Pope John VIII

Pope John VIII can also refer to Pope John VIII of Alexandria.
Pope

John VIII
Pope John VIII Illustration
Papacy began14 December 872
Papacy ended16 December 882
PredecessorAdrian II
SuccessorMarinus I
Personal details
BornRome, Papal States
Died16 December 882
Rome, Papal States
Other popes named John

Pope John VIII (Latin: Ioannes VIII; died 16 December 882) was Pope from 14 December 872 to his death in 882. He is often considered one of the ablest pontiffs of the 9th century.[1]

He devoted much of his papacy attempting to halt and reverse the Muslim gains in southern Italy and their march northwards, which was "destroying the economy of papal patrimony."[2] When his efforts to obtain assistance from either the Franks or the Byzantines was unavailing, John was forced to focus on strengthening the defenses of the city of Rome. To this end he reinforced the walls around the Vatican, and had defense works constructed at Saint Paul Outside the Walls.

Pope John supported Methodius in his mission to the Slavs, and defended him against the German episcopy, which felt that Methodius was intruding on their terrain. He authorized the translation of the Bible into Slavonic and extended diplomatic recognition to the Duchy of Croatia. Pope John resolved the Photian schism by agreeing to recognize Photios as Patriarch of Constantinople, and later on, excommunicating him. [3]

Early life and career

He was born in Rome and as a young man witnessed the Arab raid against Rome by the Muslim Aghlabids.[4] Among the reforms achieved during his pontificate was a notable administrative reorganisation of the papal Curia.

Support for Methodius

Pope Adrian II had consecrated Methodius archbishop and supported his mission to the Slavs. In 873, John VIII learned of the imprisonment of Methodius[5]by his German enemies, who objected to his use of the Slavonic language in the liturgy. John forbade the celebration of Mass in Bavaria until Methodius was released. Following Methodius' release John allowed him to resume his episcopal duties in Illyricum, but forbid him to celebrate mass in the Slavonic language,[6] a prohibition Methodius may have largely ignored.

The imprisonment of Methodius seems to have been caused by Aldwin of Salzburg, who viewed Methodius as encroaching on his jurisdiction in Moravia. Upon the release of Methodius, the Pope extended his jurisdiction not only to Great Moravia and Pannonia, but to Serbia as well, and authorized Methodius to translate the Bible into Slavonic. "He who made three main languages - Hebrew, Greek, and Roman - also made all other languages to sing his praise and glory."[7]

During the solemn divine service in St. Peter's church in Rome in 879, John VIII gave his blessing to duke Branimir of Croatia and the whole Croatian people, about which he informed Branimir in his letters. His country received papal recognition as a state. John made the decision on 21 May and confirmed it in his letter of 7 June 879.[8]

Saracen incursions

Pope John asked for military aid from Charles the Bald and later Count Boso of Provence, in response to Saracens who were raiding Campania and the Sabine Hills.[9] His efforts failed and he was forced to pay tribute to the Emirate of Sicily.[10] The threatening Muslim military presence (which he believed was God's punishment against "bad Christians"),[11] coupled with alliances they formed with the local Christians, prompted John to promote "a new and uncompromisingly hostile view of the Saracens." This included a ban on forming alliances with the Muslims. However, his efforts proved unsuccessful,[12] partly because Christian leaders viewed his calls for unity as an excuse to assert papal authority in southern Italy.[11]

In 876, John VIII traveled throughout Campania in an effort to form an alliance among the cities of Salerno, Capua, Naples, Gaeta and Amalfi against Muslim raids. By 877, all five cities sent delegates to Traietto to formalize an alliance.[13] The Pope John VIII urged HRE Charles to come to his defence in Italy. Charles again crossed the Alps, but this expedition was received with little enthusiasm by the nobles, and even by his regent in Lombardy, Boso, and they refused to join his army. At the same time Carloman of Bavaria, son of Louis the German, entered northern Italy. Charles, ill and in great distress, started on his way back to Gaul, but died while crossing the pass of Mont Cenis on 6 October 877.[14]

Obtaining relatively little support from outside sources, John fell back on what resources he could command. He reinforced the walls previously restored by Pope Leo IV. As the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls was located outside the Aurelian Walls, and had been damaged in a Saracen raid, the Pope fortified the Basilica, the monastery, and the nearby dwellings of the peasants. He also founded a papal fleet.[15]

In 879 he recognised the reinstatement of Photius as the legitimate patriarch of Constantinople; Photius had been condemned in 869 by Pope Adrian II. This was undertaken mainly to appease the Byzantines, since in them he saw the only hope of removing the Arabs from Italy.[16] Some time afterward, Pope John VIII had re-confirmed the excommunication against Photius, and, after the death of Emperor Basil in 886, Emperor Leo VI used the papal proclamation to move against Photius, casting Photius away to an Armenian monastery[17].

In 878 John crowned Louis II, king of France.[18] He also anointed two Holy Roman Emperors: Charles II and Charles III.

John VIII was assassinated in 882,[19] almost certainly by his own clerics[15] —the first pope in history to suffer such a fate. According to Barbara M. Kreutz, the assassination has been blamed upon such factors as his exhaustion of the papal treasury, his lack of support among the Carolingians, his gestures towards the Byzantines and his failure to stop the Saracen raids.[20] Without the protection of powerful magnates such as the Emperor, the papacy became increasingly subject to the machinations and greedy ambition of the rival clans of the local nobility.[15]

See also

References

  1. ^ Mann, Horace. "Pope John VIII." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 8. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. retrieved 10 June 2007.
  2. ^ Barbara M. Kreutz (7 Jun 2011). Before the Normans: Southern Italy in the Ninth and Tenth Centuries. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 57. ISBN 9780812205435.
  3. ^ https://sensusfidelium.us/apologetics/history-of-heresies-their-refutation-st-alphonsus/the-errors-of-the-greeks-condemned-in-three-general-councils/
  4. ^ Barbara M. Kreutz, Before the Normans: Southern Italy in the Ninth and Tenth Centuries, (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1991), p. 57.
  5. ^ Eric Joseph Goldberg, Struggle for Empire: Kingship and Conflict Under Louis the German, 817–876, Cornell University Press, 2006, p. 319.
  6. ^ Eric Joseph Goldberg, Struggle for Empire: Kingship and Conflict Under Louis the German, 817–876, pp. 319–20.
  7. ^ Murphy, p. 79.
  8. ^ Stjepan Antoljak, Pregled hrvatske povijesti, Split 1993, str. 43.
  9. ^ Pierre Riche, The Carolingians: A family who forged Europe, Transl. Michael Idomir Allen, (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1993), p. 203.
  10. ^ The Expansion of Saracens:Africa and Europe, C.H. Becker, The Cambridge Medieval History, Vol.2, Ed. John Bagnell Bury, (The Macmillan Company, 1913), p. 387.
  11. ^ a b John Victor Tolan; Gilles Veinstein; Henry Laurens (2013). Europe and the Islamic World: A History (illustrated ed.). Princeton University Press. p. 35. ISBN 9780691147055.
  12. ^ Andrew Shryock (30 June 2010). Islamophobia/Islamophilia: Beyond the Politics of Enemy and Friend. Indiana University Press. p. 32. ISBN 9780253004543.
  13. ^ Kreutz (1991), p. 58.
  14. ^ Riche, Pierre. The Carolingians:The Family who forged Europe. 1983. University of Pennsylvania Press
  15. ^ a b c O'Malley, John W., A History of the Popes, New York, Sheed & Ward, 2010
  16. ^ Barbara M. Kreutz (7 Jun 2011). Before the Normans: Southern Italy in the Ninth and Tenth Centuries. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 60. ISBN 9780812205435.
  17. ^ https://sensusfidelium.us/apologetics/history-of-heresies-their-refutation-st-alphonsus/the-errors-of-the-greeks-condemned-in-three-general-councils/
  18. ^ John VIII, Pierre Riche, The Papacy: Gaius-Proxies, Vol. 2, ed. Philippe Levillain, (Routledge, 2002), p. 837.
  19. ^ Dawson, Christopher, Religion and the Rise of Western Culture, (Doubleday 1950), p. 108
  20. ^ Barbara M. Kreutz (7 June 2011). Before the Normans: Southern Italy in the Ninth and Tenth Centuries. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 59–60. ISBN 9780812205435.

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHerbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope John VIII". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.

Bibliography

External links

Further reading

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Adrian II
Pope
872–882
Succeeded by
Marinus I
Ansegisus of Sens

Ansegisus (the Latinized form of Ansegis) was a Benedictine monk, Abbot of St. Michael's, at Beauvais, and in 871 became Archbishop of Sens.

After Charles the Bald was crowned Emperor by Pope John VIII, he asked the Pope to appoint Ansegisus papal legate and primate over Gaul and Germany. With a papal legate of French nationality, amicably disposed towards the Emperor, Charles the Bald thought he could more easily extend his influence as emperor over those countries. The Pope yielded to Charles' wish, but when the bishops, assembled at the Synod of Ponthion, were asked to acknowledge the primacy of Ansegisus, they protested, especially Hincmar, Archbishop of Reims, against what they considered an infringement on their rights. Though Ansegisus retained the title, it is doubtful whether he ever exercised the powers of Primate of France and Germany.

Ansegisus died on 25 November 879, or 883.

Archbishopric of Moravia

The Archbishopric of Moravia (Latin: Sancta Ecclesia Marabensis) was an ecclesiastical province, established by the Holy See to promote Christian missions among the Slavic peoples. Its first archbishop, the Byzantine Methodius, persuaded Pope John VIII to sanction the use of Old Church Slavonic in liturgy. Methodius had been consecrated archbishop of Pannonia by Pope Adrian II at the request of Koceľ, the Slavic ruler of Pannonia in East Francia in 870.

Methodius's appointment was sharply opposed by the Bavarian prelates, especially the Archbishop of Salzburg and the Bishop of Passau, because missionaries from their dioceses had already been active for decades in the territory designated to Methodius, including Pannonia and Moravia. Methodius was soon captured and imprisoned. He was only released in 873 on Pope John VIII's order. He settled in Moravia which emerged as a leading power in Central Europe during the next decade in the reign of Svatopluk. However, most clerics, who had come from East Francia, were hostile to the archbishop, who introduced Byzantine customs and promoted the use of vernacular in liturgy. They accused Methodius of heresy, but he convinced the pope of the orthodoxy of his views. The pope also strengthened Methodious's position, declaring that all clerics in Moravia, including the newly consecrated bishop of Nitra, were to be obedient to Methodius in 880.

Methodius died on 6 April 885. Wiching, Bishop of Nitra, who had always been hostile to the archbishop, expelled his disciples from Moravia. No new archbishop was appointed, and Wiching, who remained the only prelate with a see in Moravia, settled in East Francia in the early 890s. Church hierarchy was only restored in Moravia when the legates of Pope John IX consecrated an archbishop and three bishops around 899. However, the Magyars occupied Moravia in the first decade of the 10th century.

Athanasius of Naples

Athanasius (died 898) was the Bishop (as Athanasius II) and Duke of Naples from 878 to his death. He was the son of Gregory III and brother of Sergius II, whom he blinded and deposed in order to seize the throne while he was already bishop.

In this usurpation, Athanasius was originally supported (financially) by Pope John VIII, who desired to break the Neapolitan friendship with the Saracens.In 879, John excommunicated Athanasius, for the latter had not yet broken with the Moslems. He was instead involving himself in the wars over the throne of Capua. He assisted Atenulf against his brothers and cousins. With Byzantine troops, he besieged Capua itself. From about 881, he himself ruled Capua, technically a vassal of Prince Guaimar I of Salerno. He and Guaimar fought an indecisive war while the latter was preoccupied with the Saracen menace Athanasius was ignoring. In 886, Athanasius, since released from excommunication, was allied with the Saracens again and received a threat from Pope Stephen V of a blockade of Naples.

By 887, Atenulf was installed in Capua as count. In 888, Athanasius and Atenulf disputed the region of "Liburnia" and went to war. They fought an indecisive battle at S. Carzio on the Clanio.

In 895, Athanasius fomented a revolt of the Neapolitan populace in the city of Salerno. However, Guaimar's young son, Guaimar II, put it down.

Domestically, Athanasius increased the power and prestige of Naples. He was a hellenophile who worked to preserve many Greek manuscripts and maintain good relations with Byzantium. He had a daughter, Gemma, who married Landulf I of Benevento, son of his former ally Atenulf. He was succeeded as duke by his nephew Gregory IV and as bishop by his brother Stephen.

Bernard II, Count of Poitiers

Bernard II (died February 844) was the count of Poitou from 840 until his death. His ancestry is uncertain. He was most likely the son of Adalhelm of Autun, on the basis of onomastics. He was probably a member of the Guilhemid family. His brothers were Turpio (died 863) and Emenon (died 866), counts of Angoulême and Périgord, respectively.

According to Ademar of Chabannes, writing 150 years after the events, Emenon was count of Poitou in 838, when King Pippin I of Aquitaine died. He supported the succession of Pippin's son, Pippin II, but the Emperor Louis the Pious instead bestowed the kingdom of Aquitaine on his own youngest son, Charles. Bernard was resident in Poitiers in 839, when the emperor led an army against it, forcing Emenon to flee to their brother Turpio at Angoulême and Bernard to flee to Renaud, count of Herbauges. Ademar of Chabannes refers to Bernard as a "Poitevin count", comes pictavinus, but it is not clear if he means to imply that Bernard was count of Poitou at this time or just that he held the rank of count and was from the Poitou. Louis named Ranulf I as count of Poitou in Emenon's place.Although Bernard fled to Renaud of Herbauges, this does not indicate that Bernard was in revolt, since Renaud was a loyal supporter of Emperor Louis and King Charles. In 840, Emenon submitted to the emperor and it is possible that Bernard did the same. Louis died on 20 June 840, and during the ensuing civil war between his sons, Pippin II seized control of Aquitaine. He besieged Poitiers, which resisted under its bishop, Ebroin, until he was forced to retreat by Charles's army. It is not clear if Bernard was appointed count by Pippin II in opposition to Ranulf, or if he was appointed by Charles to oppose Pippin. In any case, there is no evidence that during this time the city of Poitiers was administered by anyone other than the bishop, who was present on the scene, unlike Bernard or Ranulf.During the civil war, Bernard joined Renaud of Herbauges in putting down the rebellion of Lambert, son of Count Lambert I of Nantes. Renaud died in 843 and his son Hervé continued the fight against Lambert. Bernard was killed in combat in February 844.Bernard's wife was Belihildis, known only from a bull of Pope John VIII excommunicating her son, Marquis Bernard of Gothia. The Historia inventionis et translationis reliquiarium Sancti Baudelli martyris records that her son had an uncle named Gauzlin who was an abbot before he was a bishop. This most likely refers to Gauzlin, abbot of Saint-Denis and then bishop of Paris. He was a son of Count Rorgon I of Maine and Bilichildis (a variant of Belihildis), who were thus most likely the parents of Bernard's wife as well. Besides Bernard of Gothia, Bernard and Belihildis had another son named Emenon.

Branimir of Croatia

Branimir (Latin: Branimiro) was a ruler of Croatia who reigned as duke (Croatian: knez) from 879 to 892. His country received papal recognition as a state from Pope John VIII on 7 June 879. During his reign, Croatia retained its sovereignty from both Frankish and Byzantine rule and became de jure independent.

Chair of Saint Peter

The Chair of Saint Peter (Latin: Cathedra Petri), also known as the Throne of Saint Peter, is a relic conserved in St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican City, the sovereign enclave of the Pope inside Rome, Italy. The relic is a wooden throne that tradition claims the Apostle Saint Peter, the leader of the Early Christians in Rome and first Pope, used as Bishop of Rome. The relic is enclosed in a sculpted gilt bronze casing designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini and executed between 1647 and 1653. In 2012, Pope Benedict XVI described the chair as "a symbol of the special mission of Peter and his Successors to tend Christ’s flock, keeping it united in faith and in charity."The wooden throne was a gift from Holy Roman Emperor Charles the Bald to Pope John VIII in 875. It has been studied many times over the years, the last being from 1968 to 1974, when it was last removed from the Bernini altar. That study concluded that it was not a double, but rather a single, chair with a covering and that no part of the chair dated earlier than the sixth century.The Chair is the cathedra of St. Peter's Basilica. Cathedra is Latin for "chair" or "throne", and denominates the chair or seat of a bishop, hence "cathedral" denominates the Bishop's church in an episcopal see. The Popes formerly used the Chair. It is distinct from the Papal Cathedra in St. John Lateran Archbasilica, also in Rome, which is the actual cathedral church of the Pope.

Charles the Fat

Charles III (13 June 839 – 13 January 888), also known as Charles the Fat, was the Holy Roman Emperor from 881 to 888. A member of the Carolingian dynasty, Charles was the youngest son of Louis the German and Hemma, and a great-grandson of Charlemagne. He was the last Carolingian emperor of legitimate birth and the last to rule over all the realms of the Franks.

Over his lifetime, Charles became ruler of the various kingdoms of Charlemagne's former empire. Granted lordship over Alamannia in 876, following the division of East Francia, he succeeded to the Italian throne upon the abdication of his older brother Carloman of Bavaria who had been incapacitated by a stroke. Crowned Emperor in 881 by Pope John VIII, his succession to the territories of his brother Louis the Younger (Saxony and Bavaria) the following year reunited the kingdom of East Francia. Upon the death of his cousin Carloman II in 884, he inherited all of West Francia, thus reuniting the entire Carolingian Empire.

Usually considered lethargic and inept—he is known to have had repeated illnesses and is believed to have suffered from epilepsy—he twice purchased peace with Viking raiders, including at the infamous Siege of Paris (885–886) which led to his downfall.

The reunited empire did not last. During a coup led by his nephew Arnulf of Carinthia in November 887, Charles was deposed in East Francia, Lotharingia, and Kingdom of Italy. Forced into quiet retirement he died of natural causes in January 888, just a few weeks after his deposition. The Empire quickly fell apart after his death, splintering into five separate successor kingdoms; the territory it had occupied was not entirely reunited under one ruler until the conquests of Napoleon.

Domagoj of Croatia

Domagoj (Latin: Domagoi) was a duke (Croatian: knez) in Croatia from 864 until his death in 876 and the founder of the Domagojević dynasty. He usurped the Croatian throne after the death of Trpimir I and expelled his sons. He took a more active role in the Adriatic Sea than his predecessors, encouraged the use of force and waged many wars, specifically with the Arabs, Venice and the East Francia. Domagoj's belligerence and the tolerance and support of piracy caused bad relations with Pope John VIII, which was further worsened after Domagoj showed no mercy to his conspirators. Formally a Frankish vassal, he used to his advantage the Frankish succession crisis and started a successful revolt against Carloman of Bavaria. After his death in 876, Domagoj was succeeded by his son who was deposed and expelled by Zdeslav in 878 .

Duchy of Croatia

The Duchy of Croatia (Croatian: Kneževina Hrvatska; also Duchy of the Croats, Kneževina Hrvata; Dalmatian Croatia, Dalmatinska Hrvatska; Littoral Croatia, Primorska Hrvatska; Greek: Χρωβατία), was a medieval Croatian duchy that was established in the former Roman province of Dalmatia. Throughout its time it had several seats – namely, Klis, Solin, Knin, Bijaći and Nin. It comprised the whole of the littoral – the coastal part of today's Croatia – and included a large part of the mountainous hinterland, as well. The Duchy was in the center of competition between the Carolingian Empire and the Byzantine Empire for rule over the area. Rivalry with Venice emerged in the first decades of the 9th century and was to continue for the following centuries. Croatia also waged battles with the Bulgarian Empire, with whom the relations improved greatly afterwards, and the Arabs and sought to extend its control over important coastal cities under the rule of Byzantium. Croatia experienced periods of vassalage to the Franks or Byzantines and de facto independence until 879, when Croatian Duke Branimir received recognition from Pope John VIII as an independent realm. The ruling dynasty of Croatia was the House of Trpimirović, with interruptions by the House of Domagojević (864–878 and 879–c. 892). The Duchy existed until around 925 when, during the rule of Duke Tomislav, Croatia became a kingdom.

Guy II of Spoleto

Guy II (sometimes III) (died late 882 or early 883) was the eldest son and successor of Lambert I as Duke of Spoleto and Margrave of Camerino. He was elected to succeed to these titles on his father's death in 880. He had an ambitious plan of expansion to the south and to the west that conflicted with the Papacy.

He received a papal letter on 18 July in the year of his accession. Pope John VIII asked for a meeting, but Guy ignored him and instead invaded the Papal States. John responded by begging the aid of Charles the Fat, already King of Italy, and crowning him Emperor on 12 February 881. Charles did little to help against Guy, however. A papal letter dated to 11 November and addressed to Charles referred to Guy as Rabbia, an epithet meaning "rage." It stuck as a nickname.

In February 882, at a diet convoked in Ravenna by Charles, the duke, emperor, and pope made peace and Guy and his uncle, Guy of Camerino, vowed to restore stolen papal lands. In a March letter to Charles, John claimed that the vows went unfulfilled. Guy never succeeded in his dreams of expansion or in keeping his promises: he died young, later that year or early in the next. His uncle succeeded him, as his children were minors. His son Guy IV later ruled in Spoleto and the Principality of Benevento. His daughter Itta married Guaimar I of Salerno.

John VIII

John VIII may refer to:

Pope John VIII, Pope from 872 to 882

Antipope John VIII, antipope in 844

John VIII bar Abdoun, Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch (944-1033)

John VIII of Constantinople, Patriarch of Constantinople (1010-1075)

John VIII Palaiologos, Byzantine Emperor (1392–1448)

John VIII, Count of Harcourt, 1398–1424

John VIII, Count of Vendôme, 1426–1477

John VIII, Archbishop of Antivari, d. 1571

John VIII, Count of Nassau-Siegen, 1583–1638

The mythical Pope Joan, in some versions of her legend

John VIII of Constantinople

"Patriarch John VIII" redirects here. There were also a Syriac Patriarch John VIII of Antioch who ruled in 1049–1057 and two Patriarchs John VIII of the Maronites. It can also refer to Pope John VIII of Alexandria, Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of the See of St. Mark in 1300–1320.John VIII Xiphilinos (Greek: Ἰωάννης Ηʹ Ξιφιλῖνος; c. 1010 – 2 August 1075), a native of Trebizond, was a Byzantine intellectual and Patriarch of Constantinople from 1064–1075. He was the uncle of John Xiphilinos the Epimator. He is considered "an innovator in the field of the methodology of jurisprudential research."

Lando III of Capua

Lando III (died 885) was the count of Capua for two years and ten months from 882 to his death. He was a son of Landenulf, gastald of Teano, and grandson of Landulf I of Capua.

In 879, when Landulf II died, Lando seized Calino and Caiazzo and made his son, Landulf, only an adolescent, bishop of Capua. Pandenulf, however, seized Capua and appointed his brother Landenulf as bishop. Pandenulf recognised Lando in Caiazzo, but a schism began in the Capuan church over the rightful bishop. Pope John VIII decided in favour of Landenulf, but made Landulf bishop of "Old" Capua, Santa Maria Capuavetere.

Lando began building a coalition against Pandenulf. He brought on his cousins the deposed Lando II and Landulf of Suessola and the prince of Salerno, Guaifer. Pandenulf recruited to his side Gaideris, Prince of Benevento, and the Byzantine strategos Gregory. Athanasius of Naples allied with Pandenulf, but after seizing desired land in Liburia, he abandoned the count. Lando and his allies sued for peace, but treacherously seized Capua and exiled Pandenulf and Landenulf, replacing them respectively with Lando and his son.

Lando warred successfully with Lando II, who had hoped to revive his own rule, and Athanasius, who was desirous of more gains in the Capua province. Lando also allied with Guy III of Spoleto against Atenulf, his own brother, the gastald of the Marsi. Erchempert here gives an indication of Lando's character, describing him as too indolent to even take action against his brother, who was then befriending his worst enemy.

Lando died in 885 of natural causes. He had married a daughter of Radelgar of Benevento. He was succeeded by his brother Landenulf.

Louis the Stammerer

Louis the Stammerer (French: Louis le Bègue; 1 November 846 – 10 April 879) was the king of Aquitaine and later the king of West Francia. He was the eldest son of emperor Charles the Bald and Ermentrude of Orléans. Louis the Stammerer was physically weak and outlived his father by only two years.

He succeeded his younger brother Charles the Child as the ruler of Aquitaine in 866 and his father in West Francia in 877, but he was never crowned Emperor. In the French monarchial system, he is considered Louis II.

Louis was crowned king on 8 October 877 by Hincmar, archbishop of Reims, at Compiegne and was crowned a second time in August 878 by Pope John VIII at Troyes while the pope was attending a council there. The pope may have even offered him the imperial crown, but it was declined. Louis had relatively little impact on politics. He was described "a simple and sweet man, a lover of peace, justice, and religion". In 878, he gave the counties of Barcelona, Girona, and Besalú to Wilfred the Hairy. His final act was to march against the invading Vikings, but he fell ill and died on 9 April or 10 April 879, not long after beginning this final campaign. On his death, his realms were divided between his two sons, Carloman II and Louis III of France.

Pope John

Pope John may refer to:

Pope John I (523–526)

Pope John II (533–535)

Pope John III (561–574)

Pope John IV (640–642)

Pope John V (685–686)

Pope John VI (701–705)

Pope John VII (705–707)

Antipope John VIII (844)

Pope John VIII (872–882)

Pope John IX (898–900)

Pope John X (914–928)

Pope John XI (931–935)

Pope John XII (955–964)

Pope John XIII (965–972)

Pope John XIV (983–984)

Pope John XV (985–996)

Antipope John XVI (997–998) (no longer recognized as a legitimate pope)

Pope John XVII (1003)

Pope John XVIII (1003–1009)

Pope John XIX (1024–1032)

Pope John XX (not an actual pope)

Pope John XXI (1276–1277)

Pope John XXII (1316–1334)

Antipope John XXIII (1410–1415)

Pope John XXIII (1958–1963)Another 19 Popes John in the List of Coptic Orthodox Popes of Alexandria

Pope John VIII of Alexandria

Pope John VIII of Alexandria, 80th Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of the See of St. Mark.

Pope John VIII was born in Meniat Bani-Khosaim. His real name was Yohanna Ben-Ebsal, but he was known as El Mo'ataman Ebn El-Kedees. He became monk at the Monastery of Shahran and was ordained Pope on 19 Meshir, 1016 A.M. (14 February 1300 AD).During the papacy of John VIII, severe tribulations befell the Christians in Egypt and heavy taxes were imposed. An official from Morocco was displeased to find the Copts so active in the financial sector. Many churches were closed in Cairo and in different parts of the country. Exceptions were the monasteries in Alexandria and a few churches in other cities. An envoy from the king of Spain came to intercede on behalf of the Christians. Two churches were subsequently opened, one of them was the Coptic Orthodox church of the Church of the Virgin Mary (Haret Zuweila), and the other was the Melkite church of Saint Nicholas in El-Hamzawe.

Pope John VIII was a contemporary of Saint Parsoma, and presided over his funeral. He was the last to reside in the church of Saint Mercurius Church in Coptic Cairo. He was the first to relocate the patriarchal throne to the Church of the Virgin Mary (Haret Zuweila). He was residing there in the year 1303 AD. when a severe earthquake caused great destruction in Syria and Egypt. Ebn Kabre indicated that Pope John VIII had made some changes in the Liturgy. He died on 4 Paoni 1036 A.M. (29 May 1320 AD) after 20 years, 3 months, and 15 days on the Patriarchal Throne.

Pope John of Alexandria

John has been the papal name of several Coptic Popes.

Patriarch John II (I) of Alexandria (496–505)

Patriarch John III (II) of Alexandria (505–516)

Pope John III of Alexandria (677–688)

Pope John IV of Alexandria (776–799)

Pope John V of Alexandria (1147–1166)

Pope John VI of Alexandria (1189–1216)

Pope John VII of Alexandria (1261–1268, 1271–1293)

Pope John VIII of Alexandria (1300–1320)

Pope John IX of Alexandria (1320–1327)

Pope John X of Alexandria (1363–1369)

Pope John XI of Alexandria (1427–1452)

Pope John XII of Alexandria (1480–1483)

Pope John XIII of Alexandria (1483–1524)

Pope John XIV of Alexandria (1573–1589)

Pope John XV of Alexandria (1621–1631)

Pope John XVI of Alexandria (1676–1718)

Pope John XVII of Alexandria (1727–1745)

Pope John XVIII of Alexandria (1769–1796)

Pope John XIX of Alexandria (1928–1942)

Sergius II of Naples

Sergius II was Duke of Naples from 870 to 877.

He continued the policies of his father, Gregory III, and grandfather, Sergius I. He maintained good relations with the Franks or the Byzantines only as it suited Neapolitan interests.

He was briefly prefect of Amalfi for thirteen days in 866, following the prefect Maurus.

In January 870, his father fell seriously ill and left him the government. Gregory died in March. It is written that Sergius made Naples "into another Palermo, another Africa," by his friendly relations with the Aghlabids. For this, he earned the excommunication of Pope John VIII. He also earned the opposition of his uncle, Bishop Athanasius I and exiled him to an island. Sergius was blinded and deposed by his brother Athanasius II, Bishop of Naples, who delivered him to Rome. His son Gregory IV eventually succeeded to the ducal throne.

Æthelred (archbishop)

Æthelred (or Ethelred; died 30 June 888) was an Anglo-Saxon Archbishop of Canterbury in medieval England. Although one source states that he was Bishop of Wiltshire prior to his elevation to Canterbury, this has been shown to be false. Much of Æthelred's time in office was spent dealing with the dislocations caused by the invasion of England by Vikings. There were also conflicts with King Alfred the Great over ecclesiastical matters as well as the desire of the papacy to reform the English clergy.

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