He was the second and longest-reigning Avignon Pope, elected by the Conclave of Cardinals, which was assembled in Lyon through the work of King Louis X's brother Philip, the Count of Poitiers, later King Philip V of France. Like his predecessor, Clement V, Pope John centralized power and income in the Papacy and lived a princely life in Avignon. He opposed the political policies of Louis IV of Bavaria as Holy Roman Emperor, which prompted Louis to invade Italy and set up an antipope, Nicholas V.
Pope John XXII faced controversy in theology involving his views on the Beatific Vision, and he opposed the Franciscan understanding of the poverty of Christ and his apostles, famously leading William of Ockham to write against unlimited papal power. He canonized St. Thomas Aquinas.
|Bishop of Rome|
|Papacy began||7 August 1316|
|Papacy ended||4 December 1334|
|Created cardinal||23 December 1312|
by Clement V
|Birth name||Jacques Duèze or d'Euse|
Cahors, Kingdom of France
|Died||4 December 1334 (aged 89–90)|
Avignon, Comtat Venaissin, County of Provence
|Other popes named John|
|Papal styles of|
Pope John XXII
|Reference style||His Holiness|
|Spoken style||Your Holiness|
|Religious style||Holy Father|
Duèze taught both canon and civil law at Toulouse and Cahors. On the recommendation of Charles II of Naples he was made Bishop of Fréjus in 1300. In 1309 he was appointed chancellor of Charles II, and in 1310 he was transferred to Avignon. He delivered legal opinions favorable to the suppression of the Templars, but he also defended Boniface VIII and the Bull Unam Sanctam. On 23 December 1312, Clement V made him Cardinal-Bishop of Porto-Santa Rufina.
The death of Pope Clement V in 1314 was followed by an interregnum of two years due to disagreements between the cardinals, who were split into two factions. After two years, Philip, in 1316, finally managed to arrange a papal conclave of twenty-three cardinals in Lyon. This conclave elected Duèze, who took the name John XXII and was crowned in Lyon. He set up his residence in Avignon rather than Rome, continuing the Avignon Papacy of his predecessor.
John XXII involved himself in the politics and religious movements of many European countries in order to advance the interests of the Church. His close links with the French crown created widespread distrust of the papacy.
Pope John XXII was an excellent administrator and efficient at reorganizing the Church. He had sent a letter of thanks to the Muslim ruler Uzbeg Khan, who was very tolerant of Christians and treated Christians kindly.
John XXII has traditionally been credited with having composed the prayer "Anima Christi", which has become the English "Soul of Christ, sanctify me ..." and the basis for the hymn Soul of Christ, Sanctify My Breast".
Prior to John XXII's election, a contest had begun for the Holy Roman Empire's crown between Louis IV of Bavaria and Frederick I of Austria. John XXII was neutral at first, but in 1323, when Louis IV became Holy Roman Emperor, the Guelph (papal) party and the Ghibelline (imperial) party quarreled, which was partly provoked by John XXII's extreme claims of authority over the empire and partly by Louis IV's support of the spiritual Franciscans, whom John XXII condemned in the Papal bull Quorumdam exigit. Louis IV was assisted in his doctrinal dispute with the papacy by Marsilius of Padua and later by the English Franciscan friar and scholar William of Ockham. Louis IV invaded Italy, entered Rome and set up Pietro Rainalducci as Antipope Nicholas V in 1328. The project was a fiasco. Guelphic predominance at Rome was later restored, and Pope John excommunicated William of Ockham. However, Louis IV had silenced the papal claims and John XXII stayed the rest of his life in Avignon.
Pope John XXII was determined to suppress what he considered to be the excesses of the Spirituals, who contended eagerly for the view that Christ and his apostles had possessed absolutely nothing, citing Exiit qui seminat in support of their view. In 1317, John XXII formally condemned the group of them known as the Fraticelli. On 26 March 1322, with Quia nonnunquam, he removed the ban on discussion of Pope Nicholas III's bull and commissioned experts to examine the idea of poverty based on belief that Christ and the apostles owned nothing. The experts disagreed among themselves, but the majority condemned the idea on the grounds that it would condemn the Church's right to have possessions. The Franciscan chapter held in Perugia in May 1322 declared on the contrary: "To say or assert that Christ, in showing the way of perfection, and the Apostles, in following that way and setting an example to others who wished to lead the perfect life, possessed nothing either severally or in common, either by right of ownership and dominium or by personal right, we corporately and unanimously declare to be not heretical, but true and catholic." By the bull Ad conditorem canonum of 8 December 1322, John XXII declared it ridiculous to pretend that every scrap of food given to the friars and eaten by them belonged to the pope, refused to accept ownership over the goods of the Franciscans in future and granted them exemption from the rule that absolutely forbade ownership of anything even in common, thus forcing them to accept ownership. On 12 November 1323, he issued the bull Quum inter nonnullos, which declared "erroneous and heretical" the doctrine that Christ and his apostles had no possessions whatever.
Influential members of the order protested, such as the minister general Michael of Cesena, the English provincial William of Ockham, and Bonagratia of Bergamo. In 1324, Louis the Bavarian sided with the Spirituals and accused the Pope of heresy. In reply to the argument of his opponents that Nicholas III's bull Exiit qui seminat was fixed and irrevocable, John XXII issued the bull Quia quorundam on 10 November 1324, in which he declared that it cannot be inferred from the words of the 1279 bull that Christ and the apostles had nothing, adding: "Indeed, it can be inferred rather that the Gospel life lived by Christ and the Apostles did not exclude some possessions in common, since living 'without property' does not require that those living thus should have nothing in common."
In 1328 Michael of Cesena was summoned to Avignon to explain the Order's intransigence in refusing the Pope's orders and its complicity with Louis of Bavaria. Michael was imprisoned in Avignon, together with Francesco d'Ascoli, Bonagratia and William of Ockham. In January of that year Louis entered Rome and had himself crowned Holy Roman Emperor. Three months later, he declared John XXII deposed and installed the Spiritual Franciscan Pietro Rainalducci as Pope Nicholas V. The Franciscan chapter that opened in Bologna on 28 May reelected Michael of Cesena, who two days before had escaped with his companions from Avignon. In August Louis the Bavarian and his pope had to flee Rome before an attack by Robert, King of Naples. Only a small part of the Franciscan Order joined the opponents of John XXII, and at a general chapter held in Paris in 1329 the majority of all the houses declared their submission to the Pope. With the bull Quia vir reprobus of 16 November 1329, John XXII replied to Michael of Cesena's attacks on Ad conditorem canonum, Quum inter nonnullos, and Quia quorundam. In 1330, Antipope Nicholas V submitted, followed later by the ex-general Michael, and finally, just before his death, by Ockham. He died in Avignon in 1334 (aged 89/90), probably of stomach cancer.
Pope John XXII was involved in a theological controversy concerning the beatific vision. Even before he was pope, John XXII argued that those who died in the faith did not see the presence of God until the Last Judgment. He continued this argument for a time in sermons while he was pope, although he never taught it in official documents. He eventually backed down from his position, and agreed that those who died in grace do indeed immediately enjoy the beatific vision.
Despite holding for many years a view widely held to be heretical, John XXII is not considered a heretic because the doctrine he had contradicted had not been formally defined by the Church until his successor, Benedict XII, addressed it by the encyclical Benedictus Deus, which formally defined this doctrine as contrary to Church teaching.
Although, according to Alan C. Kors, Pope John XXII was a "brilliant organizer and administrator" and the thought of witchcraft seemed to be in its early stages at this point, Kors states the pope had a personal reason for setting out to stop witchcraft. Kors points to the fact that Pope John had been the victim of an assassination attempt via poisoning and sorcery. As such, Pope John's involvement with witchcraft persecution can be officially traced to his 1326 Papal Bull Super illius specula in which he laid out a description of those who engage in witchcraft. Pope John also warned people against not only learning magic or teaching it but against the more “execrable” act of performing magic. Pope John stated that anyone who did not heed his “most charitable” warning would be excommunicated. It was also in this bull that Pope John officially declared witchcraft to be heresy, and thus it could be tried under the Inquisition. Although this was the official ruling for the Church, Pope John’s first order dealing with magic being tried by the Inquisition was in a letter written in 1320 by Cardinal William of Santa Sabina. The letter was addressed to the Inquisitors of Carcassonne and Toulouse. In the letter Cardinal William states that with the authority of Pope John the Inquisitors there were to investigate witches by “whatever means available” as if witches were any other heretic. The letter went on to describe the actions of those who would be seen as witches and extended power to the Inquisition for the prosecution of any and all cases that fit any part of the description laid out in the letter.
The Royal Succession (French: La Loi des mâles), the 1957 fourth novel in Maurice Druon's Les Rois maudits historical novel series, features Duèze's rise from cardinal to pope as one of its plotlines. He was portrayed by Henri Virlogeux in the 1972 French miniseries adaptation of the series, and by Claude Rich in the 2005 adaptation.
The papacy of John XXII—the conflict with Louis of Bavaria and the condemnation of the Franciscans over the poverty of Christ—is the central backdrop of Umberto Eco's historical murder mystery The Name of the Rose, which is set in 1327.
The papal conclave of 1314–16 (May 1, 1314 to August 7, 1316), held in the apostolic palace of Carpentras and then the Dominican house in Lyon, was one of the longest conclaves in the history of the Roman Catholic Church and the first conclave of the Avignon Papacy. The length of the conclave was due to the division of the cardinals into three factions: Italian (Orsini, Alberti, Stefaneschi, Caetani, Longhi, Fieschi, and both Colonna), Gascon (de Pellegrue, de Fougères, Nouvel, Teste, de Farges, de Garve, Daux, du Four, Raymond, and Godin), and French/Provençal (both Fredol, de Bec, Caignet de Fréauville, de Mandagot, and d'Euse).The Italian faction wished to return the papacy to Rome, the Gascon faction—mostly composed of the relatives of the previous pope, Clement V, wished to retain the privileges and powers they had enjoyed during his rule, and the French/Provençal opposed these aims of the Italian and Gascon factions.Alexander de Kininmund (died 1344)
Alexander de Kininmund (died 1344) was a 14th-century Scottish churchman. The first mention of Alexander occurs when, as a canon of Dunkeld he is one of three ambassadors sent by King Robert I of Scotland to Avignon in 1320. The purpose of this embassy was to present a letter to Pope John XXII known as the Declaration of Arbroath. As a papal chaplain and lawyer, he was well qualified to argue the Scottish cause, and Barrow makes a strong case that he was, in fact the author of the document.Anima Christi
The "Anima Christi" (Latin for ‘Soul of Christ’) is a Catholic prayer to Jesus of medieval origin.Antiochia ad Cragum
Antiochia ad Cragum (Greek: Αντιόχεια του Κράγου) also known as Antiochetta or Latin: Antiochia Parva (meaning "Little Antiochia") is an ancient Hellenistic city on Mount Cragus overlooking the Mediterranean coast, in the region of Cilicia, in Anatolia. In modern-day Turkey the site is encompassed in the village of Güneyköy, District of Gazipaşa, Antalya Province.
The city was founded by Antiochus IV Epiphanes around 170 BC. It minted coins from the mid-first to the mid-second centuries, the last known of which were issued under Roman Emperor Valerian. The city became part of the kingdom of Lesser Armenia in the 12th century. In 1332, the Knights Hospitallers took the city, after which it was known variously as Antiochetta, Antiocheta, Antiocheta in Rufine (Papal bull of Pope John XXII), and Antiochia Parva.
Some scholars claim an identity of Antiochia ad Cragum with the city Cragus (Kragos), or although it lies more than 100 km away, with Sidyma, which some scholars assert was the Lycian Cragus (Kragos).Ruins of the city remain, and include fortifications, baths, chapels, the Roman necropolis, and the largest Roman mosaic found in Turkey.In 2018, latrine mosaics with dirty jokes about Narcissus and Ganymede were discovered in Antiochia ad Cragum.Antipope Nicholas V
Nicholas V, born Pietro Rainalducci (c. 1258 – 16 October 1333) was an antipope in Italy from 12 May 1328 to 25 July 1330 during the pontificate of Pope John XXII (1316–1334) at Avignon. He was the last Imperial antipope—that is, one set up by a Holy Roman Emperor.Beatific vision
In Christian theology, the beatific vision (Latin: visio beatifica) is the ultimate direct self-communication of God to the individual person. A person possessing the beatific vision reaches, as a member of redeemed humanity in the communion of saints, perfect salvation in its entirety, i.e. heaven. The notion of vision stresses the intellectual component of salvation, though it encompasses the whole of human experience of joy, happiness coming from seeing God finally face to face and not imperfectly through faith. (1 Cor 13:11–12).It is related to the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox belief in theosis, the Wesleyan notion of Christian perfection, and is seen in most – if not all – church denominations as the reward for Christians in the afterlife.Bérenger de Landore
Bérenger de Landore (also Berengar of Landorra, of Landorre; Berenguel de Landoria, Landória, or Landoira) (1262–1330) was a French Dominican, who became Master of the Order of Preachers (1312–1317), and then Archbishop of Santiago de Compostela (1317-1330). He was from a noble family of southern France.Châteauneuf-du-Pape
Châteauneuf-du-Pape is a commune in the Vaucluse department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France. The village lies about 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) to the east of the Rhône and 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) north of the town of Avignon. In the 2012 census the commune had a population of 2,179.
A ruined medieval castle sits above the village and dominates the landscape to the south. It was built in the 14th century for Pope John XXII, the second of the popes to reside in Avignon. None of the subsequent Avignon popes stayed in Châteauneuf but after the schism of 1378 the antipope Clement VII sought the security of the castle. With the departure of the popes the castle passed to the archbishop of Avignon, but it was too large and too expensive to maintain and was used as a source of stone for building work in the village. At the time of the Revolution the buildings were sold off and only the donjon was preserved. During the Second World War an attempt was made to demolish the donjon with dynamite by German soldiers but only the northern half was destroyed; the southern half remained intact.
Almost all the cultivable land is planted with grapevines. The commune is famous for the production of red wine classified as Châteauneuf-du-Pape Appellation d'origine contrôlée which is produced from grapes grown in the commune of Châteauneuf-du-Pape and in portions of four adjoining communes.Gauscelin de Jean
Gauscelin de Jean (died 3 August 1348) was a French cardinal.
He was born at Cahors in the family related (by the marriage alliance) to the family of Pope John XXII. From 1312 he was archdeacon of Paris. Pope John XXII shortly after his election to the papacy named him Vice-Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church (occupied the post until 1319), and in his first consistory on 17 December 1316 created him cardinal-priest of SS. Marcellino e Pietro. In 1317 together with Cardinal Luca Fieschi unsuccessfully tried to mediate (as papal legate) between Scotland and England. In Scotland the legates were even detained for some time due to their alleged partiality in favour of England. In 1319 Gauscelin was more successful by arranging a truce between France and Flanders.
In 1327 John XXII named him Bishop of Albano and grand penitentiary. He participated in the papal conclaves in 1334 and 1342. He held several benefices in England and France. He took part also in the process for the controversy in the Order of the Friars Minor (Franciscans) concerning the poverty of Christ and the Apostles.
He died at Avignon.Gonçalo Pereira
Gonçalo (Gonçalves) Pereira (c.1280–1348), 97th Archbishop of Braga, was a son of Gonçalo Pires Pereira, who held the titles of Count of the Kingdom of Portugal and Knight Commander of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta.
After being raised at the court of King Denis of Portugal, he studied law at the University of Salamanca, where he met Teresa Peres Vilarinho (1285-?). Their son, Álvaro Gonçalves Pereira (c. 1310 - c. 1379), was the father of Constable of Portugal Nuno Álvares Pereira, the ancestor of the House of Braganza.After completing his studies, he returned to Portugal, where he became a Canon of the Cathedral Chapter of the Diocese of Tuy and, later, Dean of the Chapter of the Cathedral of Porto. In 1320, King Denis sent him and Admiral Manuel Pessanha as envoys to the papal court at Avignon to obtain, among other things, financial aid for the war against the Moors.
In the following year he was elected bishop of Évora but was never consecrated bishop of that see. On 21 August 1322, Pope John XXII appointed him Bishop of Lisbon. The decrees of the diocesan synod that he held in 1324 were seen as imposing excessive financial burdens and were revoked by his successor. In 1326, Pope John XXII appointed him Archbishop of Braga, a post that he held until his death on 22 December 1348.
He helped Queen Elizabeth of Portugal settle the quarrels between her husband King Denis and their son, the future Afonso IV of Portugal. In 1338 he was King Afonso's ambassador to the Crown of Castile, arranging peace between the two kingdoms. He participated in the famous Battle of Río Salado on 30 October 1340, when the joint forces of both kingdoms destroyed those of Sultan Abu al-Hasan 'Ali of Morocco and Yusuf I of Granada.James Bane
James Bane (or Ben) (died 1332) was Bishop of St. Andrews for a brief period in the early 14th century. In his earlier career, James had been a canon of Aberdeen and prebendary of Cruden.
James rose to the position of Archdeacon of St. Andrews, one of the most senior positions within the diocese. He was appointed one of the ambassadors to France along with Thomas Randolph, 1st Earl of Moray, Robert Keith the Marischal of Scotland, Adam de Moravia and Walter de Twynham in 1326 to renew the Auld Alliance with the signing of the Treaty of Corbeil (1326). Ten days after the death of Bishop William de Lamberton in 1328, the chapter held an election to fill the vacancy. James, although absent at the court of Pope John XXII at Rome, stood against Alexander de Kyninmonth, Archdeacon of Lothian, and won. However, before news of his victory reached Rome, Pope John, who had previously reserved his right to do so, had already provided James to the see. James was consecrated, sometime in the same year, by Bertrand de Turre, Bishop of Frascati.
In the aftermath of the Battle of Dupplin Moor on 12 August 1332, after roughly two years back in Scotland as chief-bishop of the kingdom, James fled to Flanders. He met his death at Bruges in the same year. He was succeeded to the bishopric by William Bell.John de Pilmuir
John de Pilmuir [Pilmor, Pylmore] (died 1362) was a 14th-century prelate based in Scotland. He was probably the son of Adam de Pilmuir, a Dundee burgess, and the brother of Richard de Pilmuir, Bishop of Dunkeld (1337/38–1345/47).
Originally a canon of the diocese of Ross, on 30 March 1326, he was consecrated by Pope John XXII as Bishop of Moray at Avignon. The diocese of Moray had been reserved during the episcopate of David de Moravia, and this along with the lack of any record of an election in Moray makes it probable that Pilmuir's was a direct appointment of the Papacy. John had previously been the vicar in spirituals of Pierre Roger, Archbishop of Rouen, the future Pope Clement VI.
During his rule, Bishop Pilmuir was a frequent petitioner to the Papacy. He completed the foundation of the Scots College in Paris, initiated by his predecessor in Moray David de Moravia. The College would remain the responsibility of the Bishops of Moray until the Reformation. Bishop John died at episcopal residence of Spynie Castle on 28 September 1362. His episcopate was followed by the famous and eventful episcopate of Alexander Bur.Juan del Campo (bishop)
Juan del Campo (died 1344) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of León (1332–1334), Bishop of Oviedo (1328–1332), and Bishop of Cuenca (1327–1328).Pierre Desprès
Pierre Desprès (or Des Près, or Des Prés; Lat. de Pratis) (born 1288, at Montpezat-de-Quercy — died 1361, in Avignon) was a French Cardinal during the period of Avignon Papacy. He was son of Raymond II Desprès, seigneur of Montpezat, and Aspasie de Montaigut, the heiress of Bertrand, seigneur de Montaigut. He had a brother, Raymond, who was ennobled in 1325. Pesserat points out that Montpezat was an important town, being the seat of the Archdeacon of Montpezat in the diocese of Cahors, who was also Sacristan of the Cathedral. Not at all coincidentally, Pope John XXII was a native of Cahors, and his father had been Sieur de Saint-Félix en Quercy. With his expertise in the law as a teacher and practitioner, and with his experience as a judge in the Roman Curia, Pierre Desprès was appointed Vice-Chancellor of the Church by John XXII, where he served from 1325 to 1361. He was thus head of the Papal Secretariat, in charge of the drafting of papal bulls and letters, and a principal papal advisor. The post was also one of the most lucrative in the Roman Curia, since a fee was charged for every document and the Vice-Chancellor received a share of every fee.Pope John
Pope John may refer to:
Pope John I (523–526)
Pope John II (533–535)
Pope John III (561–574)
Pope John IV (640–642)
Pope John V (685–686)
Pope John VI (701–705)
Pope John VII (705–707)
Antipope John VIII (844)
Pope John VIII (872–882)
Pope John IX (898–900)
Pope John X (914–928)
Pope John XI (931–935)
Pope John XII (955–964)
Pope John XIII (965–972)
Pope John XIV (983–984)
Pope John XV (985–996)
Antipope John XVI (997–998) (no longer recognized as a legitimate pope)
Pope John XVII (1003)
Pope John XVIII (1003–1009)
Pope John XIX (1024–1032)
Pope John XX (not an actual pope)
Pope John XXI (1276–1277)
Pope John XXII (1316–1334)
Antipope John XXIII (1410–1415)
Pope John XXIII (1958–1963)Another 19 Popes John in the List of Coptic Orthodox Popes of AlexandriaRodrigo Ibáñez
Rodrigo Ibáñez (died 1 March 1335) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Tui (1326–1335) and Bishop of Lugo (1319–1320).Spondent Pariter
Spondent Pariter (sometimes referred to as Spondent quas non exhibent) was a papal decretal promulgated in 1317 by Pope John XXII forbidding the practice of alchemy. The rationale provided for the ban in the decretal is not a specifically theological one, but instead a moral condemnation, with the Pope expounding how fraudulent alchemists exploited the poor and charging them with knowingly engaging in falsehood.Stephen de Dunnideer
Stephen de Dunnideer [Donydouer, Donydoir, Dundore, Dundemore, Dunsmore ] (died 1317) was a 14th-century bishop-elect of Glasgow. He was elected by the canons of the see of Glasgow either in December 1316 or early 1317. After election, he travelled to the Holy See to receive consecration, but the pope, Pope John XXII rejected his election under pressure from King Edward II of England; he died at Paris on his return home. A letter dated 13 July 1317 was sent by King Edward thanking the pope for refusing to accept the election. Stephen made his way to return to Scotland, but died en route in the French city of Paris. Stephen must have died before 18 August, for on that date, the pope had already learned of his death, and announced that he would appoint a bishop himself. The Glasgow canons elected John de Lindesay to succeed him without knowing of the papal reservation, while the pope himself provided the Englishman John de Egglescliffe to the see.Walter Herok
Walter Herok [Herot] was a cleric from 13th century and 14th century Scotland. He served as Dean of Moray from 1296 or before until 1329. In that year, after the death of Henry le Chen, he was elected Bishop of Aberdeen. Walter travelled to Avignon to receive consecration from Pope John XXII, but died there, apparently before receiving consecration. Alexander de Kininmund became bishop instead.
|Catholic Church titles|
7 August 1316 – 4 December 1334
During the Roman Empire (until 493)
including under Constantine (312–337)
Ostrogothic Papacy (493–537)
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