also reformed the Gregorian chant and composed several sacred hymns for the divine office.

Burial

Leo was originally buried in his own monument; however, some years after his death, his remains were put into a tomb that contained the first four of his papal namesakes.[7]

See also

References

  1. ^ Stancati, Tommaso. Julian of Toledo, The Newman Press, 2010, p. 132, ISBN 9780809105687
  2. ^ a b c d Mann, Horace. "Pope St. Leo II." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 9. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. 12 September 2017
  3. ^ Jeffrey Richards (1 May 2014). The Popes and the Papacy in the Early Middle Ages: 476-752. Routledge. p. 270. ISBN 9781317678175.
  4. ^ Monks of Ramsgate. “Leo II”. Book of Saints, 1921. CatholicSaints.Info. 4 November 2014
  5. ^ Butler, Alban. “Saint Leo II, Pope and Confessor”. Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Principal Saints, 1866. CatholicSaints.Info. 26 June 2013
  6. ^ a b Popes Archived 2006-02-06 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ Reardon, Wendy. The deaths of the Popes.

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHerbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope St. Leo II". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Agatho
Pope
682–683
Succeeded by
Benedict II
680s

The 680s decade ran from January 1, 680, to December 31, 689.

== Events ==

=== 680 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Byzantine–Bulgarian War: The Bulgars under Asparukh subjugate the country of current-day Bulgaria, north of the Balkan Mountains. Emperor Constantine IV leads a combined land and sea operation against the invaders and besieges their fortified camp in Dobruja.

Battle of Ongal: The Byzantine army (25,000 men) under Constantine IV is defeated by the Bulgars and their Slavic allies in the Danube Delta. Bulgar cavalry force the Byzantines into a rout, while Constantine (suffering from leg pain) travels to Nesebar to seek treatment.

====== Europe ======

King Wamba is deposed after an 8-year reign, and forced to retire to a monastery. He is succeeded by Erwig who becomes ruler of the Visigothic Kingdom.

King Perctarit makes his son Cunipert co-ruler of the Lombard Kingdom. He signs a formal peace treaty with Constantine IV.

Pippin of Herstal becomes Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia.

====== Britain ======

King Cædwalla of Wessex becomes overly ambitious in a power-struggle with his rival, King Centwine, for Wessex overlordship. He is banished into the forests of Chiltern and Andred.

====== Arabian Empire ======

Yazid Ianatullah, son of Muawiyah I, becomes the sixth caliph (second Umayyad caliph) but Kufans in Mesopotamia rebel and invite Hussein ibn Ali (grandson of Muhammad) to take the throne.

October 10 – Battle of Karbala: Forces under Yazid I kill Hussein ibn Ali, grandson of Muhammad, Prophet of Islam, and his closest supporters. This event leads to the civil war known as the Second Fitna.

====== Asia ======

In Japan, Princess Uno Sarara is unwell, and Emperor Tenmu begins the erection of the Temple of Yakushi-ji (Nara Prefecture). He makes 100 persons enter religion as priests, wishing her to recover her health.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Hussein ibn Ali is killed at the Battle of Karbala (modern Iraq) by Shimr ibn Dhi 'l-Jawshan, along with most of his family and companions on October 10, 680 AD.

Theodore, archbishop of Canterbury, convenes a synod at Hatfield that clears the English Church from any association with the heresy of Monothelitism.

Wilfrid returns to Northumbria, with papal support, but is imprisoned by King Ecgfrith, and again exiled. He travels to Sussex to evangelise the people.

King Merewalh of Magonsæte founds the monastery of Wenlock Priory (Shropshire). He appoints his daughter Milburga as Benedictine abbess.

Boniface is educated at a Celtic Christian monastery in Exeter, that has been one of many monasteriola built by local landowners and churchmen.

The Book of Durrow is created, probably in Northumbria or on the island of Iona in the Scottish Inner Hebrides (approximate date).

November 7 – The Third Council of Constantinople (Sixth Ecumenical Council) opens in Constantinople, ending September 16, 681.

=== 681 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Byzantine–Bulgarian War: Emperor Constantine IV is forced to acknowledge the Bulgar state in Moesia, and to pay protection money to avoid further inroads into Byzantine Thrace. Consequently, Constantine creates the Theme of Thrace of the Byzantine Empire (located in the south-eastern Balkans).

Constantine IV has his brothers Heraclius and Tiberius mutilated, so they will be unable to rule. He orders that their images no longer appear on any coinage, and that their names be removed from official documentation. Constantine raises his son Justinian II to the throne as joint emperor (Augustus).

Autumn – A military revolt breaks out in the Anatolic Theme (modern Turkey). The Byzantine army marches to Chrysopolis, and sends a delegation across the straits of the Hellespont to Constantinople, demanding that the two brothers should remain co-emperors alongside Constantine IV.

Constantine IV agrees to a compromise, and persuades the army to return to their barracks in Anatolia. He invites the leaders of the rebellion to come to Constantinople, and consults with the Senate to accept the terms. On their arrival, he arrests the leaders and has them hung at Sycae.

====== Europe ======

January 9 – Twelfth Council of Toledo: King Erwig of the Visigoths initiates a council, in which he implements diverse measures against the Jews. Laws against violence to slaves are suppressed.

====== Britain ======

King Æthelwalh of Sussex gives Wilfrid, exiled bishop of York, lands in Selsey to found a cathedral, named Selsey Abbey.

King Ecgfrith of Northumbria requests that the monks of Monkwearmouth found a new monastery at Jarrow (or 682).

====== Arabian Empire ======

A Muslim Arab army led by Uqba ibn Nafi reaches Morocco, before being forced back into Cyrene by the Berbers.

Armenians, Albanians, and Iberians rise in rebellion against the Umayyad Caliphate (approximate date).

====== Asia ======

In Japan the Asuka Kiyomihara Code is commenced under Emperor Tenmu.

Kutluk Khan revolts, and reestablishes the Turkic Khaganate.

Kusakabe, second son of Tenmu, is made crown prince.

Sinmun becomes king of the Korean kingdom of Silla.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

January 10 – Pope Agatho dies at Rome of plague after a 2½ -year reign, in which he has persuaded Constantine IV to abolish the tax heretofore levied at the consecration of a newly elected pope.

September 16 – The Sixth Ecumenical Council (see 680) ends at Constantinople. The council reaffirms the Orthodox doctrines of the Council of Chalcedon in 451, and condemns monothelitism.

=== 682 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

King Erwig of the Visigoths continues oppression of the Jews in Spain. He makes it illegal to practice any Jewish rites (brit milah), and presses for the conversion or emigration of the remaining Jews.

Ghislemar becomes mayor of the palace in Neustria and Burgundy, after he deposes his father Waratton. He reverses the peace treaty with Austrasia, signed with Pepin of Herstal at Namur.

====== Britain ======

King Ecgfrith requests Benedict Biscop to build a second monastery at Jarrow (Northumbria). Benedict leaves Monkwearmouth with 20 monks (including his protégé the young Bede).

The West Saxons, led by King Centwine, drive the Britons of Dumnonia (West Country) to the sea (possibly around Bideford).

The wandering ex-Wessex sub-king, Cædwalla, seeks St. Wilfrid as his spiritual father, but does not convert to Christianity.

Bridei III, King of the Picts, campaigns violently against Orkney.

====== Africa ======

Muslim forces led by Uqba ibn Nafi overrun the south coast of the Mediterranean Sea. He occupies the cities of Tripoli and Carthage, the last Byzantine bases in Africa (approximate date).

====== Asia ======

Due to a culmination of major droughts, floods, locust plagues, and epidemics, a widespread famine breaks out in the dual Chinese capital cities of Chang'an (primary capital) and Luoyang (secondary capital). The scarcity of food drives the price of grain to unprecedented heights, ending a once prosperous era under emperors Tai Zong and Gao Zong on a sad note.

Emperor Tenmu issues a decree forbidding the Japanese-style cap of ranks and garments, and changing them into Chinese ones. He also makes a decree forbidding men to wear leggings and women to let down their hair on their backs. It is from this time, that the practice begins of women riding on horseback like men. He issues an edict prescribing the character of ceremonies and language to be used on occasions of ceremony. Ceremonial kneeling and crawling are both abolished, and the ceremonial custom of standing at the Tang court is practiced.

Hussein bin Ali bin Abi Talib Husayn_ibn_Ali surrounded and killed with all his family members and Supporters in Karbala, Iraq.

====== Mesoamerica ======

Jasaw Chan K'awiil I starts to rule in Tikal (modern Guatemala) during the Late Classic period.

B'alaj Chan K'awiil begins a program to inscribe monuments recording his travails and ultimate victory, during the Second Tikal-Calakmul War.

==== By topic ====

====== Astronomy ======

January 3 – Venus occults Jupiter.

====== Literature ======

The first entry is made in the Welsh chronicle Brut y Tywysogion.

====== Religion ======

August 17 – Pope Leo II succeeds Agatho as the 80th pope, after a periode of sede vacante ("vacant seat") of a year and 7 months.

=== 683 ===

==== By place ====

====== Britain ======

King Sighere of Essex dies after a 19-year joint reign. His brother Sæbbi becomes the sole ruler of Essex until his death in 694.

====== Arabian Empire ======

Siege of Mecca: The Umayyad army led by Husayn ibn Numayr al-Sakuni besieges Mecca, during which the Kaaba ("Sacred House") catches fire and is burned down.

Uqba ibn Nafi, Arab general, is ambushed and killed near Biskra (modern Algeria). His Muslim army evacuates the city of Kairouan in Tunisia, and withdraws to Barca.

November 14 – Caliph Yazid I dies at Damascus, after a 3-year reign marked by civil war. He is succeeded by his son Muawiya II as ruler of the Umayyad Caliphate.

====== Asia ======

December 27 – Emperor Gao Zong dies at Luoyang, age 55, after a 34-year reign in which he expanded the Chinese Empire by acquiring Korea as a vassal state.

Emperor Tenmu decrees a reform in Japan; copper coins must be used instead of silver coins. Three days later he issues a decree to allow the continued use of silver.

Prince Ōtsu, son of Tenmu, attends to matters of State for the first time (approximate date).

====== Mesoamerica ======

Pacal the Great, ruler (ajaw) of the Maya state of Palenque (Mexico), dies after a 68-year reign. He is buried in the Temple of the Inscriptions.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Seaxwulf, bishop of Mercia, founds All Saints' Church at Brixworth (approximate date).

June 28 – Pope Leo II dies at Rome 10 months after being consecrated.

=== 684 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Ghislemar, mayor of the palace in Neustria and Burgundy, dies after a 2-year reign, and is succeeded by his father Waratton. He makes peace between the three Frankish kingdoms.

====== Britain ======

King Ecgfrith of Northumbria sends a punitive expedition to Ireland under his ealdorman Berht, laying waste to the territory of Meath, ruled by High King Fínsnechta Fledach.

====== Arabian Empire ======

Caliph Muawiya II dies at Damascus, after a brief reign that ends Sufyanid rule. A new caliph is proclaimed in Syria amidst tribal wars, but Marwan I will reign until next year.

August 18 – Battle of Marj Rahit: Muslim partisans under Marwan I defeat the supporters of Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr near Damascus, and cement Umayyad control of Syria.

====== Asia ======

January 3 – Zhong Zong succeeds his father Gao Zong, and becomes emperor of the Tang Dynasty. His mother Wu Zetian remains the power behind the throne in China.

February 27 – Wu Zetian replaces Zhong Zong in favor of his younger brother Rui Zong. He becomes a puppet ruler, and Zhong Zong is placed under house arrest.

Summer – The Pallava Empire (modern India) invades the kingdom of Ceylon. A Pallavan naval expedition employing Tamil mercenaries ends the Moriya Dynasty.

September 7 – A large comet is observed in Japan (it's Japan's oldest observation record of the Halley's Comet).

November 13 – Emperor Tenmu institutes eight titles of eight classes (Yakusa-no-kabane) in Japan.

November 26 – A great earthquake strikes Japan. The people, houses, temples, shrines and domestic animals are greatly damaged.

====== Mesoamerica ======

February 10 – K'inich Kan B'alam II accedes to the rulership of the Maya polity of Palenque (modern Mexico).

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Cuthbert is elected Bishop of Hexham, and receives a visit from a large group under Ecgfrith. He agrees to return to Lindisfarne (Northumbria) to take up duties.

June 26 – Pope Benedict II succeeds Leo II as the 81st pope of Rome, after a period of sede vacante ("vacant seat") of 1 year.

=== 685 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

September – Emperor Constantine IV dies of dysentery at Constantinople after a 17-year reign, and is succeeded by his 16-year-old son Justinian II.

====== Europe ======

Kuber, brother of Asparukh of Bulgaria, defeats the Avars in Syrmia (Pannonia). He leads his followers of around 70,000 people to Macedonia (modern North Macedonia).

====== Britain ======

May 20 – Battle of Dun Nechtain: The Picts under King Bridei III revolt against their Northumbrian overlords. Cuthbert, bishop of Lindisfarne, advises King Ecgfrith of Northumbria (Bridei's cousin) not to invade Pictland (modern Scotland). Undeterred, Ecgfrith marches his army north to engage the enemy near Dunnichen. The Picts, possibly with Scottish and Strathclyde Briton help, defeat the Saxon guard, killing Ecgfrith, who has reigned for 15 years, routing his army and forcing the Anglo-Saxons to withdraw south of the River Forth.

King Centwine of Wessex dies after a 9-year reign and is succeeded by his distant cousin, Cædwalla, who manages to fully re-unite the sub-kingdoms of Wessex. He attacks Sussex with a large army, and kills King Æthelwealh in battle, in the South Downs (Hampshire). He is expelled by Æthelwealh's ealdormen, Berthun and Andhun, who jointly rule the South Saxons. Cædwalla invades Kent, lays it waste, and carries off an immense booty.

Aldfrith, illegitimate half-brother of Ecgfrith, becomes (possibly with Irish and Scottish help) king of Northumbria. He is brought from Iona (Inner Hebrides), where he is studying for a career in the church.

King Eadric revolts against his uncle Hlothhere, and defeats him in battle. He becomes sole ruler of Kent until his death in 686.

====== Arabian Empire ======

Battle of 'Ayn al-Warda: An Umayyad army (20,000 men) under Husayn ibn Numayr defeats the pro-Alid Kufans at Ras al-'Ayn (Syria).

May 7 – Caliph Marwan I dies at Damascus, and is succeeded by his son Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan.

====== China ======

Empress Wu Zetian sends a pair of giant pandas to the Japanese court of Emperor Tenmu, as a diplomatic gift (approximate date).

Wu Zetian exiles her son Zhong Zong, former emperor of the Tang Dynasty, and his family to the island of Fang Zhou.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

May 8 – Pope Benedict II dies at Rome after a reign of less than 11 months. He is succeeded by John V as the 82nd pope.

John Maron is elected as the first patriarch in the Maronite Church (approximate date).

=== 686 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Waratton, mayor of the palace of Neustria and Burgundy, dies and is succeeded by his son-in-law Berthar. He advises King Theuderic III to break the peace treaty with Pepin of Herstal, and declares war on Austrasia.

====== Britain ======

King Cædwalla of Wessex establishes overlordship of Essex, and invades Kent for a second time. King Eadric is expelled, and Cædwalla's brother Mul is installed in his place. The sub-kings Berthun and Andhun are killed, and Sussex is subjugated by the West Saxons.

Cædwalla conquers Surrey, and exterminates the Jutes of the Isle of Wight. He executes King Arwald and his two brothers. Cædwalla probably also overruns the Meonware, a Jutish people who live in the Meon Valley (Hampshire).

====== Arabian Empire ======

August 6 – Battle of Khazir in Mosul: Alid forces of Mukhtar al-Thaqafi defeat those of the Umayyad Caliphate.

Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad, former governor of Mesopotamia, tries to regain control of his province, as the various Muslim tribes in the region Kufa (Iraq) are engaged in an Islamic civil war.

Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan imprisons and tortures patriarch Mar Khnanishu I. He is the first caliph to insist on the collection of the poll tax from the Christians (approximate date).

====== Asia ======

October 1 – Emperor Tenmu of Japan dies after a 13-year reign, and is succeeded by his widow (and niece), Empress Jitō. She will reign until 697.

October 25 – Prince Ōtsu, son of Tenmu, is falsely accused of treason by Jito and forced to commit suicide, along with his wife Yamanobe.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

August 2 – Pope John V dies at Rome after a 12-month reign, in which he has made handsome donations to the poor. He is succeeded by Conon I as the 83rd pope of the Catholic Church.

Plague kills almost all the Benedictine monks in the monastery of Monkwearmouth–Jarrow Abbey (Northumbria), aside from the abbot Ceolfrith and one small boy – future scholar Bede.

Wilfrid, bishop of York, becomes an advisor of Cædwalla, and is sent to the Isle of Wight to evangelise the inhabitants.

=== 687 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Emperor Justinian II negotiates a peace treaty with the Umayyad Caliphate (resulting in caliph Abd al-Malik paying tribute). He removes 12,000 Christian Maronites, who continually resist the Arabs, from Lebanon . Justinian reinforces the Byzantine navy on Cyprus, and transfers cavalry troops from Anatolia to the Thracesian Theme (Balkan Peninsula).

====== Europe ======

Battle of Tertry: King Theuderic III of Neustria is defeated by Pepin of Herstal, mayor of the palace of Austrasia, near Péronne (modern France), at the River Somme. Theuderic withdraws to Paris and is forced to sign a peace treaty. Pepin becomes "de facto" ruler of the Frankish Kingdom, and begins calling himself Duke of the Franks. He establishes a base for the future rise of the Pippinids and the Carolingians. Pepin appoints Nordebert as Duke of Burgundy, and puts him in charge of Neustria and Burgundy (as a sort of regent).

King Erwig dies after a 7-year reign, and is succeeded by his son-in-law Ergica as ruler of the Visigothic Kingdom.

====== Britain ======

King Mul of Kent and 12 companions are burnt to death, during a Kentish uprising. His brother, King Cædwalla of Wessex, ravages the kingdom in revenge.

Adomnán, Irish abbot of Iona, visits the court of King Ecgfrith, to ransom Irish captives (60 Gaels who had been captured in a Northumbrian raid).

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Cuthbert, bishop of Lindisfarne, resigns his office and retires to his hermitage on Inner Farne (Northumberland) where he dies, after a painful illness.

September 21 – Pope Conon I dies at Rome after a 1-year reign, and is succeeded by Sergius I as the 84th pope of the Catholic Church.

Construction of the Dome of the Rock, located on the Temple Mount, is started in Jerusalem (approximate date).

=== 688 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Byzantine–Bulgarian War: Emperor Justinian II carries out a Balkan campaign and marches through Thrace, where he restores Byzantine rule. He establishes a theme administration, and migrates many Bulgars and Slavs to the Opsician Theme (Asia Minor).

Justinian II reestablishes Byzantine settlement on Cyprus, signing a treaty (and paying an annual tribute) with Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik, for joint occupation of the island.

====== Europe ======

King Perctarit of the Lombards is assassinated by a conspiracy, after a 17-year reign. He is succeeded by his son Cunipert, who is crowned ruler of the Lombard Kingdom in Italy.

Alahis, duke of Brescia, starts a civil war in Northern Italy. He besieges Cunipert on an island in Lake Como (Lombardy), who breaks out with Piedmontese troops.

====== Britain ======

King Caedwalla of Wessex abdicates the throne and departs on a pilgrimage to Rome, possibly because of the wounds he suffered while fighting on the Isle of Wight. The power vacuum is filled by Ine, son of his second cousin, sub-king Coenred of Dorset.

King Æthelred of Mercia establishes Mercian dominance over most of Southern England. He installs Oswine, minor member of the Kentish royal family (second cousin of king Eadric), as king of Kent. Prince Swæfheard of Essex is given West Kent.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Eadberht is appointed bishop of Lindisfarne (Northumbria). He founds the holy shrine to his predecessor Cuthbert, a place that becomes a centre of great pilgrimage in later years.

=== 689 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Byzantine–Bulgarian War: Emperor Justinian II defeats the Bulgars of Macedonia and recaptures Thessalonica, the second most important Byzantine city in Europe. He resettles the subdued Slavs in Anatolia (modern Turkey), where they are required to provide 30,000 men to the Byzantine army.

====== Europe ======

Battle of Coronate: The Lombards under King Cunipert defeat the army of Duke Alahis, at the River Adda (Lombardy). He executes the rebel leaders; Alahis is captured and his head and legs are cut off. The southern Lombard duchies take advantage of Cunipert's distraction, and extend their territories.

Battle of Dorestad: The Frisians under King Radbod are defeated by the Frankish mayor of the palace, Pippin of Herstal. The Rhine delta and Dorestad (modern Netherlands) become Frankish again, as well as the castles of Utrecht and Fechten (approximate date).

====== Asia ======

The Asuka Kiyomihara Code, a collection of governing rules commenced in 681 under Emperor Tenmu, is promulgated in Japan.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Cædwalla of Wessex arrives in Rome and is baptised by pope Sergius I, taking the name Peter. He dies 10 days later and is buried at St. Peter's Basilica.

Prince Oswald, brother of King Osric of Hwicce, founds Pershore Abbey in Worcestershire (approximate date).

682

Year 682 (DCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. The denomination 682 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

683

Year 683 (DCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. The denomination 683 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

August 17

August 17 is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 136 days remain until the end of the year.

Fourteenth Council of Toledo

The Fourteenth Council of Toledo first met on 14 November 684 under King Erwig. It was called in response to a letter from Pope Leo II directing the king, a Count Simplicius, and the recently deceased Quiricus, metropolitan of Toledo, to call a general council to confirm the decisions of the ecumenical Third Council of Constantinople against monothelitism. A regional synod held in Carthaginiensis with representatives of the metropolitans in attendance was not sufficient and Erwig subsequently called a general council, exactly a year and a day after the disbanding of the Thirteenth Council of Toledo (13 November 683). The council, due to bad weather and the recent travels to and from Toledo for the Thirteenth Council, was attended only by the bishops of Carthaginiensis, the metropolitans, and a bishop from each of the other provinces: Narbonensis, Tarraconensis, and Gallaecia. These provincial delegates would approve the decision of the Carthaginiensian synod and report it to their own provincial synods, for further approval.

The fourteenth council quickly approved the sixth ecumenical council and sent notice to the pope. It also issued a general warning to the people that such doctrinal matters were to be believed, not discussed. The bishops wrapped up their short business and closed the council on 20 November.

July 3

July 3 is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 181 days remain until the end of the year.

List of Eastern Orthodox saints

This is a partial list of recognized Saints of the Eastern Orthodox communion, after AD 450.

List of canonised popes

This article lists the Popes who have been canonised or recognised as Saints in the Roman Catholic Church they had led. A total of 83 (out of 266) Popes have been recognised universally as canonised saints, including all of the first 35 Popes (31 of whom were martyrs) and 52 of the first 54. If Pope Liberius is numbered amongst the Saints as in Eastern Christianity, all of the first 49 Popes become recognised as Saints, of whom 31 are Martyr-Saints, and 53 of the first 54 Pontiffs would be acknowledged as Saints. In addition, 13 other Popes are in the process of becoming canonised Saints: as of December 2018, two are recognised as being Servants of God, two are recognised as being Venerable, and nine have been declared Blessed or Beati, making a total of 95 (97 if Pope Liberius and Pope Adeodatus II are recognised to be Saints) of the 266 Roman Pontiffs being recognised and venerated for their heroic virtues and inestimable contributions to the Church.

The most recently reigning Pope to have been canonised was Pope John Paul II, whose cause for canonisation was opened in May 2005. John Paul II was beatified on May 1, 2011, by Pope Benedict XVI and later canonised, along with Pope John XXIII, by Pope Francis on April 27, 2014. Pope Francis also canonised Pope Paul VI on October 14, 2018.

List of saints named Leo

St. Leo may refer to one of several saints named Leo, including:

Pope Leo I (d. 461), pope and saint

Pope Leo II (d. 683), pope and saint

Pope Leo III (d. 816), pope and saint

Pope Leo IV (d. 855), pope and saint

Pope Leo IX (d. 1054), pope and saint

Saint Leo of Bayonne, France

Saint Leo of Catania otherwise Saint Leo the Thaumaturge (d. 785), saint and bishop of Catania in Sicily

Saint Leo of Montefeltro (d. 366), bishop of Montefeltro

Patrologia Latina

The Patrologia Latina (Latin for The Latin Patrology) is an enormous collection of the writings of the Church Fathers and other ecclesiastical writers published by Jacques-Paul Migne between 1841 and 1855, with indices published between 1862 and 1865. It is also known as the Latin series as it formed one half of Migne's Patrologiae Cursus Completus, the other part being the Patrologia Graeco-Latina of patristic and medieval Greek works with their (sometimes non-matching) medieval Latin translations.

Although consisting of reprints of old editions, which often contain mistakes and do not comply with modern standards of scholarship, the series, due to its availability (it is present in many academic libraries) and the fact that it incorporates many texts of which no modern critical edition is available, is still widely used by scholars of the Middle Ages and is in this respect comparable to the Monumenta Germaniae Historica.

The Patrologia Latina includes Latin works spanning a millennium, from Tertullian (d. 230) to Pope Innocent III (d. 1216), edited in roughly chronological order in 217 volumes;

volumes 1 to 73, from Tertullian to Gregory of Tours, were published from 1841 to 1849, and volumes 74 to 217, from Pope Gregory I to Innocent III, from 1849 to 1855.

Although the collection ends with Innocent III,

Migne originally wanted to include documents all the way up to the Reformation; this task proved too great, but some later commentaries or documents associated with earlier works were included.

Most of the works are ecclesiastic in nature, but there are also documents of literary, historical or linguistic (such as the Gothic bible in vol. 18) interest.

The printing plates for the Patrologia were destroyed by fire in 1868, but with help from the Garnier printing house they were restored and new editions were printed, beginning in the 1880s. These reprints did not always correspond exactly with the original series either in quality or internal arrangement, and caution should be exercised when referencing to the PL in general.

Pope Constantine

Pope Constantine (Latin: Constantinus; 664 – 9 April 715) was Pope from 25 March 708 to his death in 715. With the exception of Antipope Constantine, he was the only pope to take such a "quintessentially" Eastern name of an emperor. During this period, the regnal name was also used by emperors and patriarchs.

Selected as one of the last popes of the Byzantine Papacy, the defining moment of Constantine's pontificate was his 710/711 visit to Constantinople where he compromised with Justinian II on the Trullan canons of the Quinisext Council. Constantine was the last pope to visit Constantinople until Pope Paul VI did in 1967.

Pope Leo

Pope Leo was the name of thirteen Roman Catholic Popes:

Pope Leo I (the Great) (440–461)

Pope Leo II (682–683)

Pope Leo III (795–816)

Pope Leo IV (847–855)

Pope Leo V (903)

Pope Leo VI (928)

Pope Leo VII (936–939)

Pope Leo VIII (964–965)

Pope Leo IX (1049–1054)

Pope Leo X (1513–1521)

Pope Leo XI (1605)

Pope Leo XII (1823–1829)

Pope Leo XIII (1878–1903)

Pope Sergius I

Pope Sergius I (c. 650 – 8 September 701) was Pope from December 15, 687, to his death in 701. He was elected at a time when two rivals, the Archdeacon Paschal and the Archpriest Theodore, were locked in dispute about which of them should become pope.

His papacy was dominated by his response to the Quinisext Council, whose canons he refused to accept. Thereupon the Byzantine Emperor Justinian II ordered Sergius' abduction (as his predecessor Constans II had done with Pope Martin I), but the Roman people and the Italian militia of the Exarch of Ravenna refused to allow the exarch to remove Sergius to Constantinople.

Pope Vitalian

Pope Vitalian (Latin: Vitalianus; d. 27 January 672) reigned from 30 July 657 to his death in 672. He was born in Segni, Lazio, the son of Anastasius.

San Giorgio in Velabro

San Giorgio in Velabro is a church in Rome, Italy, devoted to St. George.

The church is located next to the Arch of Janus in the rione of Ripa in the ancient Roman Velabrum. According to the founding legend of Rome, the church was built where Roman history began: it is here that the she-wolf found Romulus and Remus. The ancient Arcus Argentariorum is attached to the side of the church's façade.

San Giorgio in Velabro is the station church for the first Thursday in Lent.

Santa Bibiana

Santa Bibiana is a small Baroque style, Roman Catholic church in Rome devoted to Saint Bibiana. The church façade was designed and built by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, who also produced a sculpture of the saint holding the palm leaf of martyrs. Santa Viviana

Simplicius, Faustinus and Beatrix

Saints Simplicius, Faustinus and Beatrix (or Beatrice, Viatrix) were a group of Christian martyrs who died in Rome during the Diocletian persecution (302 or 303).

Third Council of Constantinople

The Third Council of Constantinople, counted as the Sixth Ecumenical Council by the Eastern Orthodox and Catholic Churches, as well by certain other Western Churches, met in 680/681 and condemned monoenergism and monothelitism as heretical and defined Jesus Christ as having two energies and two wills (divine and human).

1st–4th centuries
During the Roman Empire (until 493)
including under Constantine (312–337)
5th–8th centuries
Ostrogothic Papacy (493–537)
Byzantine Papacy (537–752)
Frankish Papacy (756–857)
9th–12th centuries
Papal selection before 1059
Saeculum obscurum (904–964)
Crescentii era (974–1012)
Tusculan Papacy (1012–1044/1048)
Imperial Papacy (1048–1257)
13th–16th centuries
Viterbo (1257–1281)
Orvieto (1262–1297)
Perugia (1228–1304)
Avignon Papacy (1309–1378)
Western Schism (1378–1417)
Renaissance Papacy (1417–1534)
Reformation Papacy (1534–1585)
Baroque Papacy (1585–1689)
17th–20th centuries
Age of Enlightenment (c. 1640-1740)
Revolutionary Papacy (1775–1848)
Roman Question (1870–1929)
Vatican City (1929–present)
21st century
History of the papacy
Virgin Mary
Apostles
Archangels
Confessors
Disciples
Doctors
Evangelists
Church
Fathers
Martyrs
Patriarchs
Popes
Prophets
Virgins
See also

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