|Papacy began||24 December 640|
|Papacy ended||12 October 642|
|Died||12 October 642 (aged 55)|
|Other popes named John|
Pope John was a native of Zadar, Dalmatia. He was the son of the scholasticus (advocate) Venantius. At the time of his election he was archdeacon of the Roman Church, an important role in governing the see. John was considered "a very cultured man". As John's consecration on 24 December 640 followed very soon after his election, it is supposed that the papal elections were being confirmed by the Exarch of Ravenna rather than by the Emperor in Constantinople.
While still only pope-elect, John, with the other bishops of the Catholic Church, wrote to the clergy of Ireland and Scotland to tell them of the mistakes they were making with regard to the time of keeping Easter, and exhort them to be on their guard against the Pelagian heresy. About the same time, he condemned Monothelism as heresy. Emperor Heraclius immediately disowned the Monothelite document known as the "Ecthesis". To Heraclius' son, Constantine III, John addressed his apology for Pope Honorius I, in which he deprecated the attempt to connect the name of Honorius with Monothelism. Honorius, he declared, in speaking of one will in Jesus, only meant to assert that there were not two contrary wills in Him.
Troubles in his native land caused by invasions of Slavs directed John's attention there. To alleviate the distress of the inhabitants, John sent the abbot Martin into Dalmatia and Istria with large sums of money for the redemption of captives. As the ruined churches could not be rebuilt, the relics of some of the more important Dalmatian saints were brought to Rome. John then erected an oratory in their honour. It was adorned by the pope with mosaics depicting John himself holding in his hands a model of his oratory. John endeavoured thereby to convert the Slavs in Dalmatia and Istria to Christianity. Emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus claimed that Porga, duke of the Dalmatian Croats, who had been invited into Dalmatia by Heraclius, sent to Emperor Heraclius for Christian teachers. It is supposed that the Emperor to whom this message was sent was Emperor Heraclius himself, and that he sent it to Pope John IV.
John was buried in the Basilica of St. Peter.
|Catholic Church titles|
Year 640 (DCXL) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. The denomination 640 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.642
Year 642 (DCXLII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. The denomination 642 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.Book of Dimma
The Book of Dimma (Dublin, Trinity College, MS.A.IV.23) is an 8th-century Irish pocket Gospel Book originally from the Abbey of Roscrea, founded by St. Cronan in County Tipperary, Ireland. In addition to the four Gospels, in between the Gospels of Luke and John, it has an order for the Unction and Communion of the Sick. The surviving illumination of the manuscript is a number of illuminated initials, three Evangelist portrait pages, and one page with an Evangelist's symbol. The pocket gospel book is a distinctively Insular format, of which the Book of Mulling is another leading example.
The gospels other than John are "written for the most part in a rapid cursive script", while John is "by a different scribe, in neat minuscule bookhand". It was signed by its scribe, Dimma MacNathi, at the end of each of the Gospels. This Dimma has been traditionally identified with the Dimma, who was later Bishop of Connor, mentioned by Pope John IV in a letter on Pelagianism in 640. This identification, however, cannot be sustained.
A well-known legend relates that Cronan asked a monk named Dimma to copy the book, but that it had to be done in one day. Dimma set to work on this impossible task and copied continuously without a break for any meals. All the while he worked the sun never set. When Dimma finished, he thought that it had only taken him one day, when in reality it had taken forty. This miracle was attributed to Cronan.In the 12th century the manuscript was encased in a richly worked cumdach or reliquary case, which remains with it at Trinity. On one face it has panels of openwork decoration in Viking Ringerike style over the wood case. There is a good reproduction of 1908 in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, which is not on display there, but has good illustrations available online, unlike the original piece.Claudius of Besançon
Saint Claudius of Besançon (French: Saint Claude), sometimes called Claude the Thaumaturge (ca. 607 – June 6, 696 or 699 AD), was a priest, monk, abbot, and bishop. A native of Franche-Comté, Claudius became a priest at Besançon and later a monk. Georges Goyau in the Catholic Encyclopedia wrote that “The Life of St. Claudius, Abbot of Condat, has been the subject of much controversy.” Anglican Henry Wace has written that "on this saint the inventors of legends have compiled a vast farrago of improbabilities."Nevertheless, Wace did not find reason to doubt that Claudius had come from the nobility. According to a long tradition from Salins-les-Bains, Claudius was born in the castle of Bracon near Salins, of a Gallo-Roman family named Claudia. This family had produced another Saint Claudius in the 6th century.One of his biographers, Laurentius Surius, writes that Claudius was entrusted to tutors at a young age and that in addition to studying academic subjects, Claudius spent hours reading devotional works, particularly the lives of the saints. Until the age of twenty, he served as a border guard, but in 627 he was appointed as a canon by Donatus (Donat), bishop of Besançon. Donatus had written regulations for his canon priests; Claudius followed them assiduously. He became famous as a teacher and ascete, eating only one frugal meal per day.After serving as a priest at Besançon, Claudius entered the abbey of Condat, at Saint-Claude, Jura (which was named after him after his death), in the Jura mountains. He was then elected to succeed as the twelfth abbot at Condat at the age of 34 in 641 or 642, during the pontificate of Pope John IV. He brought the Benedictine Rule to Condat. He obtained support from Clovis II (whose wife, Balthild, had persuaded him to do so), obtaining from the monarch an annuity. Under Claudius' rule, the abbey thrived. Claudius had built new churches and reliquaries, and fed the poor and the pilgrims in the area.On the death of Saint Gervase (Gervasius), bishop of Besançon, the clergy of that city elected Claudius as their archbishop in 685. He thus served, rather reluctantly, as 29th bishop of Besançon, according to the episcopal catalogues.
However, upon seeing that discipline had become lax at Condat, Claudius decided to abdicate his see and return as abbot at Condat." He then died in 696 or 699.Flannán
Flannán mac Toirrdelbaig was an Irish saint who lived in the 7th century and was the son of an Irish chieftain, Turlough of Thomond. He entered Mo Lua's monastery at Killaloe, where it is believed he became an Abbot. He is remembered as a great preacher.
He made a pilgrimage to Rome where Pope John IV consecrated him as the first Bishop of Killaloe, of which he is the Patron Saint. He also preached in the Hebrides. His feast day is December 18.Historia Salonitana
Historia Salonitanorum atque Spalatinorum pontificum or the History of the Bishops of Salona and Split (Croatian: Povijest biskupa Salone i Splita), commonly known simply as the Historia Salonitana, is a chronicle by Thomas the Archdeacon from the 13th century which contains significant information about the early history of the Croats.
It was first published by Johannes Lucius. An extended version of this work, known as the Historia Salonitana maior was published in the 16th century, and critical editions of both have been republished by Nada Klaić (Belgrade: Naucno delo, 1967).The chronicle gives an account of the arrival of the Croats:
From the Polish territories called Lingonia seven or eight tribal clans arrived under Totilo. When they saw that the Croatian land would be suitable for habitation because in it there were few Roman colonies, they sought and obtained for their duke...The people called Croats...Many call them Goths, and likewise Slavs, according to the particular name of those who arrived from Poland and Bohemia.This account may be considered more similar to that which is found in De Administrando Imperio than the Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja.
The chronicle notes that by the time of the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius and Pope John IV, some Croats had been converted to Christianity. Both these men died in the mid 7th century, which leaves an estimate of the actual arrival of the Croats to the Adriatic at sometime in the early part of the century.
It provides an extended information about the Croatian kings Demetrius Zvonimir and Peter Krešimir IV.John IV
John IV may refer to:
Patriarch John IV of Alexandria, Patriarch between 569 and 579
John IV of Constantinople (died 595), Patriarch from 582
Pope John IV (died 642), Pope from 640
John IV (bishop of Naples) (died 835)
John IV of Naples, Duke from 997 to after 1002
John IV of Gaeta (died 1012)
John IV of Ohrid, Archbishop of Ohrid in 1139/43–1157/64
John IV, Count of Soissons (died 1302)
John IV Laskaris (1250–1305), Emperor of Nicaea from 1259 to 1261
John IV, Duke of Brittany (1339–1399), Count of Montfort, 7th Earl of Richmond
John IV, Lord of Arkel (died 1360)
John IV, Count of Sponheim-Starkenburg (died 1414)
John IV, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg (died 1414)
John IV, Duke of Mecklenburg (died 1422)
John IV, Count of Katzenelnbogen (died 1444)
John IV, Count of Armagnac (1396–1450), Count of Armagnac, Fézensac, and Rodez
John IV, Duke of Brabant (1403–1427)
John IV of Trebizond (1403–1460), Emperor of Trebizond
Jan IV of Nassau (1410–1475), Count of Nassau, Dietz and Dillenburg
John IV, Marquess of Montferrat (1412–1464)
Jan IV of Oświęcim (1426/1430–1497), Duke of Gliwice
John IV, Duke of Bavaria (1437–1463)
John IV, Landgrave of Leuchtenberg (1470–1531)
John IV, Duke of Krnov (died 1483), Duke of Wodzisław Śląski
John IV of Chalon-Arlay (1443–1502), prince of Orange
Ivan IV of Russia (Ivan the Terrible, 1530–1584)
John IV, Count of Nassau-Idstein (1603–1677)
John IV of Portugal (1604–1656), known as John II, Duke of Braganza, before 1640
John IV of Ethiopia (1837–1889)
Jean, Count of Paris (born 1965), Orléanist pretender to the French throne as Jean IVJohn IV of Alexandria
John IV of Alexandria may refer to:
Patriarch John IV of Alexandria, Greek Patriarch of Alexandria in 569–579
Pope John IV of Alexandria, ruled in 777–799Killaloe, County Clare (Civil parish)
Killaloe (; Irish: Cill Dalua) is a civil parish in County Clare, Ireland. The main settlement is the town of Killaloe.List of Greek popes
This is a list of Greek popes. Most were pope before or during the Byzantine Papacy (537–752). It does not include all the Sicilian and Syrian popes of Greek extraction from that period.Pope John
Pope John may refer to:
Pope John I (523–526)
Pope John II (533–535)
Pope John III (561–574)
Pope John IV (640–642)
Pope John V (685–686)
Pope John VI (701–705)
Pope John VII (705–707)
Antipope John VIII (844)
Pope John VIII (872–882)
Pope John IX (898–900)
Pope John X (914–928)
Pope John XI (931–935)
Pope John XII (955–964)
Pope John XIII (965–972)
Pope John XIV (983–984)
Pope John XV (985–996)
Antipope John XVI (997–998) (no longer recognized as a legitimate pope)
Pope John XVII (1003)
Pope John XVIII (1003–1009)
Pope John XIX (1024–1032)
Pope John XX (not an actual pope)
Pope John XXI (1276–1277)
Pope John XXII (1316–1334)
Antipope John XXIII (1410–1415)
Pope John XXIII (1958–1963)Another 19 Popes John in the List of Coptic Orthodox Popes of AlexandriaPope John IV of Alexandria
Pope John IV of Alexandria, 48th Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of the See of St. Mark.
He became a monk in St. Macarius Monastery. He persevered in intense worship and was reputed for his ascetic life. He was chosen by Pope Michael, 46th Pope of Alexandria and ordained a priest for the Church of St. Mina. Pope Michael entrusted him to manage the affairs of the church and to lead the people and direct all its property and offerings. He excelled in his duties.
When Anba Mina, 47th Pope of Alexandria, departed, the bishops, the priests, and the scholars of the City of Alexandria gathered and nominated several monks. They wrote the name of each of them on a piece of paper, and the name of Father John was among them. The bishops prayed and celebrated the Divine Liturgy for three days. Then, on the third day, they brought a child to draw one of the names. They found it to be the name of this saint, Father John. They returned the paper, mixed it with the other papers, and brought another child, who drew the same paper. This was repeated a third time. They were sure that the Lord had chosen Fr. John to become the next pope. They took him and ordained him patriarch in 777 A.D. He shepherded his flock well. He always preached the people confirming them in the Orthodox faith. He was also merciful to the poor and the needy.
During his days, there was a famine, to the point that one measure of grain (a Bushel) was sold for two Dinari. Many poor from different beliefs gathered every day at his door. He delegated to his disciple Mark to use the money of the churches to feed the poor and satisfy their needs. He offered to everyone without distinction of faith until God removed this famine.
Anba John was dedicated to building many churches. When the time of his departure drew near, he called on the priests and said to them, "On the 16th of Tubah, I was born and was also ordained Pope, and on this day also I will depart from this world." When the bishops and the priests heard this, they wept and said, "Who would become our Father after you?" He said to them, "The Lord Jesus Christ has chosen my disciple Fr. Mark to this rank."Pope John of Alexandria
John has been the papal name of several Coptic Popes.
Patriarch John II (I) of Alexandria (496–505)
Patriarch John III (II) of Alexandria (505–516)
Pope John III of Alexandria (677–688)
Pope John IV of Alexandria (776–799)
Pope John V of Alexandria (1147–1166)
Pope John VI of Alexandria (1189–1216)
Pope John VII of Alexandria (1261–1268, 1271–1293)
Pope John VIII of Alexandria (1300–1320)
Pope John IX of Alexandria (1320–1327)
Pope John X of Alexandria (1363–1369)
Pope John XI of Alexandria (1427–1452)
Pope John XII of Alexandria (1480–1483)
Pope John XIII of Alexandria (1483–1524)
Pope John XIV of Alexandria (1573–1589)
Pope John XV of Alexandria (1621–1631)
Pope John XVI of Alexandria (1676–1718)
Pope John XVII of Alexandria (1727–1745)
Pope John XVIII of Alexandria (1769–1796)
Pope John XIX of Alexandria (1928–1942)Pope Martin I
Pope Martin I (Latin: Martinus I; born between 590 and 600, died 16 September 655) reigned from 21 July 649 to his death in 655. He succeeded Pope Theodore I on 5 July 649. He was the only pope during the Eastern Roman domination of the papacy whose election was not approved by an iussio from Constantinople. Martin I was exiled by Emperor Constans II and died at Cherson. He is considered a saint and martyr by the Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church.Saint Domnius
Saint Domnius (also known as Saint Dujam or Saint Duje, Saint Domnio, Saint Doimus, or Saint Domninus) was a Bishop of Salona (today's Solin) around the year 300, and is venerated as the patron of the nearby city of Split in modern Croatia. Salona was a large Roman city serving as capital of the Province of Dalmatia. Saint Domnius was martyred with seven other Christians in the persecutions of the Emperor Diocletian. He was born in Antioch, in modern-day Turkey but historically in Syria, and beheaded in 304 at Salona.
He was more likely a martyr of the 4th century, but Christian tradition also states that he was one of the Seventy Disciples of the 1st century. This tradition holds that Domnio came to Rome with Saint Peter and was then sent by Peter to evangelize Dalmatia, where he was martyred along with eight soldiers he had converted.Saint Waldebert
Waldebert (also known as Gaubert, Valbert and Walbert), (died c. 668), was a Frankish count of Guines, Ponthieu and Saint-Pol who became abbot of Luxeuil in the Order of St. Columban, and eventually a canonized saint in the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Church, like several among his kinsmen who protected the Church, enriched it with lands and founded monasteries.Like his predecessor at Luxeuil he was born of the noble Frankish family of Duke Waldelenus of Burgundy, highly influential in seventh-century Frankish politics and served in the military before dedicating himself to the contemplative life and joining the monastery at Luxeuil on the borders of Austrasia and Burgundy (in modern-day France), where he dedicated his weapons and armour, which hung in the abbey church for centuries. He lived as a hermit close to the abbey until the death of the monastery's abbot, Saint Eustace of Luxeuil, when Waldebert was elected Luxeuil's third abbot (c. 628).
He was abbot of the monastery for forty years, during which the school of Luxeuil trained the Frankish aristocrats who became bishops in the Frankish kingdoms; Waldebert added the Benedictine Rule to the Rule of St. Columban, though in the rule he drew up for the convent of Faremoutiers he drew upon the rules of Columbanus as well as Benedict, but made no mention whatsoever of a ritual of either profession or oblation. He also gained from Pope John IV the independence of his community from episcopal control and increased the size and prosperity of the monastery's territories and buildings. Naturally Jonas dedicated to him his vita of Saint Columbanus. Among numerous houses founded from Luxeuil during his tenure, he was instrumental in aiding Saint Salaberga found her convent at Laon.
After his death his wooden bowl was credited with miraculous powers.His feast day in the Roman Church is 2 May. The basic modern study is that in J. Poinsotte, Les abbés de Luxeuil (1900). His vita is categorized as BHL 8775.Sergius I of Constantinople
Sergius I (Greek: Σέργιος Α΄, Sergios I ; d. 9 December 638 in Constantinople) was the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople from 610 to 638. He is most famous for promoting Monothelite Christianity, especially through the Ecthesis.Sergius was born of Syrian Jacobite heritage. He first came to power as Patriarch of Constantinople in 610. He was also a known supporter of Emperor Heraclius, crowning Heraclius as Emperor himself in 610. Sergius also provided support to Heraclius throughout his campaign against the Persians. Sergius also played a prominent role in the defense of Constantinople against the combined Avar-Persian-Slavic forces during their invasion of Constantinople in 626. Sergius' connections to both political and religious authorities gave him to his influence in both the religious and political communities to further Monothelitism as the primary formula of Christ within the church. This was met with much opposition, especially from that of the Chalcedonian supporters, Maximus the Confessor and Sophronius. In response to their resistance to accept the ideas of Monothelitism, Sergius responded with the Ecthesis, a formula which forbade the idea that the Person of Christ had two energies in favour of the idea that the Person of Christ had two natures that were united by a single will. The Ecthesis was signed by Heraclius in 638, the same year that Sergius died.
The Ecthesis would only be seen as an accepted doctrine for two years; the death of Pope Honorius I resulted in a significant reduction in Monothelitism support. The Ecthesis was condemned in 640 by Pope John IV. Additionally, both Sergius and Pope Honorius I were condemned as heretics by the church in 680-681 by the Third Council of Constantinople.Type of Constans
The Type of Constans (also called Typos of Constans) was an imperial edict issued by Byzantine Emperor Constans II in 648 in an attempt to defuse the confusion and arguments over the Christological doctrine of Monotheletism. For over two centuries, there had been a bitter debate regarding the nature of Christ: the orthodox Chalcedonian position defined Christ as having two natures in one person, whereas Monophysite opponents contended that Jesus Christ possessed but a single nature. At the time, the Byzantine Empire had been at near constant war for fifty years and had lost large territories. It was under great pressure to establish domestic unity. This was hampered by the large number of Byzantines who rejected the Council of Chalcedon in favour of Monophysitism.
The Type attempted to dismiss the entire controversy, on pain of dire punishment. This extended to kidnapping the Pope from Rome to try him for high treason and mutilating one of the Type's main opponents. Constans died in 668. Ten years later his son, Constantine IV, fresh from a triumph over his Arab enemies and with the predominately Monophysitic provinces irredeemably lost, called the Third Council of Constantinople. It decided with an overwhelming majority to condemn Monophysitism, Monotheletism, the Type of Constans and its major supporters. Constantine put his seal to the Council's decisions, and reunited such of Christendom as was not under Arab suzerainty.Venantius of Salona
Venatius of Salona (also Wigand; died 259), was a Christian saint, martyr and Bishop of Salona in Dalmatia, active in the later half of the third century AD. He was martyred in Delminium.He either was the first bishop or succeeded Saint Domnius as bishop. Originally buried in Dalmatia, his body was brought to Rome by Pope John IV in 640 and his relics were in the baptistery of the Lateran Basilica, which also contains a mosaic of him.
Unlike other saints he was not found in early martyrologies, appearing for the first time in a twelfth century Hungarian liturgical calendar.
His feast day was on 1 April. As well as Rome and Dalmatia he was a popular saint in Toledo.
During the Roman Empire (until 493)
including under Constantine (312–337)
Ostrogothic Papacy (493–537)
Byzantine Papacy (537–752)
Frankish Papacy (756–857)
Papal selection before 1059
Saeculum obscurum (904–964)
Crescentii era (974–1012)
Tusculan Papacy (1012–1044/1048)
Imperial Papacy (1048–1257)
Avignon Papacy (1309–1378)
Western Schism (1378–1417)
Renaissance Papacy (1417–1534)
Reformation Papacy (1534–1585)
Baroque Papacy (1585–1689)
Age of Enlightenment (c. 1640-1740)
Revolutionary Papacy (1775–1848)
Roman Question (1870–1929)
Vatican City (1929–present)
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