Pope John XIII

Pope John XIII can also refer to Pope John XIII of Alexandria.
Pope

John XIII
Papa Ioannes XIII
Papacy began1 October 965
Papacy ended6 September 972
PredecessorLeo VIII
SuccessorBenedict VI
Personal details
Birth nameGiovanni Crescentius
BornRome, Papal States
Died6 September 972 (aged 42)
Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
Previous postCardinal-Priest of Santa Maria in Domnica (944–965)
Other popes named John

Pope John XIII (Latin: Ioannes XIII; d. 6 September 972) was Pope from 1 October 965 to his death in 972.[1] His pontificate was caught up in the continuing conflict between the Emperor, Otto I, and the Roman nobility.

Family and early career

Born in Rome, John was the son of Giovanni, who was a bishop. It has been conjectured that his father was the Roman noble Giovanni Crescentius, a member of the Crescentii family who had married into the family of Theophylact I, Count of Tusculum. If so, his father had previously been a duke, and possibly even appointed consul, prior to his ordination as bishop.[2] Consequently, John was probably the brother of Crescentius the Elder (the patricius romanorum), as well as Stephania, lady of Palestrina (who married Count Benedict, Rector of the Sabina) and Marozia, who married Gregory I, Count of Tusculum.[3]

Brought up at the Lateran palace, he was a member of the schola cantorum, and his career during that time saw him pass through a number of positions, including that of Ostiarius, Reader, Exorcist and Acolyte before reaching the ranks of Subdeacon and then Deacon.[4] After leaving the schola, he took an active part in papal administration, serving in the Chancery of Apostolic Briefs under popes John XII and Leo VIII. He also served as Librarian of the Holy Apostolic See in 961.[5] At some point he was appointed as the bishop of Narni, as which he participated in the Synod of Rome (963) which deposed Pope John XII, as well as the Synod of Rome (964) which saw his restoration.[6]

Election as Pope and the rebellion of the Romans

After the death of Leo VIII, the Roman nobility asked the Emperor, Otto I for the reinstatement of Pope Benedict V. When this was not possible, Bishop John Crescentius was suggested as a compromise candidate by Otto's envoys, the bishops Otger of Spiers and Liutprand of Cremona.[7][8] Elected unanimously, John was consecrated on Sunday, 1 October 965, five months after the death of Leo VIII.

John immediately took on the task of curbing the power of the Roman nobility. He gave members of the Crescentii family important positions to shore up his support, while he also sought closer ties with the emperor.[9] However, with the emperor back in Germany, various local powers decided to take advantage of his absence to intrigue against John XIII. The former king Adalbert of Italy had appeared in front of an army in Lombardy, whilst the Roman nobility, disliking John's behaviour, and resenting his imposition by a foreign power, staged a revolt. Under the leadership of Peter, the Prefect of the city, together with Rofred, the Count of Roman Campagna and the Vestararius Stephen, they roused the Roman nobility by declaring that

”The Saxon kings were going to destroy their power and influence, and were going to lead their children into captivity.”[2]

The leaders of the Roman militia captured the pope on December 16, 965, and imprisoned him in Castel Sant'Angelo. However, fearing John's presence there would inspire resistance from his followers, the pope was moved to one of Rofred's castles in the Campagna.[10] Word eventually reached Otto of all these disturbances, who entered Italy in late summer of 966 at the head of an enormous army. In the meantime, John had managed to escape from Campagna, and made his way to Capua, placing himself under the protection of Pandulf Ironhead.[11] In thanks for Pandulf's aid, John converted Capua into a Metropolitan see, and consecrated as its first archbishop Pandulf's brother John, on August 14, 966.[12] In Rome, the pope's supporters rose up, and Rofred and Stephen were killed by John Crescentius, the pope's nephew. Pope John left Capua, and crossed into Sabina, where he was met by his brother-in-law, Benedict, who also offered John his support. With Rome effectively back in his hands, John returned and was welcomed back into the city on November 14, 966.[13] Although he was initially lenient towards the rebels, the arrival of Otto saw a change in approach. The emperor banished to Germany the two men appointed consul; the twelve principal militia leaders (the Decarcones, one appointed to each of the city's twelve regions) were hanged. Other plotters were either executed or blinded. The Prefect of the City, Peter, was handed over to John, who ordered him to be hung by his hair from the Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius, after which he was taken down, placed naked and backwards on an ass. A bag of feathers was placed upon his head and two more at his thighs. With a bell fastened round its neck, Peter was driven through the city, and after being thus exposed to the ridicule of the people, Peter was cast into a dungeon before finally being sent by the emperor into Germany.[14][15] In gratitude for the emperor's intervention, John lauded him by declaring him to be the liberator and restorer of the Church, the illustrious guest, and three times blessed emperor.[16]

In 969, he met Gerbert d'Aurillac, the future Pope Sylvester II, and was so impressed by his scholarly brilliance that he kept him on in Rome in order to learn from him.[17]

Troubles with the Eastern Empire

After John XIII's restoration, he worked with the Emperor on ecclesiastical improvements. It was decided in a council held at Rome in the beginning of 967 in the emperor's presence that Grado was to be the patriarchal and metropolitan church of the whole of the Veneto. At another council at Ravenna in April 967, Otto again “restored to the apostolic Pope John the city and territory of Ravenna and many other possessions which had for some time been lost to the Popes.”[18] At around this time he also created, at Otto's request, the Archbishopric of Magdeburg.[19]

Then, on Christmas Day in 967, John XIII crowned Otto I's son Otto II as co-Emperor.[20] Various synods were held before the emperors left Rome for the south of Italy, in which, sometimes at their request, John XIII took several German monasteries under his special protection, or decided that in some cases they were to remain forever “under the patronage (mundiburdium) of the kings or emperors.”[21] With Otto I seeking a marriage alliance with the Byzantine Empire through his son and a Byzantine princess, John XIII lent his support to Otto's cause. He wrote a letter to the Eastern Emperor, Nikephoros II Phokas, but ended up insulting him by referring to him, not as “Emperor of the Romans”, but as “Emperor of the Greeks”.[22] As his price for the marriage, Otto demanded a dowry from the Eastern Empire, that of the Themes of Longobardia and Calabria. Nikephoros retorted by instead demanding the restitution of the Exarchate of Ravenna, which included Rome and the Papal States, as the price for the imperial marriage.[23] When negotiations broke down, Nikephoros refused to write to John XIII in his own hand, instead sending him a threatening letter written by his brother, Leo Phokas the Younger.[24]

After the failure of negotiations, Nikephoros attempted to extend the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Patriarch of Constantinople into the Pope's jurisdiction in southern Italy. The eastern emperor ordered the Patriarch to transform the bishopric of Otranto into a metropolitan see, and to ensure that services were no longer said in Latin, but in Greek only. Patriarch Polyeuctus of Constantinople quickly addressed an order to the head of the Church of Otranto giving him authority to consecrate bishops in the churches of Acerenza, Tursi, Gravina, Matera, and Tricarico, all previously dependent on the Church of Rome.[25] In response, and at the request of the western emperor, John convened a synod in 969, which elevated the bishopric of Benevento into a metropolitan see, thus reducing the influence of the Byzantine Empire and Eastern Orthodox Church there.[26]

However, the death of Nikephoros Phokas in 969 saw the elevation of John I Tzimiskes. He entered into negotiations with Otto I, and soon Otto II was betrothed to the niece of the eastern emperor. The marriage of Otto II and Theophanu was performed by John XIII at Rome on April 14, 972, at Rome.[27]

Relations with other states

John was also involved in the development of ecclesiastical structures across Europe. In 968, John appointed the first Bishop of Poland, Jordan.[28] In 973, John appointed a sister of Boleslaus II, Duke of Bohemia, Mlada, as an abbess of the Benedictine Order. He gave her a papal bull which authorised the foundation of the bishopric of Prague in accordance with the wishes of Boleslaus, which had been made through Mlada. John decreed that the church of SS. Vitus and Wenceslaus should be the new cathedral church. At the church of St. George, a convent of nuns was to be established, over which the duke's sister was to preside. Finally, the Latin rite and not the Byzantine rite was to be followed, and someone who was well instructed in Latin literature had to be chosen as the first bishop.[29]

In 971, John XIII published a bull supporting the action of the English king Edgar and Archbishop Dunstan against the canons of Winchester Cathedral, who refused to give up their wives and concubines.[30] In that same year, John confirmed the privileges which King Edgar had granted the monks of Glastonbury Abbey, and declared that it was under papal protection.[31] Further, John sent a letter to an Ealdorman named Aelfric, commanding him to cease taking money from Glastonbury.[32]

In Germany, John appointed the Archbishop of Trier as the Papal vicar, responsible for promoting the decrees of any synods held in Germany or West Francia.[33] He also granted numerous privileges across Europe. In one case, dated September 29, 970, for the monastery of St. Vincent of Metz, we find the first recorded grant of the Pontificals. Its abbot was granted the use, under certain conditions, of the Dalmatic and Episcopal sandals. John was also the recipient of many requests for help. In one case, the monks of the monastery of St. Peter at Novalisa, asked for the pope to intervene to help protect them against a local Count named Ardoin.[34] In another case, in November 971, Adalberon, the Archbishop of Reims went to Rome to ask the pope to confirm the archbishop's decision to leave some property to the monks of Mouzon Abbey, thereby protecting his donation from King Louis IV of France.[35]

Finally, in 970, John bestowed the town of Praeneste as a hereditary lease to his probable sister, the Senatrix Stephania. Praeneste was to belong to her, her children and grandchildren, for a yearly rent of ten gold solidi, but it was afterwards to return to the Church. It is one of the first examples of the introduction of the system of Feudalism into Roman territory.[36]

John XIII died on September 6, 972, and was buried in the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls.[37] He was succeeded by Pope Benedict VI. It was during John's reign that earliest surviving written mention of the ancient practice of the blessing of church bells comes from.[38]

Character

Referred to by one chronicler after his death as “The Good”,[37] John was noted for his reverence and piety, as well as being highly learned in both scripture and canon law.[39] From childhood he carried the nickname of the White Hen, due to his light colored hair.[5] His epitaph used to be in the basilica where he was buried, between the front door and the first column, and it read:

”Here, where in death the good pastor would have them placed, are the remains of Pope John. By the mercy of God and the merits of St. Paul, freed from the bonds of death, may he hence ascend into heaven, and share in the happiness of the blessed above. Do you who piously read this epitaph pray that Christ, who with His sacred Blood redeemed the world, may have pity on His servant and free him from his sins.”[40]

Legends

There is a legend which attached itself to the reign of John XIII. According to Dietrich I of Metz, one of the nobles attached to the court of the emperor Otto I was possessed by an evil spirit, resulting in his tearing at his own face, and biting his hands and arms. The emperor ordered that the nobleman be taken to Pope John XIII, with instructions that the Chains of Saint Peter be placed upon him, and so cure him. According to the legend, John placed several chains on the afflicted man, each of which were copies, but to no effect. However, when John placed the true chain of Saint Peter on him, a thick smoke issued from the nobleman's body, cries were heard in the air, and the evil spirit left the nobleman.[41]

References

  • Norwich, John Julius, The Popes: A History (2011)
  • Gregorovius, Ferdinand, The History of Rome in the Middle Ages, Vol. III (1895)
  • Mann, Horace K., The Lives of the Popes in the Early Middle Ages, Vol. IV: The Popes in the Days of Feudal Anarchy, 891-999 (1910)
  • DeCormenin, Louis Marie; Gihon, James L., A Complete History of the Popes of Rome, from Saint Peter, the First Bishop to Pius the Ninth (1857)

Notes

  1. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope John XIII" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  2. ^ a b Mann, pg. 286
  3. ^ Mann, pgs. 285-286; Gregorovius, pgs. 358-359
  4. ^ Mann, pgs. 283-284
  5. ^ a b Mann, pg. 284
  6. ^ Gregorovius, pg. 358
  7. ^ Richard P. McBrien, Lives of the Popes: The Pontiffs from St. Peter to Benedict XVI, (HarperCollins, 2000), 160.
  8. ^ Gregorovius, pg. 357
  9. ^ Gregorovius, pg. 359
  10. ^ Mann, pgs. 286-287; Gregorovius, pg. 359
  11. ^ Gregorovius, pg. 360
  12. ^ Mann, pg. 287
  13. ^ Gregorovius, pg. 360; Mann, pg. 287
  14. ^ Norwich, pg. 83
  15. ^ Mann, pgs. 287-288; Gregorovius, pgs. 360-362; 364
  16. ^ ”Roma caput totius mundi et ecclesia universalis ab inquis pene pessum data, a Domno Ottone aug. Imp., a Deo coronato Caesare, et magno, et ter benedicto—erecta est et in pristinum honorem omni reverentia redacta.” Gregorovius, pgs. 364-5
  17. ^ Paul Collins (4 Mar 2014). The Birth of the West: Rome, Germany, France, and the Creation of Europe in the Tenth Century (illustrated, reprint ed.). PublicAffairs. p. 369. ISBN 9781610393683.
  18. ^ Mann, pg. 289
  19. ^ The Papacy:An Encyclopedia, Ed. Philippe Levillain, (Routledge, 2002), 841.
  20. ^ McBrien, 161.
  21. ^ Mann, pgs. 290-291
  22. ^ Norwich, John Julius, Byzantium: The Apogee (1993), pg. 200
  23. ^ Mann, pg. 292
  24. ^ Mann, pgs. 292-293
  25. ^ Mann, pg. 293
  26. ^ Mann, pg. 294
  27. ^ Gregorovius, pg. 376
  28. ^ Jerzy Kłoczowski (14 September 2000). A History of Polish Christianity. Cambridge University Press. pp. 10–13. ISBN 978-0-521-36429-4. Retrieved 5 April 2012.
  29. ^ Mann, pgs. 295-296
  30. ^ Mann, pg. 269
  31. ^ Mann, pgs. 297-298
  32. ^ Mann, pgs. 298-299
  33. ^ Mann, pg. 299
  34. ^ Mann, pgs. 300-301
  35. ^ Mann, pgs. 301-302
  36. ^ Gregorovius, pg. 374; Mann, pg. 285
  37. ^ a b Mann, pg. 303
  38. ^ DeCormenin, pg. 304
  39. ^ Mann, pg. 283
  40. ^ Mann, pg. 304
  41. ^ DeCormenin, pg. 303

External links

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Leo VIII
Pope
965–972
Succeeded by
Benedict VI
972

Year 972 (CMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Antipope Boniface VII

Antipope Boniface VII (Franco Ferrucci, died July 20, 985), was an antipope (974, 984–985). He is supposed to have put Pope Benedict VI to death. A popular tumult compelled him to flee to Constantinople in 974; he carried off a vast treasure, and returned in 984 and removed Pope John XIV (983–984) from office. After a brief rule from 984 to 985, he died under suspicious circumstances.

Boniface VII was not yet considered an antipope when the next pope of that same regnal name was elected.

Crescentii

The Crescentii clan (in modern Italian Crescenzi) — if they were an extended family — essentially ruled Rome and controlled the Papacy from 965 until the nearly simultaneous deaths of their puppet pope Sergius IV and the patricius of the clan in 1012.

Gisulf I of Salerno

Gisulf I (also Gisulph, Gisolf, Gisulfo, Gisolfo, Gisulphus, or Gisulfus) (May 930 – November or December 977) was the eldest son of his father, Guaimar II, and his second wife Gaitelgrima. He was associated with his father as prince of Salerno in 943 and he succeeded him on his death in 952. He took to using the title Langobardorum gentis princeps: "prince of the people of the Lombards." He was originally under the regency of his mother and Prisco (Priscus), treasurer (comes tesaurarium) and count of the palace (magister palatii).

In 946, he was assaulted by an alliance of Landulf II of Benevento and John III of Naples, but his own ally, Mastalo I of Amalfi, came to his rescue and ambushed Landulf's forces at La Cava. In the next year, he allied with Landulf and besieged Neapolitan Nola. In October 953, he issued a diploma favouring the bishop of Naples, but the unscrupulous diplomacy of his neighbours never seemed to favour him. Sometime after 955, however, he was made a patrician by Marianus Argyrus, the Byzantine strategos of Bari. In Autumn 966, Pope John XIII led a Roman-Tuscan-Spoletan army against Landulf III of Benevento and his brother Pandulf Ironhead, but Gisulf came to his rescue and no battle was given. The pope and Gisulf made a treaty at Terracina. It was this act which bought him later assistance from the powerful Ironhead.

In 973, Gisulf was deposed and removed from office by Landulf of Conza and his sons in alliance with Marinus II of Naples and Manso of Amalfi. His neighbour, the prince of Benevento and Capua, Pandulf Ironhead, restored Gisulf as his vassal. Though Gisulf was married to Gemma, he died heirless in late 977 (or perhaps 978) and Pandulf succeeded in Salerno.

Hoël I, Duke of Brittany

Hoël I of Brittany was an illegitimate son of Alan II and Judith . He was Count of Nantes and Duke of Brittany from 960 to 981.

John XIII

John XIII may refer to:

Pope John XIII, (r. 965–972)

John XIII of Constantinople, Ecumenical Patriarch (r. 1315–1320)

John XIII bar Ma'dani, Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch (r. 1483–1493)

Pope John XIII of Alexandria, Coptic Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria (r. 1483-1524)

List of historical swords

This is a list of notable individual swords, known either from historical record or from surviving artifacts.

Marozia

Marozia, born Maria and also known as Mariuccia or Mariozza (c. 890 – 937), was a Roman noblewoman who was the alleged mistress of Pope Sergius III and was given the unprecedented titles senatrix ("senatoress") and patricia of Rome by Pope John X.

Edward Gibbon wrote of her that the "influence of two sister prostitutes, Marozia and Theodora was founded on their wealth and beauty, their political and amorous intrigues: the most strenuous of their lovers were rewarded with the Roman tiara, and their reign may have suggested to darker ages the fable of a female pope. The bastard son, two grandsons, two great grandsons, and one great great grandson of Marozia—a rare genealogy—were seated in the Chair of St. Peter." Pope John XIII was her nephew, the offspring of her younger sister Theodora. From this description, the term "pornocracy" has become associated with the effective rule in Rome of Theodora and her daughter Marozia through male surrogates.

Pandulf Ironhead

Pandulf I Ironhead (died March 981) was the Prince of Benevento and Capua from 943 (or 944) until his death. He was made Duke of Spoleto and Camerino in 967 and succeeded as Prince of Salerno in 977 or 978. He was an important nobleman in the fight with the Byzantines and Saracens for control of the Mezzogiorno in the centuries after the collapse of Lombard and Carolingian authority on the Italian Peninsula. He established himself over almost the whole of the southern half of Italia before his death in March 981.

His mother was Yvantia. He co-reigned with his father, Landulf II, from 943, when his grandfather Landulf I died, and with his brother Landulf III from 959. Sometime about 955, Pope John XII led an army of Romans, Tuscans, and Spoletans against Landulf II and Pandulf, but Gisulf I of Salerno came to their rescue and no battle was given. The pope and Gisulf made a treaty at Terracina. Gisulf and Pandulf had a strong alliance after that.

In 961, Landulf II died and Pandulf and his brother became sole princes, though the elder Pandulf was by far the more domineering. The Chronicum Salernitanum affirms the co-regency, however, and the principle of the indivisibility of the united Capua-Benevento as declared by Atenulf I in 900, when it says Beneventanorum principatum eius filii Pandolfum et Landulfum bifarie regebant . . . communi indivisoque iure, that is "the Beneventan principality was reigned in jointly by Pandulf and Landulf under indivisible common jurisdiction." However, this system eventually collapsed and Pandulf ruled in Capua while Landulf ruled in Benevento. The Chronicum says Pandulf tenuit principatum una cum suo germanus annos octo, that is, "held the principality solely with his brother for eight years."

Late in 965, a rebellion in Rome overthrew Pope John XIII, who was arrested and carted off to imprisonment in Campania. Whether he escaped or was released, he arrived in Capua not much later, seeking the protection of Pandulf, who gladly gave it. In return, and for the favour of the citizens, he erected Capua into an archdiocese and gave Pandulf's brother John the pallium. After ten months of exile, another revolt in Rome gave opportunity for return and Pandulf sent the pope back with a Capuan escort.

In 967, the Emperor Otto I came down to Rome and granted Pandulf the vacant Duchy of Spoleto of Camerino and charged him with prosecuting the war against the Byzantine Empire. Pandulf and Landulf introduced Prince Gisulf of Salerno to the emperor at this time. They then took part in the imperial campaign of 968, but Landulf retired in illness and died at Benevento leaving two sons: Pandulf and Landulf. Even though Pandulf was with the emperor on the border of Calabria when news of Landulf's death reached him, he quickly returned to Benevento and associated with him his own eldest son Landulf, who was crowned prince in the church of Sancta Sophia, before rejoining the imperial campaign. In that year, Otto left the siege of Bari in the charge of Pandulf, but the Lombard was captured in the Battle of Bovino (969) by the Byzantines and jailed in Constantinople. In 970, during his absence, the Byzantines besieged Capua and Marinus II of Naples ravaged the countryside. He was released later in the deal in which the Byzantine emperor John Tzimisces gave Theophanu in marriage to Otto's son Otto II. During his absence, the great principality had been administered by Landulf I, Archbishop of Benevento, and the young Landulf, with help from his mother, Pandulf's wife, Aloara. Benevento had been made an archdiocese in 969.

In the 960s, Byzantium had been trying to supplant German influence in Salerno and to this end may have engineered the rebellion which temporarily unseated John XIII, a pro-German pope. Prince Gisulf of Salerno, however, was allied both to the Greeks and to his Lombard neighbour Pandulf, whom he had rescued some years before and who was, in fact, staunchly pro-German and anti-Greek. When Gisulf was deposed and removed from office by Pandulf's cousin, Landulf of Conza, in 973, Pandulf restored Gisulf as his vassal. When Gisulf died childless in 977 or 978, Pandulf succeeded in Salerno as per their prior agreement. The policy of the Greeks was a thorough failure and Pandulf (and his Germans) was the winner in southern Italy. He had united all three of the Lombard principalities — Benevento, Capua, and Salerno — and had even gained Spoleto and Camerino. He ruled a large bloc of territories that stretched as far north as Tuscany and as far south as the Gulf of Taranto.In 978, Pandulf confirmed that the Sanctuary of Monte Sant'Angelo sul Gargano belonged the archbishopric of Benevento. This act was witnessed by two Byzantine officials.Pandulf's lands were partitioned among his sons, who fought endlessly over the inheritance. His son Landulf IV received Capua and Benevento and Pandulf II received Salerno. Otto II came down to Rome in 981, however, and Spoleto was given to Thrasimund IV, Duke of Camerino. Then, Pandulf's nephew Pandulf was given Benevento in a partition of Landulf's territory, in which Landulf kept Capua. Finally, Manso I of Amalfi dispossessed the younger Pandulf of Salerno and was confirmed by the Emperor.

Pandulf had several other sons: Landenulf, who succeeded Landulf IV in Capua; Laidulf, who succeeded Landenulf; and Atenulf, who died at the Battle of Stilo on 13 July 982.

Patriarch John XIII

Patriarch John XIII may refer to:

John XIII of Constantinople, Ecumenical Patriarch in 1315–1320

Ignatius John XIII, Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch in 1483–1493

Pope John XIII of Alexandria, Pope of Alexandria & Patriarch of the See of St. Mark in 1483–1524

Pope Benedict VII

Pope Benedict VII (Latin: Benedictus VII; d. October 983) was Pope from October 974 to his death in 983.

Benedict was born in Rome, the son of David or Deodatus (brother of Alberic II of Spoleto). His date of birth is not known with certainty, but it is known that he was related to Prince Alberic II and connected to the Conti family. Before his election to the papacy, he had previously served as Bishop of Sutri.He was elected by the Roman clergy and people in October 974 under the influence of Sicco, imperial envoy of Emperor Otto II. He succeeded to the papacy as a compromise candidate to replace antipope Boniface VII (974, 984–985). Boniface, who had caused the death of Pope Benedict VI, usurped the pontificate, and in a month plundered the Vatican of its most valuable contents. He then escaped to Constantinople.The new pope's authority was opposed by Boniface VII and his supporters, and although the antipope himself was forced to flee, his party followed fiercely in his footsteps and compelled Benedict to call upon Otho II for help. Once he was firmly established on his throne by the emperor, he showed himself both desirous of checking the tide of simony which was rising high in the Church, and of advancing the cause of monasticism.Benedict VII consecrated the priest James, who had been sent to him by the people of Carthage "to help the wretched province of Africa," which since the Muslim conquest of the Maghreb, had seen a steep decline in the number of bishops. Benedict VII visited the city of Orvieto with his nephew Filippo Alberici, who later settled there and became consul of the city in 1016. In 978 Benedict issued a bull defining the boundaries of the diocese of Vic for bishop Froia, thereby rescinding the bulls issued by Pope John XIII that had made Vic an archdiocese. In March 981, Benedict presided over a synod in St Peter's that prohibited simony. In September 981, he convened a Lateran Synod.

Benedict VII died in the year 984, and was interred at Santa Croce in Gerusalemme.

Pope Gabriel VII of Alexandria

Pope Gabriel VII of Alexandria (Anda Gabriel VII) was the 95th Coptic Orthodox Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of the See of St. Mark.

He was born in the area around the monastery of El-Mouharraq, and at a young age he became a monk in the wilderness at the Monastery of Saint Macarius the Great. Known for his good conduct and great holiness, he was ordained Patriarch in 1525 A.D. following the death of Pope John XIII. Gabriel's patriarchate witnessed the early years of Ottoman rule in Egypt.

Gabriel was patriarch for more than forty years. Some of his important accomplishments were the renovation of the monasteries of Saint Anthony, and Saint Paul, the first hermit, in the Eastern desert, and the monastery of El-Mouharraq in Upper Egypt.

Some people in authority asked him to approve things against the welfare of his flock. The Pope chose to leave his Chair and he went to the Monastery of Saint Anthony, for he desired to keep what the Lord said: "Greater love has no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends." (John 15:13) The Lord examined him but he endured thankfully, and received the blessing that the Lord gave for those persecuted for the sake of righteousness. Pope Gabriel died in 1570 following a brief illness.

Pope John

Pope John may refer to:

Pope John I (523–526)

Pope John II (533–535)

Pope John III (561–574)

Pope John IV (640–642)

Pope John V (685–686)

Pope John VI (701–705)

Pope John VII (705–707)

Antipope John VIII (844)

Pope John VIII (872–882)

Pope John IX (898–900)

Pope John X (914–928)

Pope John XI (931–935)

Pope John XII (955–964)

Pope John XIII (965–972)

Pope John XIV (983–984)

Pope John XV (985–996)

Antipope John XVI (997–998) (no longer recognized as a legitimate pope)

Pope John XVII (1003)

Pope John XVIII (1003–1009)

Pope John XIX (1024–1032)

Pope John XX (not an actual pope)

Pope John XXI (1276–1277)

Pope John XXII (1316–1334)

Antipope John XXIII (1410–1415)

Pope John XXIII (1958–1963)Another 19 Popes John in the List of Coptic Orthodox Popes of Alexandria

Pope John XIII of Alexandria

Pope John XIII of Alexandria was the 94th Coptic Orthodox Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of the See of St. Mark. Little is known of him except for his long reign (over forty years), and that his patriarchate witnessed the downfall of the Mamluk Sultanate and the rise of Ottoman power in Egypt.

Pope John of Alexandria

John has been the papal name of several Coptic Popes.

Patriarch John II (I) of Alexandria (496–505)

Patriarch John III (II) of Alexandria (505–516)

Pope John III of Alexandria (677–688)

Pope John IV of Alexandria (776–799)

Pope John V of Alexandria (1147–1166)

Pope John VI of Alexandria (1189–1216)

Pope John VII of Alexandria (1261–1268, 1271–1293)

Pope John VIII of Alexandria (1300–1320)

Pope John IX of Alexandria (1320–1327)

Pope John X of Alexandria (1363–1369)

Pope John XI of Alexandria (1427–1452)

Pope John XII of Alexandria (1480–1483)

Pope John XIII of Alexandria (1483–1524)

Pope John XIV of Alexandria (1573–1589)

Pope John XV of Alexandria (1621–1631)

Pope John XVI of Alexandria (1676–1718)

Pope John XVII of Alexandria (1727–1745)

Pope John XVIII of Alexandria (1769–1796)

Pope John XIX of Alexandria (1928–1942)

Roman Catholic Diocese of Magdeburg

The Diocese of Magdeburg is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic church, located in the German state of Saxony-Anhalt. Its seat is Magdeburg; it is suffragan to the Archdiocese of Paderborn.

The Diocese was erected out of Paderborn territories in 1994. Its history dates back to the medieval Archbishopric of Magdeburg established in 968 AD.

Roman Catholic Diocese of Narni

The Italian Catholic diocese of Narni, in central Italy, was suppressed in 1907, becoming part of the diocese of Terni.

Thankmarsfelde

Thankmarsfelde was a former Benedictine monastery in the Harz Mountains of Germany, south of Ballenstedt.

It was founded and endowed by Archbishop Gero of Cologne and his brother, Margrave Thietmar on 29 August 970 in the church in Thankmarsfelde. The monastery was moved to Nienburg Abbey in 975 with the aim of bringing the Christian faith to the Sorb population in Gau Serimuntt. The founding of the monastery was confirmed by Pope John XIII on 25 December 971.

Theophylact I, Count of Tusculum

Theophylact I (before 864 – 924/925) was a medieval Count of Tusculum who was the effective ruler of Rome from around 905 through to his death in 924. His descendants would control the Papacy for the next 100 years.

1st–4th centuries
During the Roman Empire (until 493)
including under Constantine (312–337)
5th–8th centuries
Ostrogothic Papacy (493–537)
Byzantine Papacy (537–752)
Frankish Papacy (756–857)
9th–12th centuries
Papal selection before 1059
Saeculum obscurum (904–964)
Crescentii era (974–1012)
Tusculan Papacy (1012–1044/1048)
Imperial Papacy (1048–1257)
13th–16th centuries
Viterbo (1257–1281)
Orvieto (1262–1297)
Perugia (1228–1304)
Avignon Papacy (1309–1378)
Western Schism (1378–1417)
Renaissance Papacy (1417–1534)
Reformation Papacy (1534–1585)
Baroque Papacy (1585–1689)
17th–20th centuries
Age of Enlightenment (c. 1640-1740)
Revolutionary Papacy (1775–1848)
Roman Question (1870–1929)
Vatican City (1929–present)
21st century
History of the papacy

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