Pope John XIX

Pope John XIX (Latin: Ioannes XIX; died October 1032) was Pope from May 1024 to his death in 1032.


John XIX
Pope John XIX
Papacy beganApril 1024[1]
Papacy endedOctober 1032
PredecessorBenedict VIII
SuccessorBenedict IX
Personal details
Birth nameRomanus
Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
DiedOctober 1032
Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
Other popes named John


Born Romanus in Rome was the third son of Gregory I, Count of Tusculum and his wife Mary. While his brother Theophylactus held the papacy as Pope Benedict VIII, Romanus held the temporal power in the city as consul and senator. Upon the death of Benedict, Romanus, a layman, was elected to succeed him. He was immediately ordained in all the orders in succession, and consecrated bishop in order to enable him to ascend the papal chair. He took the name of John.[2]

He played a role in the process leading to the Schism of 1054 by rejecting a proposal by Patriarch Eustathius of Constantinople to recognise that Patriarchate's sphere of interest in the east.[3] Against the grain of ecclesiastical history, John XIX agreed, upon being paid a large bribe, to recognize the Patriarch of Constantinople's claim to the title of ecumenical bishop. However, this proposal excited general indignation throughout the Church, compelling him almost immediately to withdraw from the agreement.

John invited the celebrated musician, Guido of Arezzo, to visit Rome and explain the musical notation invented by him. He encouraged the Benedictine to instruct the Roman clergy in music.[4]

On the death of the Emperor Henry II in 1024, he gave his support to Emperor Conrad II, who along with his consort was crowned with great pomp at St. Peter's Basilica on Easter of 1027. Two kings, Rudolph of Burgundy and Canute of Denmark and England, took part in this journey to Rome.[2] Consistent with his role as a Christian king, Cnut went to Rome to repent for his sins, to pray for redemption and the security of his subjects, and to improve the conditions for pilgrims, as well as merchants, on the road to Rome. Rudolph had control of many of the toll gates. Negotiations being successful, the solemn word of the Pope, the Emperor and Rudolph was given with the witness of four archbishops, twenty bishops, and "innumerable multitudes of dukes and nobles",[5] suggesting it was before the ceremonies were completed.

In 1025 he sent the crown to Poland and blessed the coronation of the Polish king Bolesław I the Brave.[6]

On 6 April 1027, John held a Lateran synod in which he declared for the Patriarch of Aquileia against the Patriarch of Grado, giving its bishop, Poppo of Aquileia, the patriarchal dignity and putting the bishop of Grado under his jurisdiction. In fact, the patriarch took precedence over all Italian bishops. In 1029, John revoked his decision and reaffirmed all the dignities of Grado. John also enacted a Papal Bull endowing Byzantius, Archbishop of Bari, with the right to consecrate his own twelve suffragans after the reattachment of the Bariot diocese to Rome in 1025. This was part of a conciliatory agreement with Eustathius, whereby the existence of the Byzantine Rite would be allowed in Italy in exchange for the establishment of Latin Rite churches in Constantinople.[7]

Pope John XIX took the Abbey of Cluny under his protection, and renewed its privileges in spite of the protests of Goslin, Bishop of Macon. He offered Odilo of Cluny the archbishopric of Lyons, but Odilo refused and the pope then chided Odilo for disobedience. John XIX died shortly after and his successor (Benedict IX) did not press the matter any further.[8]

He was said to have been killed by a mob of angry peasants, but there is no evidence to support this. The actual cause of death is unknown.

After John XIX's death, his nephew Pope Benedict IX was found as a successor, although he was still young; according to some sources, he was only 12, but he was more likely to have been about 18 or 20.

The next Pope named John was Pope John XXI (1276–77); there is no Pope John XX (see article on John XX for an explanation).

See also


  1. ^ "John XIX", The Holy See
  2. ^ a b Kirsch, Johann Peter. "Pope John XIX (XX)." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 8. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. 8 November 2017
  3. ^ Previté-Orton, p. 275.
  4. ^ Brusher SJ, Joseph S., "John XIX – The Layman Pontiff", Popes Through the Ages, (1980) San Rafael, California: Neff-Kane
  5. ^ Trow, M. J. (2005), Cnut – Emperor of the North, Stroud: Sutton, ISBN 0-7509-3387-9, p. 193
  6. ^ Halecki, Oscar and W. F. Reddaway, J. H. Penson, The Cambridge History of Poland, (Cambridge University Press), 67.
  7. ^ Runciman, p. 123.
  8. ^ Smith, Lucy Margaret. The Early History of the Monastery of Cluny. Oxford University Press, 1920


 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHerbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope John XIX (XX)". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Benedict VIII
Succeeded by
Benedict IX
Abuna Abraham

Abuna Abraham was a cleric of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, who was installed as the Archbishop of the Ethiopian church during the Fascist Italian occupation following the Second Italo-Ethiopian War, in place of the legitimate Archbishop Abuna Qerellos IV.

On 27 November 1937, Marshal Rodolfo Graziani convened an assembly of Ethiopian clergymen to elect a new Archbishop. Abuna Abraham, bishop of Gojjam, was elected. On 28 December 1937, the Holy Synod of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria under Pope John XIX declared the election illegitimate and excommunicated the new Archbishop.

Ignoring the interdiction of the Holy Synod and the Pope, Abuna Abraham and his successor Abuna Yohannes XV (r. 1939–1945) designated eleven bishops in order to constitute a full ecclesiastical hierarchy before the Italian occupation ended in 1941.

Alberic III, Count of Tusculum

Alberic III (died 1044) was the Count of Tusculum, along with Galeria, Preneste, and Arce, from 1024, when his brother the count Roman was elected Pope John XIX, until his own death. He was a son of Gregory I and Maria, brother of Popes Benedict VIII and John XIX, and brother-in-law of Thrasimund III of Spoleto.

Alberic used the title of consul, dux et patricius Romanorum: "consul, duke, and patrician of the Romans." This signified his secular authority in Rome. He also bore the titular comes sacri palatii Lateranensis ("Count of the Sacred Lateran Palace"), which signified his ecclesiastical function in the papal curia. During the pontificate of his brother John XIX, he was made a senator, but he had to abandon this title for the aforemention consular dignity in order to avoid tensions with the Emperor Henry II. Alberic does not appear in sources after 1033, when he left the comital powers to his son the newly elected pope.

He married Ermelina and his son Theophylact III (or IV) became Pope Benedict IX in 1032. He was succeeded by his second son Gregory II and left three other sons: the consul, dux et senator Romanorum Peter, Octavian, and Guy, all titled "Count of Tusculum."

Aribert (archbishop of Milan)

Aribert (or Heribert) (Italian: Ariberto da Intimiano, Lombard: Aribert de Intimian) (died 16 January 1045, Monza) was the archbishop of Milan from 1018, a quarrelsome warrior-bishop in an age in which such figures were not uncommon.Aribert went to Konstanz in June 1025, with other bishops of Northern Italy, to pay homage to Conrad II of Germany, the beleaguered founder of the Salian dynasty. There, in exchange for privileges, he agreed to crown Conrad with the Iron Crown of Lombardy, which the magnates had offered to Odo of Blois. This he did, on 26 March 1026, at Milan, for the traditional seat of Lombard coronations, Pavia, was still in revolt against imperial authority. He journeyed to Rome a year later for the imperial coronation of Conrad by Pope John XIX on 26 March 1027; at a synod at the Lateran he negotiated a decision of the precedence of the archdiocese of Milan over that of Ravenna. He subsequently joined an imperial military expedition into the Kingdom of Arles, which Conrad inherited upon the death in 1032 of Rudolph III of Burgundy, but which was contested by Odo.

In the political arena of Italy, power was disputed between the great territorial magnates— the capitanei— with their vassal captains and the lesser nobility— the valvassores— allied with the burghers of the Italian communes.

Aribert created enemies among the lower nobility, against whom he perpetrated the worst violences, and with the metropolitan of Ravenna, whose episcopal rights, along with those of the smaller sees, he ignored. A revolt soon engulfed northern Italy and, at Aribert's request, Conrad's son, the Emperor Henry III, travelled south of the Alps in the winter of 1036/37, to quell it. The Emperor, however, took the position of champion of the valvassores and demanded that Aribert should make a defence against charges brought against him, but Aribert refused, on the grounds that he was the emperor's equal. His consequent arrest provoked the rebellion of the anti-Imperial faction of the Milanese, seen by 19th-century historians as fiercely patriotic. Aribert had soon escaped his imprisonment and was leading the revolt from Milan. The Emperor found himself unable to take Milan by siege and proceeded to Rome, where his diplomatic skills succeeded in isolating Aribert from his erstwhile allies, notably through his famous decree of 28 May 1037, securing the tenancy of lesser vassals, both imperial and ecclesiastical. The Emperor took the step of deposing the fighting archbishop, and John's successor Pope Benedict IX excommunicated Aribert in March 1038. That year, he held up the carroccio as the symbol of Milan and soon it was the symbol of all the Tuscan cities as far as Rome. Aribert ended his episcopacy in relative peace, having agreed to cease hostilities with Henry, at Ingelheim in 1040, reconciled with him and obtained the revocation of his excommunication.


Bitetto (Barese: Vetétte; Latin: Vitetum, Bisctictum or Bitectum) is a town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Bari, Apulia, Italy.


Saint Bononio (or Bononius) (died August 30, 1026) was a Benedictine abbot and saint of the Catholic Church.

Bononio was born in Bologna sometime in the latter part of the tenth century. He became a monk at an early age, and while on a pilgrimage to the East settled in Egypt to live as a hermit during the reign of Fatamid Caliph Al-Aziz Billah. Noted for both his asceticism and charitable works, Bononio acquired some influence at court, and was permitted to build a few churches. When Peter, bishop of Vercelli, was captured by Arab forces after the Battle of Stilo, Bononio assisted in the bishop's release, and then retired to live as a hermit in the Sinai.In gratitude for Bononio's assistance, when Peter returned to Italy, he named him abbot of the monastery of Lucedio. At Lucedio, Bononio restored discipline amongst the monks and provided for the surrounding population. He died in Lucedio on August 30, 1026. Bononio was canonized by Pope John XIX. The saint's festival is celebrated on that day in the Piedmont liturgical calendar. The village of San Bononio is part of the municipality of Curino.

The story that Bononio was a disciple of Saint Romuald is based on a much later spurious vita fabricated by a Camaldolese abbot.


Conciliarity is the adherence of various Christian communities to the authority of ecumenical councils and to synodal church governance. It is not to be confused with conciliarism, which is a particular historical movement within the Catholic Church. Different churches interpret conciliarity different ways.

Episcopal see

An episcopal see is, in the usual meaning of the phrase, the area of a bishop's ecclesiastical jurisdiction.Phrases concerning actions occurring within or outside an episcopal see are indicative of the geographical significance of the term, making it synonymous with diocese.The word see is derived from Latin sedes, which in its original or proper sense denotes the seat or chair that, in the case of a bishop, is the earliest symbol of the bishop's authority. This symbolic chair is also known as the bishop's cathedra, and is placed in the diocese principal church, which for that reason is called the bishop's cathedral, from Latin ecclesia cathedralis, meaning the church of the cathedra. The word throne is also used, especially in the Eastern Orthodox Church, both for the seat and for the area of ecclesiastical jurisdiction.The term "see" is also used of the town where the cathedral or the bishop's residence is located.

Eustathius of Constantinople

Eustathius (Greek: Ευστάθιος; ? – December 1025) was Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople from 1019 to 1025.

Eustathius was the protopresbyter of the imperial palace when he was raised to the Patriarchal throne by the Emperor Basil II, after the death of Sergius II. Eustathius participated in the efforts of the Byzantines in 1024 to come to an accommodation with the Latin Papacy concerning the widening gap between the Western and Eastern churches, which culminated in the Schism of 1054. At the time of Eustathius, the Papacy claimed dominion over the Christian world, not just primacy, a position which offended Constantinople, the effective spiritual guides of much of the East to include the Russians, Bulgarians and Serbs. Eustathius offered a compromise to Pope John XIX, suggesting that the Orthodox Patriarch would be ecumenic in its own sphere (in suo orbe) in the East as the Papacy was in the world (in universo). It is assumed this was Eustathius' effort to retain control over the Southern Italian churches. While the offer was rejected, there was an acceptance by John of the practice of the Byzantine Rite in the south of Italy in exchange for the establishment of Latin Rite churches in Constantinople.His successor was Alexius of Constantinople.

Hugh IV of Lusignan

Hugh IV (died ca. 1026), called Brunus (Latin for the Brown), was the fourth Lord of Lusignan. He was the son of Hugh III Albus and Arsendis. He was a turbulent baron, who brought his family out of obscurity and on their way to prominence in European and eventually even Middle Eastern affairs.

Hugh spent many years in war with the Viscounts of Thouars over a fief he claimed was rightfully his. Peace was obtained briefly by Hugh's marriage to Audéarde or Aldiarde, the daughter of the viscount Ralph of Thouars. As a dowry, Hugh received the castle of Mouzeuil. Hugh already held the castle of Lusignan, built by his grandfather Hugh Carus, and that of Couhé, built by the duke of Aquitaine. When Ralph, died, however, his successor Geoffrey retook Mouzeuil.Hugh also engaged in a long war with Aimery I, lord of Rancon, who seized Civray, a fief of Bernard I of La Marche. By alliance with Duke William V of Aquitaine, Hugh and Bernard retook Civray and Hugh held it as a fief, though he lost it soon after. Nevertheless, he continued his war with Aimery.

When the Viscounty of Châtellerault fell vacant, Hugh asked the duke for it, but was put off with empty promises. Hugh waged war with the duke until the latter granted him the fief of Vivonne, which had once belonged to his uncle Joscelin. William later deprived Hugh of the proceeds of the tax on Saint-Maixent which his mother Emma, wife of William IV of Aquitaine, had granted Hugh's father.

On 6 March 1025, Hugh exchanged lands with the abbey of Saint-Hilaire of Poitiers in order to found a monastery for his soul. The duke obtained two charters from King Robert II confirming this monastic establishment and another at Couhé. Hugh and the Poitevin bishop Isembart then sent letters to Pope John XIX to beg exemption for his monasteries from all authority save that of Nouaillé. Said exemption was granted.

At his monastery of Notre-Dame de Lusignan, a monkish chronicler wrote the Conventum inter Guillelmum ducem Aquitaniae et Hugonem Chiliarchum celebrating Hugh's warmaking. According to the Conventum, Hugh died a year after his final agreement with the duke, probably in 1026 or thereabouts. He left two sons by Audéarde: Hugh V, who succeeded him, and Rorgo.

Pope Benedict IX

Pope Benedict IX (Latin: Benedictus IX; c. 1012 – c. 1056), born Theophylactus of Tusculum in Rome, was Pope on three occasions between October 1032 and July 1048. Aged approximately 20 at his first election, he is one of the youngest popes in history. He is the only man to have been Pope on more than one occasion and the only man ever to have sold the papacy.

Benedict was the nephew of his immediate predecessor, Pope John XIX. In October 1032, his father obtained his election through bribery. However, his reputed dissolute activities provoked a revolt on the part of the Romans. Benedict was driven out of Rome and Pope Sylvester III elected to succeed him. Some months later, Benedict and his supporters managed to expel Sylvester. Benedict then decided to abdicate in favor of his godfather, the Archpriest of St. John by the Latin Gate, provided he was reimbursed for his expenses. Gratian then became Pope Gregory VI. Benedict subsequently had second thoughts and returned, and attempted to depose Gregory. A number of prominent clergy appealed to Henry, King of the Germans to restore order. Henry and his forces crossed the Brenner Pass into Italy, where he summoned the Council of Sutri to decide the matter. Benedict, Sylvester, and Gregory were all deposed. Henry then nominated the bishop of Bamberg, Suidger von Morsleben, who was consecrated and became Pope Clement II in December 1046, thus clearing the way for Henry to be immediately crowned Holy Roman Emperor by a Pope recognized as legitimate.

While Benedict IX has an execrable reputation as pope, R.L. Poole suggests that some of the calumnies directed against him be understood in the context that they were perpetrated by virulent political enemies.

Pope Benedict VIII

Pope Benedict VIII (Latin: Benedictus VIII; ca. 980 – 9 April 1024) reigned from 18 May 1012 to his death in 1024. He was born Theophylactus to the noble family of the counts of Tusculum (son of Gregory, Count of Tusculum, and brother of future Pope John XIX), descended from Theophylact, Count of Tusculum, like his predecessor Pope Benedict VII (973–974). Horace Mann considered him "...one of the few popes of the Middle Ages who was at once powerful at home and great abroad."

Pope John

Pope John may refer to:

Pope John I (523–526)

Pope John II (533–535)

Pope John III (561–574)

Pope John IV (640–642)

Pope John V (685–686)

Pope John VI (701–705)

Pope John VII (705–707)

Antipope John VIII (844)

Pope John VIII (872–882)

Pope John IX (898–900)

Pope John X (914–928)

Pope John XI (931–935)

Pope John XII (955–964)

Pope John XIII (965–972)

Pope John XIV (983–984)

Pope John XV (985–996)

Antipope John XVI (997–998) (no longer recognized as a legitimate pope)

Pope John XVII (1003)

Pope John XVIII (1003–1009)

Pope John XIX (1024–1032)

Pope John XX (not an actual pope)

Pope John XXI (1276–1277)

Pope John XXII (1316–1334)

Antipope John XXIII (1410–1415)

Pope John XXIII (1958–1963)Another 19 Popes John in the List of Coptic Orthodox Popes of Alexandria

Pope John XIX of Alexandria

Pope John XIX of Alexandria (Abba Youannis XIX), 113th Pope of Alexandria & Patriarch of the See of St. Mark.

Pope John of Alexandria

John has been the papal name of several Coptic Popes.

Patriarch John II (I) of Alexandria (496–505)

Patriarch John III (II) of Alexandria (505–516)

Pope John III of Alexandria (677–688)

Pope John IV of Alexandria (776–799)

Pope John V of Alexandria (1147–1166)

Pope John VI of Alexandria (1189–1216)

Pope John VII of Alexandria (1261–1268, 1271–1293)

Pope John VIII of Alexandria (1300–1320)

Pope John IX of Alexandria (1320–1327)

Pope John X of Alexandria (1363–1369)

Pope John XI of Alexandria (1427–1452)

Pope John XII of Alexandria (1480–1483)

Pope John XIII of Alexandria (1483–1524)

Pope John XIV of Alexandria (1573–1589)

Pope John XV of Alexandria (1621–1631)

Pope John XVI of Alexandria (1676–1718)

Pope John XVII of Alexandria (1727–1745)

Pope John XVIII of Alexandria (1769–1796)

Pope John XIX of Alexandria (1928–1942)

Pope Macarius III of Alexandria

Pope Macarius III of Alexandria (Abba Macari III), 114th Pope of Alexandria & Patriarch of the See of St. Mark.

Before becoming a pope he was the Metropolitan of Asyut in Egypt. He is the second Metropolitan to become a Pope in the history of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria. The first Metropolitan to become a Pope was Pope John XIX.Due to him accepting the post there was a disagreement between him and Habib Elmasry who was the secretary of the General Congregation Council (Elmagles Elmelly Ela'am) of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria at some stage. Mr Elmasry was the father of the Coptic historian Iris Habib Elmasry and she had documented these incidents in her book about the history of the Coptic Orthodox Church.During his pontificate, he did not ordain any bishops or metropolitans and this was taken as a symbol of his regretting accepting the position of Pope of Alexandria despite being a metropolitan beforehand.He issued a document on 22 February 1944, its primary purpose was to repair monasteries and update the monks scientifically and spiritually, and to hold monastic heads accountable. This led to a major split between the Holy Synod and General Congregation Council (Elmagles Elmelly Ela'am). On 7 June 1944, the Holy Synod submitted an appeal to the Pope and to the Minister of Justice on the personal status law for non-Muslims Egyptians, because it destroyed a law of the Coptic Church and also affected secrets of the mysteries of the church and two sacraments, that of marriage and priesthood. This conflict continued for a while and The Holy Synod and General Congregation Council could not be reconciled. Pope Macarius failed to reconcile them, and abandon the capital headquarters and went into exile in Helwan. He later went to the Eastern monasteries accompanied by bishops and settled in Monastery of Saint Anthony in the Red Sea, then to the Monastery of Saint Paul the Anchorite. These incidents were painful among the Coptic people.

When the Prime Minister learned of this matter, he worked on resolving the issue, and the Pope returned.

Poppo of Treffen

Poppo of Treffen (also Wolfgang) was the fifty-seventh patriarch of Aquileia from 1019 to 1045.

In 1020, Poppo commanded the smallest of three armies which Emperor Henry II (who had appointed him as patriarch) led through Italy. Poppo followed the Apennines and joined the other divisions to besiege Troia, the new fortress of the Byzantine catepan Basil Boiannes. The siege failed and all parties returned home.

In 1027, Poppo entered and sacked Grado, the rival patriarchate of northern Italy. Indeed, Poppo's reign appeared to see the ultimate victory for Aquileia. On 6 April, Pope John XIX held a Lateran synod in which he declared for Aquileia, giving its bishop the patriarchal dignity and putting the bishop of Grado under his jurisdiction. The patriarch took precedence over all Italian bishops, in fact. In 1029, John revoked his decision and reaffirmed all the dignities of Grado.

Poppo later consecrated the new large cathedral at Aquileia in dedication to the Virgin Mary on 13 July 1031.

Rachelin (bishop of Kraków)

Rachelin, Bishop of Kraków (died 1046) was an early Bishop of Kraków from about 1030 to 1046AD.

His name is known from the 13th century chronicle “Sede Vacante w krakowski” which lists the names of the first nine Bishops, and Jan Długosz who accords that he was Italian and was consecrated Bishop by Pope John XIX. There is some doubt, however, over the historicity of this information and its more likely he was appointed by Mieszko II.

His Bishopric was dominated by the so-called Pagan reaction.

Saeculum obscurum

Saeculum obscurum (Latin: the Dark Age) is a name given to a period in the history of the Papacy during the first two-thirds of the 10th century, beginning with the installation of Pope Sergius III in 904 and lasting for sixty years until the death of Pope John XII in 964. During this period, the popes were influenced strongly by a powerful and corrupt aristocratic family, the Theophylacti, and their relatives.

William III, Count of Toulouse

William III Taillefer (also spelled Tallefer or Tallifer; c. 970 – September 1037) was the Count of Toulouse, Albi, and Quercy from 972 or 978 to his death. He was the first of the Toulousain branch of his family to bear the title marchio, which he inherited (c.975) from Raymond II of Rouergue.

His parentage has been subject to reevaluation. He has traditionally been called son of Raymond III Pons and Garsinda. However, recent research has revealed that William was instead son of Adelais of Anjou, known to have married a Raymond, "Prince of Gothia". This discovery has required a complete reevaluation of the succession to the County of Toulouse during this period, and no scholarly consensus has developed.He and his vassals were notorious usurpers of church property. He stole from the abbey of Lézat, but gave it back between 1015 and 1025. Pope John XIX ordered him to stop his vassals from taking the lands of Moissac, a problem later remedied by his successor, Pons, who gave Moissac to Cluny.

William became the most powerful prince in western Languedoc and he saw the rise of the House of Capet in France and a corresponding decrease in royal authority recognised in the south. He bore the title of marchio prefatus in pago Tholosano: "prefect margrave in the Toulousain country." His influence extended into the Narbonensis and even Provence, on behalf of his wife. His power did not remain undiminished in his own city of Toulouse, where he was forced by a council of local noblemen and clerics to give up dues imposed on the market there.

Before 992, William married Emma, daughter of Rotbold III of Provence. From her he gained titles and lands to Provence. From a prior marriage, he had two sons, Raymond and Hugh, who died young. His eldest son by Emma, Pons, inherited Toulouse and the title of Margrave of Provence. His second son Bertrand became Count of Forcalquier, a Provençal fief. He had an illegitimate daughter who married Otto Raymond of L'Isle-Jourdain.

1st–4th centuries
During the Roman Empire (until 493)
including under Constantine (312–337)
5th–8th centuries
Ostrogothic Papacy (493–537)
Byzantine Papacy (537–752)
Frankish Papacy (756–857)
9th–12th centuries
Papal selection before 1059
Saeculum obscurum (904–964)
Crescentii era (974–1012)
Tusculan Papacy (1012–1044/1048)
Imperial Papacy (1048–1257)
13th–16th centuries
Viterbo (1257–1281)
Orvieto (1262–1297)
Perugia (1228–1304)
Avignon Papacy (1309–1378)
Western Schism (1378–1417)
Renaissance Papacy (1417–1534)
Reformation Papacy (1534–1585)
Baroque Papacy (1585–1689)
17th–20th centuries
Age of Enlightenment (c. 1640-1740)
Revolutionary Papacy (1775–1848)
Roman Question (1870–1929)
Vatican City (1929–present)
21st century
History of the papacy
Bible and
By country
of the faithful
Early Church
Late antiquity
Early Middle Ages
High Middle Ages
Late Middle Ages
19th century
20th century
21st century

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.