Pope John III

Pope John III can also refer to Pope John III of Alexandria.
Pope

John III
Papa Joao III
Papacy began17 July 561
Papacy ended13 July 574
PredecessorPelagius I
SuccessorBenedict I
Personal details
Birth nameCatelinus
BornRome, Eastern Roman Empire
Died13 July 574 (aged 54)
Rome, Eastern Roman Empire
Other popes named John

Pope John III (Latin: Ioannes III; d. 13 July 574) was Pope from 17 July 561 to his death in 574.[1] He was born in Rome of a distinguished family. The Liber Pontificalis calls him a son of one Anastasius. His father bore the title illustris, more than likely being a vir illustris ("illustrius man", high-ranking member of the Roman Senate).[2]

Biography

According to the historian Evagrius, his birth name was Catelinus, but he took the name John on his accession.[3]

He may be identical with the subdeacon John who made a collection of extracts from the Greek Fathers and completed the translation of the Vitae patrum into Latin which Pope Pelagius I had begun.[4]

His pontificate is characterized by two major events over which he had no control. The first was the death of Emperor Justinian I in 565. Jeffrey Richards considers his reign was an "anomaly", "a temporary damming up of the stream of history." With his death, the Byzantine Empire turned its attention from Rome and the West to pressing problems in the Balkans, from the Avars, Persians and the Arabs. "Italy, being geographically peripheral to the imperial heartland, inevitably took bottom place on the strategic priority list."[5]

The other major event was the invasion of the Lombards, which began in 568. Much of northern Italy was overrun, as well as the central spine of the peninsula, making a shambles of the imperial administration. Further, their warriors threatened the survival of Rome herself, subjecting the Eternal City to repeated sieges. Lastly, their entrance reintroduced the newly extinguished Arian belief, which threatened the predominance of Catholicism.[6]

As the Lombards poured south into Italy, the newly appointed governor Longinus sat powerless in Ravenna, unable to stop them. Pope John took it upon himself to go to Naples, where the former governor Narses was preparing to return to Constantinople, and beg him to take charge. He had been recalled by the new Emperor Justin II in response to Italian petitions over his oppressive taxation. Narses agreed to this, and returned to Rome. However, popular hatred of Narses was then extended to John for inviting him back. This unrest reached such a pitch that the Pope was forced to retire from Rome and take up residence at the catacombs along the Via Appia two miles outside the city. There he carried out his duties, including the consecration of bishops.[6]

One recorded act of Pope John involved two bishops, Salonius of Embrun and Sagittarius of Gap, who had been condemned in a synod at Lyons (c. 567). This pair succeeded in persuading Guntram, King of Burgundy, that they had been condemned unjustly, and appealed to the pope. Influenced by Guntram's letters, John decided that they should be restored to their sees.[1]

It is recorded in the Liber Pontificalis that he died on 13 July 574.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Wikisource-logo.svg Mann, Horace K. (1910). "Pope John III" . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. 8. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  2. ^ Martindale, John R.; Jones, A.H.M.; Morris, John (1992), The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire – Volume III, AD 527–641, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-20160-5, p. 61
  3. ^ Historia Ecclesiastica 5.16
  4. ^ Jeffrey Richards, The Popes and the Papacy in the Early Middle Ages (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1979), p. 256
  5. ^ Richards, Popes and the Papacy, pp. 162f
  6. ^ a b Richards, Popes and the papacy, pp. 164f
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Pelagius I
Pope
561–574
Succeeded by
Benedict I
570s

The 570s decade ran from January 1, 570, to December 31, 579.

== Events ==

=== 570 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Battle of Gwen Ystrad: A British alliance is forged between the kingdoms of Strathclyde, Bryneich and Elmet (approximate date).

Spoleto becomes the capital of an independent duchy, under the Lombard chieftain Faroald (approximate date).

Leutfred becomes duke of Alemannia (modern Germany).

====== Persia ======

Ctesiphon, capital of the Sassanid Empire, becomes the largest city in the world, taking the lead from Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire.

====== Arabia ======

Muhammad, Islamic prophet, is born in Mecca (today's Saudi Arabia). His father Abd Allah ibn Abd al Muttalib dies a few months before his birth, so he and his mother Aminah bint Wahb are protected by Muhammad's paternal grandfather, Abdul Muttalib who is recognized as the leading figure in his tribe the Quraysh.

Abraha, Pagan ruler of coastal Yemen, who was acting as a general for the Christian kingdom in Abyssinia, begins a military expedition in Arabia against the predominantly pagan Quraysh of Mecca, known as the Year of the Elephant.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

A limestone statue of Boddhisattva is created in Henan (approximate date).

The first mention is made of the Spear of Destiny (approximate date).

The Jews of Clermont-Ferrand are forced to convert to Christianity.

Year of the Elephant, according to Islamic tradition.

=== 571 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

The Visigoths under King Liuvigild invade the Byzantine province of Spania (modern Andalusia), and seize the city of Córdoba. After the death of his brother Liuva I, he becomes sole ruler of the Visigothic Kingdom (approximate date).

Benevento becomes the capital of an independent duchy, under the Lombard chieftain Zotto (approximate date).

====== Britain ======

Battle of Bedcanford: The Anglo-Saxons under King Cuthwulf fight against the Britons, and conquer the settlements of Aylesbury, Benson, Eynsham and Limbury (according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle).

Wuffa becomes the first king of East Anglia, as recorded in the Anglo-Saxon royal genealogies (approximate date).

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

The Monophysites again reject the Council of Chalcedon, causing another schism.

=== 572 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Byzantine–Sassanid War: Emperor Justin II refuses to pay the annual tribute to Khosrau I, putting an end to the 50-year peace treaty that was established ten years earlier. The Armenians are considered allies to the Byzantine Empire, and Justin sends a Byzantine army into Persian territory, besieging the fortress city of Nisibis (modern Turkey).

====== Europe ======

Siege of Pavia: King Alboin captures Ticinum (Pavia); after a three-year siege the Byzantine garrison surrenders to the Lombards. The city is of strategic importance, lying at the rivers Po and Ticino, and becomes the capital of the Kingdom of the Lombards.

June 28 – Alboin is murdered at Verona in his palace, at the instigation of his wife Rosamund (daughter of the Gepid king Cunimund), and her henchman, Helmechis (the king's squire); both flee to seek Byzantine protection in Ravenna.

Alboin is succeeded as king of the Lombards by Cleph, who is not related by blood.

====== Britain ======

Theodric succeeds his brother Æthelric as king of Bernicia (southeastern Scotland). He rules until 579.

====== Asia ======

Taspar Qaghan succeeds his brother Muqan Qaghan as ruler (khagan) of the Turkic Khaganate (Central Asia).

Bidatsu succeeds his father Kinmei and ascends to the throne of Japan as the 30th emperor.

====== Mesoamerica ======

Calakmul defeats Tikal, bringing an end to the First Tikal-Calakmul War.

Sky Witness, ruler of Calakmul, dies.

=== 573 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Byzantine–Sassanid War: Persian forces under the command of King Khosrau I capture the Byzantine stronghold of Dara, after a six-month siege. Meanwhile, a smaller Persian army under Adarmahan advances from Babylon through the desert, crosses the Euphrates River and ravages Syria. The cities of Apamea and Antiochia are plundered.

====== Europe ======

King Sigibert I goes to war against his half brother Chilperic I of Neustria at the urging of his wife, Brunhilda. He appeals to the Germans on the right bank of the Rhine for help, and they obligingly attack the environs of Paris and Chartres.

The Lombards again raid Southern Gaul, but are defeated by the Franks under Mummolus, patricius and son of the Gallo-Roman count of Auxerre, and are driven out.

King Cleph completes the Lombard conquest of Tuscany (Central Italy) and extends his dominion to the gates of Ravenna.

Sigibert I appoints Gregory to succeed his mother's cousin, Eufronius, as bishop of Tours (approximate date).

====== Britain ======

The Battle of Arfderydd is fought between Gwenddoleu ap Ceidio and the sons of Eliffer, Gwrgi and Peredur. The forces of Gwenddoleu are killed, and Myrddin Wyllt goes mad watching this defeat (according to the Annales Cambriae).

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Pope John III is forced by the Lombards to retire from Rome, and takes up residence at the Catacombs along the Via Appia (approximate date).

=== 574 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

December 7 – Emperor Justin II retires due to recurring seizures of insanity; he abdicates the throne in favour of his general Tiberius. Justin proclaims him Caesar and adopts him as his own son.

Winter – Empress Sophia and Tiberius agree to a one year truce with the Persians, at the cost of 45,000 solidi. The truce applies only to the Mesopotamian front; in the Caucasus, war continues.

====== Europe ======

King Cleph is murdered after an 18-month reign by a guard, a slave who he has mistreated. For the next decade, the Lombard Kingdom is governed by independent duchies (Rule of the Dukes).

The Visigoths under King Liuvigild invade Cantabria (Northern Spain), and destroy the city of Amaya (Burgos). He massacres the inhabitants and adds the province to the Visigothic Kingdom.

Áedán mac Gabráin becomes king of Dál Riata (Scotland) (approximate Date).

====== Asia ======

The Persian Empire overthrows the Axumite- and Byzantine-affiliated regimes in Yemen (Arabian Peninsula).

====== Unidentified ======

A major volcanic eruption occurs in the Antarctic.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

July 13 – Pope John III dies at Rome after a 13-year reign, until June of next year the Holy See becomes sede vacante.

Marius Aventicensis is made bishop of Aventicum (modern Avenches).

=== 575 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

The Franks under Sigibert I pursue his half brother Chilperic I, and conquer the cities Poitiers and Tournai. While he is proclaimed new king of Neustria by the nobles, Sigibert is assassinated at Vitry-en-Artois (Northern Gaul) by hirelings of Fredegund.

Childebert II succeeds his father Sigibert I as king of Austrasia. His mother Brunhilda becomes regent and seeks protection from Guntram, king of Burgundy. He adopts Childebert as his own son and heir. A group of Frankish aristocrats rule Austrasia.

The Visigoths under King Liuvigild invade the Suebian Kingdom (Northern Spain). Intermarriage between Goths and non-Goths is allowed in the Visigothic Kingdom (approximate date).

====== Britain ======

The Convention of Druim Cett: Irish kings discuss the relationship between them and King Áedán mac Gabráin of Dál Riata. The Irish colony (now western Scotland) is confirmed, and rights to tax and levy are agreed to between the rulers.

The Anglo-Saxon kingdom of East Anglia is divided into the English counties of Norfolk and Suffolk, and perhaps the eastern part of the Cambridgeshire Fens (approximate date).

====== Asia Minor ======

Byzantine–Sassanid War: A Byzantine army under command of Maurice drives the Persians from Cappodocia (modern Turkey), and strengthens the Byzantine position in Caucasian Albania.

Alexander of Tralles, Greek physician, writes "Libri duodecim de re Medica" (approximate date).

====== Asia ======

Tardu succeeds his father Istämi, as governor (yabgu) of the Western Turkic Khaganate (Central Asia).

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Zhiyi, Chinese monk, travels to Mount Tiantai for intensive study and practice. He works with a group of disciples on the Indian meditation of śamatha and vipaśyanā.

June 2 – Pope Benedict I succeeds Pope John III as the 62nd pope.

=== 576 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Byzantine–Sassanid War: A Persian army under King Khosrau I breaks through the Caucasus into Anatolia (modern Turkey). They attack the cities of Theodosiopolis and Caesarea, but are thwarted. Khosrau is forced to retreat and sacks Sebasteia. On the way home, he is intercepted by a Byzantine force under Justinian (magister militum of the East), and severely defeated near Melitene. The royal baggage is captured and many Persians drown while escaping across the Euphrates.

====== Europe ======

Baduarius, son-in-law of the Byzantine emperor Justin II, is sent to Italy to resist the Lombard conquest. He leads an aborted counter-assault against the Lombards and dies soon after.

The Visigoths under King Liuvigild establish the capital of their kingdom in Toledo, located in central Spain (approximate date).

====== Asia ======

The Göktürks under Tardu cross the Cimmerian Bosporus into the Crimea, and besiege the city of Panticapaeum (Ukraine).

Jinji becomes king of the Korean kingdom of Silla.

=== 577 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Byzantine–Sassanid War: A Byzantine expeditionary force under command of Justinian (magister militum) invades Caucasian Albania, launching raids across the Caspian Sea against the Persians.

Summer – Tiberius, Byzantine co-ruler (Caesar), establishes a naval base at Derbent on the Caspian Sea to construct a Byzantine fleet (approximate date).

Winter – Maurice is appointed commander-in-chief of the Byzantine army in the East. He succeeds Justinian, despite complete lack of military experience.

====== Europe ======

Battle of Deorham: The Anglo-Saxons under Ceawlin of Wessex invade the lower Severn Valley, and defeat the British Celts at Dyrham (South West England). After the battle the Saxons occupy the three cities: Cirencester, Gloucester and Bath, bringing their advance to the Bristol Channel (according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle).

====== Asia ======

Winter – Northern Qi, one of the Northern Dynasties, is conquered by Northern Zhou under Emperor Wu Di. He orders the last ruler (Gao Wei) and other members of the Gao clan to commit suicide. Northern China, above the Yangtze River, is once again brought under the control of a single power.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

The Temple of Dendur, dedicated to the Egyptian gods Isis, Harpocrates (Horus) and Osiris, is converted for use as a Christian church (approximate date).

Eutychius is restored as patriarch of Constantinople, after an exile of 12 years at Amasia (modern Turkey).

Muhammad, age 6, returns to his immediate family, but within a year his mother Aminah bint Wahb dies.

====== Science and Invention ======

A predecessor of the modern match, small sticks of pinewood impregnated with sulfur, are first used in China. Besieged by military forces of Northern Zhou and Chen, Northern Qi court ladies use the "lighting sticks" to start fires for cooking and heating.

=== 578 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Byzantine–Sassanid War: A Byzantine army under command of Maurice (magister militum per Orientem) invades Upper Mesopotamia, and raids on both sides of the Tigris. He deports 70,000 captives from Hyrcania to Cyprus, and installs military colonists to guard the strategic locations.

October 5 – Emperor Justin II dies after several periods of insanity. On the advice of his wife Sophia, he has raised his general Tiberius to the rank of co-emperor (Caesar). From December 574 he has ruled jointly with Sophia, and now succeeds them as emperor of the Byzantine Empire.

====== Europe ======

Reccopolis (modern Zorita de los Canes) in Hispania is founded by King Liuvigild, in honour of his son Reccared.

====== Asia ======

Summer – Emperor Wu Di engages in military campaigns on two fronts: against the invading Göktürks to the north and against the Chen Dynasty in the south.

Wu Di, age 35, dies from an illness, and is succeeded by his eldest son Xuan Di as emperor of Northern Zhou.

Kongō Gumi, the world's oldest construction company (578–2006), is founded in Osaka (Japan).

=== 579 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Byzantine-Sassanid War: King Khosrau I seeks peace, but dies before an agreement can be reached. The Mesopotamian front becomes stalemated, and Maurice (magister militum of the East) fortifies the borders in Armenia and Syria.

====== Europe ======

Hermenegild, son of Visigothic king Liuvigild, marries Ingund. He rebels against his father, starting in Seville (Southern Spain), and declares himself Catholic.

Heavy taxes levied by Merovingian king Chilperic I of Neustria produce a revolt at Limoges (central France), as he sells bishoprics to the highest bidder.

====== Britain ======

Frithuwald succeeds his brother Theodoric as king of Bernicia (Scotland). He rules from 579–585 (approximate date).

====== Persia ======

Khosrau I dies after a 48-year reign, during which he has extended his realm from the River Oxus to the Red Sea. He is succeeded by his son Hormizd IV, who becomes king of the Persian Empire.

Summer – Hormizd IV refuses to give up territories, and breaks off negotiations with the Byzantine Empire. The Türks invade Khorasan and reach Hyrcania on the Caspian Sea.

====== Asia ======

Emperor Xuan Di abdicates the throne to his son Jing Di, age 6, and rules as regent the Northern Zhou Dynasty.

Jinpyeong becomes king of the Korean kingdom of Silla.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

July 30 – Pope Benedict I dies after a 4-year reign, and is succeeded by Pelagius II as the 63rd pope. During the Lombard siege of Rome, he labors to solve the problems of famine.

Pelagius II sends Gregory as his apocrisiarius (ambassador to the imperial court in Constantinople). He is part of a Roman delegation to ask for military aid against the Lombards.

Leander, Catholic bishop of Seville, is exiled by Liuvigild and withdraws to Constantinople. At the Byzantine court he composes works against Arianism (approximate date).

573

Year 573 (DLXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. The denomination 573 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

574

Year 574 (DLXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. The denomination 574 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

575

Year 575 (DLXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. The denomination 575 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Byzantine Papacy

The Byzantine Papacy was a period of Byzantine domination of the Roman papacy from 537 to 752, when popes required the approval of the Byzantine Emperor for episcopal consecration, and many popes were chosen from the apocrisiarii (liaisons from the pope to the emperor) or the inhabitants of Byzantine-ruled Greece, Syria, or Sicily. Justinian I conquered the Italian peninsula in the Gothic War (535–554) and appointed the next three popes, a practice that would be continued by his successors and later be delegated to the Exarchate of Ravenna.

With the exception of Pope Martin I, no pope during this period questioned the authority of the Byzantine monarch to confirm the election of the bishop of Rome before consecration could occur; however, theological conflicts were common between pope and emperor in the areas such as monothelitism and iconoclasm.

Greek-speakers from Greece, Syria, and Sicily replaced members of the powerful Roman nobles in the papal chair during this period. Rome under the Greek popes constituted a "melting pot" of Western and Eastern Christian traditions, reflected in art as well as liturgy.

Constantius of Aquino

Saint Constantius of Aquino (Italian: Costanzo di Aquino) (6th century) was a bishop of Aquino in Italy, noted for his gift of prophecy, and a saint. He is commemorated in the Roman Martyrology on Sept. 1.Gregory the Great noted the only certain dates of Constantius's life: he was already bishop of Aquino during the life of Saint Benedict, who died in 543; and he himself died during the papacy of Pope John III (561-574). Gregory also records his last prophecy: on his deathbed Constantius foretold that he would be succeeded by a muleteer and a washerman, after which Aquino would have no more bishops. The next bishop after him was his deacon, Andrew, who had once been a muleteer, and after Andrew, Jovinus, a former washerman. During his episcopacy Aquino was overrun by the Lombards. Many of the inhabitants were killed by the invaders, and many more died of a plague, and there was no-one left fit to be bishop, whereby Constantius's prophecy was fulfilled.

On 10 December 1742 Bishop Spadea of Aquino translated the relics of Constantius from the old cathedral of Saint Peter, where they had been re-discovered, to the new cathedral dedicated to Saint Constantius himself, where they were placed beneath the high altar. This cathedral was destroyed in World War II, in May 1944, was rebuilt and in October 1963 dedicated to both Saint Constantius and to Saint Thomas Aquinas.

Council of Lyon

The Council of Lyon may refer to a number of synods or councils of the Roman Catholic Church, held in Lyon, France or in nearby Anse.

Previous to 1313, a certain Abbé Martin counted twenty-eight synods or councils held at Lyons

or at Anse.Some of these synods include:

Synod of Lyon (before 523), at which eleven of the members of the Synod of Epaone (517) were present

Synod of Lyon (567), in the presence of Pope John III and during which bishops Salonius of Embrun and Sagittarius of Gap were condemned

First Council of Lyon (1245; Pope Innocent IV; regarding the Crusades)

Second Council of Lyon (1274; Pope Gregory X; regarding union with the Eastern Orthodox and other matters)

John III of Alexandria

John III of Alexandria may refer to:

Pope John II (III) of Alexandria (Patriarch John III of Alexandria), ruled in 505–516

Pope John III of Alexandria, ruled in 680–689

Monastery of Saint Macarius the Great

The Monastery of Saint Macarius the Great also known as Dayr Aba Maqār (Arabic: دير الأنبا مقار‎) is a Coptic Orthodox monastery located in Wadi El Natrun, Beheira Governorate, about 92 km (57 mi) north-west of Cairo, and off the highway between Cairo and Alexandria.

Pope Benedict I

Pope Benedict I (Latin: Benedictus I; d. 30 July 579) was Pope from 2 June 575 to his death in 579.

Pope Isaac of Alexandria

Pope Isaac of Alexandria (fl. 690), 41st Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of the See of St. Mark, was born in El-Borolos from rich, God-fearing parents. They begot him long after their marriage. When they took him for baptism, the bishop who baptized him saw a cross of light over his head. The bishop laid the boy's hand over his head and prophesied concerning him saying, "The church of God will be entrusted to him." Then he told his parents, "Take care of him, for he is a chosen vessel of God."

When he grew they taught him writing, the Christian doctrine and church subjects. He read extensively in the biography of saints and he was filled with their pure life. He longed for the monastic life, so he left his parents and went to the desert of St. Macarius. He became a monk and disciple of Anba Zacharias, the Hegumen. The angel of the Lord had informed the elder father beforehand of his coming and the father received him with joy. One day, one of the holy elders saw him in the church and prophesied about him saying, "The church of Christ will be entrusted to him."

Pope John, the Patriarch of that time, asked for a monk to be his scribe and private secretary. The people who were present recommended this honorable Father Isaac. The Pope had Father Isaac brought to him. He gave him a book to scribe. Anba Isaac made mistakes in his writing deliberately, hoping that the Pope might send him back, for he had forsaken the glory of men. When the father knew his intention he said to him, "You have written well, do not leave this place."

When Father Isaac realized that the Patriarch would not let him return, he used all his knowledge and writing ability and his virtues became known. The Patriarch rejoiced in him exceedingly. Nevertheless, because Father Isaac was still longing for solitary life, the Patriarch allowed him to return to the desert.

When the death of Pope John drew near, he asked the Lord Christ to let it be known to him who would be his successor. In a vision, he was told that his disciple Isaac would sit on the chair after him. The Pope commanded the people that, with a divine revelation and by the order of the Lord, Isaac would sit on the chair after him.

When this father was enthroned to the See of St. Mark, the church was illumined. He restored many churches, especially the church of St. Mark the Evangelist, and the patriarchal cell. He suffered many tribulations and sat upon the throne for three and a half years, then departed in peace.

Pope John

Pope John may refer to:

Pope John I (523–526)

Pope John II (533–535)

Pope John III (561–574)

Pope John IV (640–642)

Pope John V (685–686)

Pope John VI (701–705)

Pope John VII (705–707)

Antipope John VIII (844)

Pope John VIII (872–882)

Pope John IX (898–900)

Pope John X (914–928)

Pope John XI (931–935)

Pope John XII (955–964)

Pope John XIII (965–972)

Pope John XIV (983–984)

Pope John XV (985–996)

Antipope John XVI (997–998) (no longer recognized as a legitimate pope)

Pope John XVII (1003)

Pope John XVIII (1003–1009)

Pope John XIX (1024–1032)

Pope John XX (not an actual pope)

Pope John XXI (1276–1277)

Pope John XXII (1316–1334)

Antipope John XXIII (1410–1415)

Pope John XXIII (1958–1963)Another 19 Popes John in the List of Coptic Orthodox Popes of Alexandria

Pope John III of Alexandria

Pope John III of Alexandria (fl. 680), 40th Pope of Alexandria & Patriarch of the See of St. Mark.He was originally from Samanoud a city in the North of Egypt, hence also known as Pope John III of Samanoud.

During his papacy the Muslim ruler in Damascus was Marwan I as after the death of Yazid, the son of Mu'âwiyah and his son Muawiya II, Marwan I took control of the East and of Egypt.

Marwan I made his sons governors over all the provinces. He appointed his son Abd al-Aziz ibn Marwan governor of Egypt and his eldest son Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan as governor of Damascus, who later became the successor to his father.

At that stage the Umayyad rulers were still in war with Abdullah bin Zubayr.

And when Abd al-Aziz became governor of Egypt, Pope John III wrote from Alexandria to Misr to the two scribes who presided over his divan, to make known to them what had been done concerning the seal, which was set upon all the places, and the trouble with the Chalcedonians from which he was suffering. Thereupon the said scribes sent messengers to Alexandria with instructions that the seal should be broken in the places named, and that all the property of the Church should be delivered to the Father Patriarch.

In 680, Pope John III rebuilt Saint Mark's Cathedral in Alexandria.

Pope John II (III) of Alexandria

Pope John II (III) of Alexandria, 30th Pope of Alexandria & Patriarch of the See of St. Mark.

He is counted as John III by the Eastern Orthodox Church, which acknowledges John Talaia as John I, but as John II by the Copts who reject Talaia.

He was a monk who lived a solitary life in the desert until he was consecrated Pope and Patriarch of Alexandria on 29 May 505.

He was famous for authoring many hagiographical writings and sermons.

He was a contemporary of the Roman Emperor Anastasius I, who favoured the non-Chalcedonian churches, and of Severus of Antioch, the champion of Miaphysitism in Syria. The latter wrote a message to John regarding the nature of Christ, which reads:

John replied with a message that testified to the union of the essence of God, and the trinity of His characters. He also proclaimed that by the incarnation of the eternal Son of God, the Divine and the human nature have become one and no longer two natures, without separation, mingling, or confusion. He anathematized those who separate the two natures, those who confuse them and those who said that the suffering crucified Christ was only a man, and those who say that His Divine nature also suffered and died. He said that the Orthodox faith was to profess that God the word suffered by the flesh that united with.

Pope John of Alexandria

John has been the papal name of several Coptic Popes.

Patriarch John II (I) of Alexandria (496–505)

Patriarch John III (II) of Alexandria (505–516)

Pope John III of Alexandria (677–688)

Pope John IV of Alexandria (776–799)

Pope John V of Alexandria (1147–1166)

Pope John VI of Alexandria (1189–1216)

Pope John VII of Alexandria (1261–1268, 1271–1293)

Pope John VIII of Alexandria (1300–1320)

Pope John IX of Alexandria (1320–1327)

Pope John X of Alexandria (1363–1369)

Pope John XI of Alexandria (1427–1452)

Pope John XII of Alexandria (1480–1483)

Pope John XIII of Alexandria (1483–1524)

Pope John XIV of Alexandria (1573–1589)

Pope John XV of Alexandria (1621–1631)

Pope John XVI of Alexandria (1676–1718)

Pope John XVII of Alexandria (1727–1745)

Pope John XVIII of Alexandria (1769–1796)

Pope John XIX of Alexandria (1928–1942)

Saint Mark's Coptic Orthodox Cathedral (Alexandria)

Saint Mark's Coptic Orthodox Cathedral is a Coptic church in Alexandria, Egypt. It is the historical seat of the Pope of Alexandria, the head of the Coptic Orthodox Church.

Salonius of Embrun

Salonius of Embrun and Sagittarius of Gap were two bishops who had been condemned at the Council of Lyon (c. 567). They succeeded, however, in persuading Guntram, King of Burgundy, that they had been condemned unjustly, and appealed to the pope. Influenced by the king's letters, Pope John III decided that they must be restored to their sees.

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "article name needed". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.

Vitae Patrum

The Vitae Patrum (literally Lives of the Fathers, also called Lives of the Desert Fathers) is an encyclopedia of hagiographical writings on the Desert Fathers and Desert Mothers of early Christianity. The bulk of the original texts date from the third and fourth centuries. The Lives that were originally written in Greek were translated into Latin between the fourth and the seventh century. An Italian vernacular translation was made by Dominican friar Domenico Cavalca from Pisa at the beginning of the fourteenth century.

A printed edition, edited by the Jesuit Heribert Rosweyde, was printed by Balthazar Moret in 1615. The book is a significant part of the much broader work, Acta Sanctorum.The Vitae Patrum is based on extensive research by Rosweyde into all the available literature he could find on the early desert monastics. Hippolyte Delehaye described the work as "the epic of the origins of monasticism in Egypt and Syria, an epic unsurpassed in interest and grandeur." In the thirteenth century, a version of Vitae Patrum had been translated into Latin. It was such a popular book that numerous versions and editions were published, with extensive changes and variations in the stories. Rosweyde based his book on twenty-three different versions of those earlier books, studying, dating, and classifying all the different versions and changes.Rosweyde's Vitae Patrum consists of ten books. Book I has the lives of sixteen saints under the title Vitae virorum and eleven saints under the title Vitae mulierum, beginning with St. Paul the Hermit and St. Anthony of the Desert, and including women saints such as Saint Mary the Harlot. Books II, Historia monachorum, and III, Verba seniorum (Sayings of the Elders), are attributed to Rufinus, who was later found to be only their translator. Book IV is a compilation of writings by Sulpicius Severus and John Cassian. Book V is another collection of Verba seniorum from Latin and Greek by Pelagius.Book VI and Book VII are further collections of Verba seniorum (Sayings of the Elders) by unknown Greek authors translated by John the subdeacon, possibly Pope John III, and by Paschasius. Book VIII is a text that was previously known as The Paradise of Heraclides, but which Rosweyde attributed to its real author, Palladius, and titled the Lausiac History. Book IX is De Vitis Patrum by Theodoret. Book X is The Spiritual Meadow of Moschus. Rosweyde wrote an introduction to each book.

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