Pope John XIV

Pope John XIV (Latin: Ioannes XIV; died 20 August 984) was Pope from December 983 to his death in 984. He was the successor to Pope Benedict VII.

John XIV was born at Pavia, and before his elevation to the papal chair was imperial Archchancellor for Italy of Emperor Otto II.[1] His earliest document in that capacity dates from 28 December 980, and the latest from 27 August 983.[2] Queen Adelheid of Burgundy, the wife of Otto II, and Queen Theano his wife, on behalf of Otto III, wished to make Majolus of Cluny pope in 983, but he refused, and Pietro Canepanova, Bishop of Pavia, was chosen instead.[3]

His original name was Pietro Canepanova,[4] but he took the name John XIV to avoid being linked to St. Peter himself.

Otto II died shortly after his election, his heir Otto III, being only 3 years old and unable to protect John's position as Pope. Antipope Boniface VII (974, 984–985), on the strength of the popular feeling against the new Pope, returned from Constantinople and placed John XIV in prison in the Castel Sant'Angelo, where he died either from starvation or poison.[5]

There has been considerable confusion of the number of Popes John. There was only the one John XIV. However, by the 13th century, clerical authorities in the Vatican came to wrongly believe that there were two John XIVs and began to double-count John XIV accordingly. This led to a pope calling himself John XXI, instead of John XX, in 1276.

Pope

John XIV
Pope John XIV Illustration
Papacy beganDecember 983
Papacy ended20 August 984
PredecessorBenedict VII
SuccessorJohn XV
Personal details
Birth namePietro Canepanova
BornPavia, Italy
Died20 August 984
Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
Other popes named John

References

  1. ^ Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "John XIV." . Encyclopædia Britannica. 15 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 435.
  2. ^ Gerhard Schwart (1907), [https://archive.org/details/MN42020ucmf_1 Die Besetzung der Bistümer Reichsitaliens unter den sächsischen und salischen Kaisern: mit den Listen der Bischöfe, 951-1122 (Leipzig: B.G. Teubner) (in German), p. 142.
  3. ^ J. N. D. Kelly, The Oxford Dictionary of Popes (Oxford 1986), "John XIV", p. 132.
  4. ^ George L. Williams, Papal Genealogy: The Families And Descendants Of The Popes, (McFarland & Company, 1998), 232.
  5. ^ Eleanor Shipley Duckett, Death and Life in the Tenth Century, (University of Michigan Press, 1967), 110.

Sources

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Benedict VII
Pope
983–984
Succeeded by
John XV
984

Year 984 (CMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Antipope Boniface VII

Antipope Boniface VII (Franco Ferrucci, died July 20, 985), was an antipope (974, 984–985). He is supposed to have put Pope Benedict VI to death. A popular tumult compelled him to flee to Constantinople in 974; he carried off a vast treasure, and returned in 984 and removed Pope John XIV (983–984) from office. After a brief rule from 984 to 985, he died under suspicious circumstances.

Boniface VII was not yet considered an antipope when the next pope of that same regnal name was elected.

August 20

August 20 is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 133 days remain until the end of the year.

Christianity in the 10th century

By the 10th century, Christianity had spread throughout much of Europe and Asia. The Church of England was becoming well established, with its scholarly monasteries, and the Roman Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church were continuing their separation, ultimately culminating in the Great Schism.

Crescentius the Elder

Crescentius the Elder (died 7 July 984) was a politician and aristocrat in Rome who played a part in the papal appointment.

John XIV

John XIV may refer to:

Pope John XIV, ruled in 983–984

John XIV of Constantinople, Ecumenical Patriarch in 1334–1347

Pope John XIV of Alexandria, ruled in 1571–1586

List of popes

This chronological list of popes corresponds to that given in the Annuario Pontificio under the heading "I Sommi Pontefici Romani" (The Supreme Pontiffs of Rome), excluding those that are explicitly indicated as antipopes. Published every year by the Roman Curia, the Annuario Pontificio attaches no consecutive numbers to the popes, stating that it is impossible to decide which side represented at various times the legitimate succession, in particular regarding Pope Leo VIII, Pope Benedict V and some mid-11th-century popes. The 2001 edition of the Annuario Pontificio introduced "almost 200 corrections to its existing biographies of the popes, from St Peter to John Paul II". The corrections concerned dates, especially in the first two centuries, birthplaces and the family name of one pope.The term pope (Latin: papa, lit. 'father') is used in several Churches to denote their high spiritual leaders (for example Coptic Pope). This title in English usage usually refers to the head of the Catholic Church. The Catholic pope uses various titles by tradition, including Summus Pontifex, Pontifex Maximus, and Servus servorum Dei. Each title has been added by unique historical events and unlike other papal prerogatives, is not incapable of modification.Hermannus Contractus may have been the first historian to number the popes continuously. His list ends in 1049 with Pope Leo IX as number 154. Several changes were made to the list during the 20th century. Antipope Christopher was considered legitimate for a long time. Pope-elect Stephen was considered legitimate under the name Stephen II until the 1961 edition, when his name was erased. Although these changes are no longer controversial, a number of modern lists still include this "first Pope Stephen II". It is probable that this is because they are based on the 1913 edition of the Catholic Encyclopedia, which is in the public domain.

A significant number of these popes have been recognized as saints, including 48 out of the first 50 consecutive popes, and others are in the sainthood process. Of the first 31 popes, 28 died as martyrs (see List of murdered popes).

List of popes who died violently

A collection of popes who have had violent deaths through the centuries. The circumstances have ranged from martyrdom (Pope Stephen I) to war (Lucius II), to a beating by a jealous husband (Pope John XII). A number of other popes have died under circumstances that some believe to be murder, but for which definitive evidence has not been found.

Papal appointment

Papal appointment was a medieval method of selecting a pope. Popes have always been selected by a council of Church fathers, however, Papal selection before 1059 was often characterized by confirmation or "nomination" by secular European rulers or by their predecessors. The later procedures of the papal conclave are in large part designed to constrain the interference of secular rulers which characterized the first millennium of the Roman Catholic Church, and persisted in practices such as the creation of crown-cardinals and the jus exclusivae. Appointment might have taken several forms, with a variety of roles for the laity and civic leaders, Byzantine and Germanic emperors, and noble Roman families. The role of the election vis-a-vis the general population and the clergy was prone to vary considerably, with a nomination carrying weight that ranged from near total to a mere suggestion or ratification of a prior election.

The institution has its origins in late antiquity, where on more than one occasion the emperor stepped in to resolve disputes over the legitimacy of papal contenders. An important precedent from this period is an edict of Emperor Honorius, issued after a synod he convoked to depose Antipope Eulalius. The power passed to (and grew with) the King of the Ostrogoths, then the Byzantine Emperor (or his delegate, the Exarch of Ravenna). After an interregnum, the Kings of the Franks and the Holy Roman Emperor (whose selection the pope also sometimes had a hand in), generally assumed the role of confirming the results of papal elections. For a period (today known as the "saeculum obscurum"), the power passed from the Emperor to powerful Roman nobles—the Crescentii and then the Counts of Tusculum.

In many cases, the papal coronation was delayed until the election had been confirmed. Some antipopes were similarly appointed. The practice ended with the conclusion of the Investiture Controversy (c.f. confirmation of bishops) due largely to the efforts of Cardinal Hildebrand (future Pope Gregory VII), who was a guiding force in the selection of his four predecessors, and the 1059 papal bull In Nomine Domini of Pope Nicholas II; some writers consider this practice to be an extreme form of "investiture" in and of itself.Although the practice was forbidden by the Council of Antioch (341) and the Council of Rome (465), the bishops of Rome, as with other bishops, often exercised a great deal of control over their successor, even after the sixth century. In addition, most popes from the fourth to twelfth century were appointed or confirmed by a secular power.

Papal selection before 1059

There was no fixed process for papal selection before 1059. Popes, the bishops of Rome and the leaders of the Catholic Church, were often appointed by their predecessors or secular rulers. While the process was often characterized by some capacity of election, an election with the meaningful participation of the laity was the exception to the rule, especially as the popes' claims to temporal power solidified into the Papal States. The practice of papal appointment during this period would later give rise to the jus exclusivae, a veto right exercised by Catholic monarchies into the twentieth century.

The lack of an institutionalized process for papal succession was prone to religious schism, and several papal claimants before 1059 are currently regarded by the Church as antipopes. Furthermore, the frequent requirement of secular approval of elected popes significantly lengthened periods of sede vacante and weakened the papacy. In 1059, Pope Nicholas II succeeded in limiting future papal electors to the cardinals with In nomine Domini, creating standardized papal elections that would eventually evolve into the papal conclave.

Paromeos Monastery

The Paromeos Monastery (Coptic: ⲡⲁⲣⲟⲙⲉⲟⲥ), also known as Baramos Monastery (Arabic: البراموس‎), is a Coptic Orthodox monastery located in Wadi El Natrun (the Nitrian Desert), Beheira Governorate, Egypt. It is the most northern among the four current monasteries of Scetes, situated around 9 km northeast of the Monastery of Saint Pishoy. Ecclesiastically, the monastery is dedicated to and named after the Virgin Mary.

Patriarch John XIV

Patriarch John XIV may refer to:

John XIV of Constantinople, Patriarch of Constantinople in 1334–1347

Pope John XIV of Alexandria, Pope of Alexandria & Patriarch of the See of St. Mark in 1571–1586

Pope John

Pope John may refer to:

Pope John I (523–526)

Pope John II (533–535)

Pope John III (561–574)

Pope John IV (640–642)

Pope John V (685–686)

Pope John VI (701–705)

Pope John VII (705–707)

Antipope John VIII (844)

Pope John VIII (872–882)

Pope John IX (898–900)

Pope John X (914–928)

Pope John XI (931–935)

Pope John XII (955–964)

Pope John XIII (965–972)

Pope John XIV (983–984)

Pope John XV (985–996)

Antipope John XVI (997–998) (no longer recognized as a legitimate pope)

Pope John XVII (1003)

Pope John XVIII (1003–1009)

Pope John XIX (1024–1032)

Pope John XX (not an actual pope)

Pope John XXI (1276–1277)

Pope John XXII (1316–1334)

Antipope John XXIII (1410–1415)

Pope John XXIII (1958–1963)Another 19 Popes John in the List of Coptic Orthodox Popes of Alexandria

Pope John XIV of Alexandria

Pope John XIV of Alexandria, was the 96th Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of the See of St. Mark.

He joined the Paromeos Monastery in the Nitrian Desert before becoming a Pope.

Pope John XV

John XV and Pope John XV can also refer to Pope John XV of Alexandria.Pope John XV (Latin: Ioannes XV; born in Rome, died April 1 996) was Pope from August 985 to his death in 996. He succeeded Pope John XIV (983–984). He was said to have been Pope after another Pope John who reigned four months after John XIV and was named "Papa Ioannes XIV Bis" or "Pope John XIVb". This supposed second John XIV never existed, rather he was confused with a certain cardinal deacon John, son of Robert, who was opposed to antipope Boniface VII and is now excluded from the papal lists.

In 993, he was the first pope to proclaim a saint. At the request of the German ruler, he canonized Bishop Ulrich of Augsburg on 31 January 993. Before that time, saint cults had been local and spontaneous.

Pope John numbering

The numbering of Popes John does not occur in strict numerical order. Twenty-one popes have used the name "Pope John", but the latest was Pope John XXIII, not John XXI. These discrepancies in regnal numbers are due in part to a now discounted belief in another Pope John between John XIV and John XV, and the antipapacy of John XVI.

(As well as twenty-one popes, three antipopes have used the name, but by convention antipopes are ignored in the numbering of later popes.)

Pope John of Alexandria

John has been the papal name of several Coptic Popes.

Patriarch John II (I) of Alexandria (496–505)

Patriarch John III (II) of Alexandria (505–516)

Pope John III of Alexandria (677–688)

Pope John IV of Alexandria (776–799)

Pope John V of Alexandria (1147–1166)

Pope John VI of Alexandria (1189–1216)

Pope John VII of Alexandria (1261–1268, 1271–1293)

Pope John VIII of Alexandria (1300–1320)

Pope John IX of Alexandria (1320–1327)

Pope John X of Alexandria (1363–1369)

Pope John XI of Alexandria (1427–1452)

Pope John XII of Alexandria (1480–1483)

Pope John XIII of Alexandria (1483–1524)

Pope John XIV of Alexandria (1573–1589)

Pope John XV of Alexandria (1621–1631)

Pope John XVI of Alexandria (1676–1718)

Pope John XVII of Alexandria (1727–1745)

Pope John XVIII of Alexandria (1769–1796)

Pope John XIX of Alexandria (1928–1942)

Roman Catholic Diocese of Sessa Aurunca

The Diocese of Sessa Aurunca (Latin: Dioecesis Suessana) is a Roman Catholic ecclesiastical territory in southern Italy. It is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Naples. In 2014, in the diocese of Sessa there was one priest for every 1,605 Catholics.

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